Mitchell Henry was an English financier and Member of Parliament in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. He was MP for Galway County from 1871 to 1885, for Glasgow Blackfriars and Hutchesontown from 1885 to 1886. Mitchell Henry was the second son of Alexander Henry of Woodlands, near Manchester, England, a affluent cotton merchant, founder of A & S Henry & Co Ltd and Member of Parliament for South Lancashire from 1847 to 1852, married to Elizabeth, daughter of George Brush of Willowbrook, County Down, a supporter of the Anti-Corn Law League, he was educated in London and at University College London where he read for a degree in medicine becoming a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. He became a senior consultant at the Middlesex Hospital in London by the time he was 30. After the death of his father in 1862 Mitchell Henry abandoned his career in medicine and returned to his native Manchester to run the family business, he soon became involved in politics and contested Woodstock for the Liberals in 1865, stood in the 1867 Manchester by-election, the 1868 general election, as a moderate Liberal, but was well-beaten in both contests.
As part of his candidature in 1868 Henry started up the Manchester Evening News, though it passed out of his hands at the end of the election. He was interested in the cause for a better health provision for the poor. In 1852, he married Margaret Vaughan of County Down, he built Kylemore Castle in Connemara Co. Galway between 1863 and 1868, he had five daughters and four sons. The youngest son Lorenzo Mitchell-Henry became an international pigeon shot and invented the Henrite shot-gun cartridge, he became a record setting tunny fisherman. In 1875 his wife Margaret died. After this Mitchell did not spend so much time at Kylemore. However, he built a beautiful memorial church a short distance from the house on the shore of the lake. Margaret was laid to rest nearby in a mausoleum, where in due course he joined her; the church is a miniature replica of a gothic cathedral, the inside features coloured marbles from each of the 4 provinces of Ireland. In an 1871 by-election he was returned MP for Galway County, supported Home Rule for Ireland.
Having broken with the Irish Parliamentary Party in 1884, in 1885 he was elected Liberal MP for the Blackfriars Division of Glasgow, but defeat the following year when standing as a Liberal Unionist spelt the end of his parliamentary career. He died in November 1910 at his home in Leamington in Warwickshire. Kathleen Villiers-Tuthill: "History of Kylemore Castle and Abbey", Kylemore Abbey Publications, ISBN 0-9542310-1-5. About Mitchell Henry on the Homepage of Kylemore Abbey & Victorian Walled Gardens, County Galway, Ireland.
Ypres is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders. Though the Dutch Ieper is the official name, the city's French name Ypres is most used in English; the municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Dikkebus, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Voormezele and Zuidschote. Together, they are home to about 34,900 inhabitants. During the First World War, Ypres was the centre of the Battles of Ypres between German and Allied forces. Ypres is an ancient town, known to have been raided by the Romans in the first century BC, it is first mentioned by name in 1066 and is named after the river Ieperlee on the banks of which it was founded. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was a prosperous Flemish city with a population of 40,000 in 1200 AD, renowned for its linen trade with England, mentioned in the Canterbury Tales; as the third largest city in the County of Flanders Ypres played an important role in the history of the textile industry. Textiles from Ypres could be found in the markets of Novgorod in Kievan Rus' in the early 12th century.
In 1241, a major fire ruined much of the old city. The powerful city was involved in important treaties and battles, including the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the Battle at Mons-en-Pévèle, the Peace of Melun, the Battle of Cassel; the famous Cloth Hall was built in the thirteenth century. During this time cats the symbol of the devil and witchcraft, were thrown off Cloth Hall because of the belief that this would get rid of evil demons. Today, this act is commemorated with a triennial Cat Parade through town. During the Norwich Crusade, led by the English bishop Henry le Despenser, Ypres was besieged from May to August 1383, until French relief forces arrived. After the destruction of Thérouanne, Ypres became the seat of the new Diocese of Ypres in 1561, Saint Martin's Church was elevated to cathedral. On 25 March 1678 Ypres was conquered by the forces of Louis XIV of France, it remained French under the treaty of Nijmegen, Vauban constructed his typical fortifications that can still be seen today.
In 1697, after the Treaty of Ryswick, Ypres was returned to the Spanish Crown. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Duke of Marlborough in 1709 intended to capture Ypres, at the time a major French fortress, but changed his mind owing to the long time and effort it had taken him to capture Tournai and apprehension of disease spreading in his army in the poorly drained land around Ypres. In 1713 it was handed over to the Habsburgs, became part of the Austrian Netherlands. In 1782 the Habsburg Austrian Emperor Joseph II ordered parts of the walls torn down; this destruction, only repaired, made it easier for the French to capture the city in the 1794 Siege of Ypres during the War of the First Coalition. In 1850 the Ypresian Age of the Eocene Epoch was named on the basis of geology in the region by Belgian geologist André Hubert Dumont. Ypres had long been fortified to keep out invaders. Parts of the early ramparts, dating from 1385, still survive near the Rijselpoort. Over time, the earthworks were replaced by a partial moat.
Ypres was further fortified in the 17th and 18th centuries while under the occupation of the Habsburgs and the French. Major works were completed at the end of the 17th century by the French military engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban. Ypres occupied a strategic position during the First World War because it stood in the path of Germany's planned sweep across the rest of Belgium and into France from the north; the neutrality of Belgium, established by the First Treaty of London, was guaranteed by Britain. The German army surrounded the city on three sides. To counterattack, British and allied forces made costly advances from the Ypres Salient into the German lines on the surrounding hills. In the First Battle of Ypres, the Allies captured the town from the Germans; the Germans had used tear gas at the Battle of Bolimov on 3 January 1915. Their use of poison gas for the first time on 22 April 1915 marked the beginning of the Second Battle of Ypres, which continued until 25 May 1915, they captured high ground east of the town.
The first gas attack occurred against Canadian and French soldiers, including both metropolitan French soldiers as well as Senegalese and Algerian tirailleurs from French Africa. The gas used was chlorine. Mustard gas called Yperite from the name of this town, was used for the first time near Ypres, in the autumn of 1917. Of the battles, the largest, best-known, most costly in human suffering was the Third Battle of Ypres, in which the British, Canadian, ANZAC, French forces recaptured the Passchendaele Ridge east of the city at a terrible cost of lives. After months of fighting, this battle resulted in nearly half a million casualties to all sides, only a few miles of ground won by Allied forces. During the course of the war the town was all but obliterated by the artillery fire. English-speaking soldiers in that war referred to Ieper/Ypres by the deliberate mispronunciation Wipers. British soldiers published a wartime newspaper called the Wipers Times; the same style of deliberate mispronunciation was applied to other Flemish place names in the Ypres area for the benefit of British troops, such as Whyteshaete becoming White Sheet and Ploegsteert becomi
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
Connemara is a cultural region in County Galway, Ireland. The area has a strong association with traditional Irish culture and contains a major part of the Connacht Irish-speaking Gaeltacht, a key part of the identity of the region and is the largest Gaeltacht in the country. "Connemara" derives from the tribal name Conmacne Mara, which designated a branch of the Conmacne, an early tribal grouping that had a number of branches located in different parts of Connacht. Since this particular branch of the Conmacne lived by the sea, they became known as the Conmacne Mara; the area in the east of what is now Connemara was called Delbhna Tír Dhá Locha. One common definition of the area is that it consists of most of West Galway, to say the part of the county west of Lough Corrib and Galway city, contained by Killary Harbour, Galway Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; some more restrictive definitions of Connemara define it as the historical territory of Conmhaícne Mara, i.e. just the far northwest of County Galway, bordering County Mayo.
The name is used to describe the Gaeltacht of western County Galway, though it is argued that this too is inaccurate as some of these areas lie outside of the traditional boundary of Connemara. There are arguments about where Connemara ends as it approaches Galway city, not in Connemara — some argue for Barna, on the outskirts of Galway City, some for a line from Oughterard to Maam Cross, diagonally down to the coast, all within rural lands; the wider area of what is today known as Connemara was a sovereign kingdom known as Iar Connacht, under the kingship of the Ó Flaithbertaigh, until it became part of the English-administered Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century. Connemara lies in the territory of Iar Connacht, "West Connacht," within the portion of County Galway west of Lough Corrib, was traditionally divided into North Connemara and South Connemara; the mountains of the Twelve Bens and the Owenglin River, which flows into the sea at An Clochán / Clifden, marked the boundary between the two parts.
Connemara is bounded on the west and north by the Atlantic Ocean. In at least some definitions, Connemara's land boundary with the rest of County Galway is marked by the Invermore River otherwise known as Inbhear Mór, Loch Oorid and the western spine of the Maumturks mountains. In the north of the mountains, the boundary meets the sea at Killary, a few kilometres west of Leenaun; the coast of Connemara is made up of multiple peninsulas. The peninsula of Iorras Ainbhtheach in the south is the largest and contains the villages of Carna and Kilkieran; the peninsula of Errismore consists of the area west of the village of Ballyconneely. Errisbeg peninsula lies to the south of the village of Roundstone; the Errislannan peninsula lies just south of the town of Clifden. The peninsulas of Kingstown, Aughrus and Renvyle are found in the north-west of Connemara. Of the numerous islands off the coast of Connemara, Inishbofin is the largest; the territory contains the civil parishes of Moyrus, Omey and Inishbofin, the Roman Catholic parishes of Carna, Ballynakill, Kilcumin and Inishbofin.
The Ó Cadhla clan were the rulers of Connemara up until the 13th century, when they were displaced by the Ó Flaithbertaighs. The latter had fled into Iar Connacht from Maigh Seola during the English invasion of Connacht in the early 13th century. Like the Ó Cadhla clan, the Mac Conghaile clan was a branch of the Conmhaícne Mara; the main town of Connemara is Clifden. The area around the town is rich with megalithic tombs; the famous "Connemara Green marble" is found outcropping along a line between Streamstown and Lissoughter. It was a trade treasure used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric time, it continues to be of great value today. It is available in large dimensional slabs suitable for buildings as well as for smaller pieces of jewellery, it is used for the pendant for the highest award in Scouting Ireland. Connemara was drastically depopulated by the Great Famine in the late 1840s, with the lands of the Martin family being affected and the bankrupted family being unable to help their former tenants, with the estate being advertised for auction in 1849 with: As that year of 1847 had been the worst of several consecutive years of famine, it was to be understood that those missing tenants had abandoned their holdings to crowd into the workhouses or the emigrant ships to the New World, or they were dead.
The first transatlantic flight, piloted by Alcock and Brown, landed in Clifden in 1919. Connemara is accessible by the Bus City Link bus services. From 1895 to 1935 it was served by the Midland Great Western Railway branch that connected Galway City to Clifden; the railway line is still visible on the N59. A popular alternative route is the coastal route on the R336 from Galway City; this route is known as the Connemara Loop consisting of a 45 km drive where one can view the landscape and scenery of Connemara. Aer Arann Islands serves the Aran Islands from Connemara Airport in the south of Connemara known as Ae
Ballinasloe is a town in the easternmost part of County Galway in Connacht. It is one of the largest towns in County Galway with a population of 6,662 people as of the 2016 census; the town developed as a crossing point on a tributary of the Shannon. The Irish placename – meaning the mouth of the ford of the crowds – reflects this purpose; the latter part of the name suggests. The patron saint of Ballinasloe is Saint Grellan, whom tradition believes built the first church in the area at Kilcloony. A local housing estate, a GAA club, the branch of Conradh na Gaeilge, a school are named after him. Richard Mór de Burgh is credited with founding the town. Fast-food restaurant Supermac's first opened in Ballinasloe in 1978; the restaurant chain is now present in over 106 locations, including three stores in the town. Ballinasloe was traditionally an agricultural economy, though the 1980s and 1990s saw a number of factories locate in the town; the 2010s has seen a resurgence in this time with skilled labour.
The biggest local employers are Aptar, a manufacturing company, Surmodics, a medical company who committed to creating 100 new jobs in Ballinasloe between 2016–2021. Both factories are located in the Business & Technology Park, a 32-acre site; this space contains what is soon to be an advance-factory site. Another notable driving force of the local economy is the Enterprise Centre, located on the outskirts of Ballinasloe along the Creagh Road. There are 22 enterprises based in the Centre, with 9 more using the training and hot-desk facilities. Local business in the town centre focuses on restaurants. Gullane's Hotel, a three-star hotel, has served the area since 1943; the Shearwater Hotel, a five-star hotel, is located at Marina Point, just across from Lidl. Ballinasloe Active Community Development, a group focused on developing the area to attract investment, have been marketing Ballinasloe as an enterprise town. In May 2017, a Bank of Ireland Enterprise Town weekend was hosted in Ballinasloe in the Emerald Ballroom.
The event was opened by Minister Denis Naughten, Gavin Duffy of Dragon's Den was a special guest. The event featured many different community groups, showcasing what they brought to Ballinasloe and how they make the town a better place to live; the success of this weekend saw BACD apply to enter the Bank of Ireland Enterprising Town Competition. As part of the entry, the Town Team at BACD produced a series of videos promoting Ballinasloe to potential investors. Ballinasloe plays hosts to festivals; the town sees major footfall during the run of these events, as such, they are key to the town's tourism. Every October, Ballinasloe is host to the ancient annual October Fair. Chiefly agricultural in the past, it is now focused on the horse. Ballinasloe Horse Fair is the oldest horse fair in Europe. Today the ever-popular fair is held alongside a festival that attracts up to 100,000 visitors from all over the world. A large market takes place, along with a number of events, such as a soapbox derby, fireworks, a dog show and an amusement park right beside the town theatre in Society Street.
The Larry Reynolds' Weekend is a celebration of traditional Irish music. The event has run annually for the last four years in commemoration of Larry Reynolds, a late Balliansloe expat who brought the east Galway style of music to Boston. In Boston, Larry had an open-door policy to all Irish immigrants; the festival sees a number of Irish and American musical acts perform in the different bars around town, including many local talents. The Strings Festival was first held in July 2017 in the Library's Church Gallery. Different musicians from Ballinasloe and the surrounding area showcased their musical talents over the two-day event. Local musicians John Feeley and Rachel Goode performed over the weekend. For Halloween, the Town Team organises. First held in 2015, the Zombie Walk is a unique experience where zombie tour-guides bring groups of 10–15 people through the Garbally woods; the expertly costumed cast of zombies and ghouls in the woods ensure a blood-pumping experience. Clonmacnoise Monastic Site is a 30-minute drive away from Ballinasloe.
An interpretive centre and facilities for visitors have been built around the site, which consists of 12 separate buildings. Kilconnell Franciscan Friary is a 15-minute drive from Ballinasloe, it was founded in 1353 by William Buí O'Kelly. The medieval friary survives in good condition, with the tombs of its many of its patrons surviving inside its ruins. Clontuskert Abbey is a National Monument, located just 10 minutes from the town; the cloister and church of the medieval priory are open-access to the public. Battle of Aughrim Interpretive Centre is located in Aughrim, a village just 10 minutes from Ballinasloe. Here, you can relive the historic Williamite War; the centre offers insight on how three rival European Kings – William of Orange, James II, Louis XIV - took hold of Ireland in their struggle for power, gathering at Aughrim in 1691. Hymany Way is a historic hiking trail between Portumna and Aughrim, following the banks of the River Shannon; the trail passes right through Ballinasloe, marking the town as an ideal destination for a hiking weekend.
Once a notorious traffic jam on the old Galway to Dublin road, Ballinasloe is now by-passed by the M6 motorway. The motorway was opened on 18 December 2009. Firms now in Ballinasloe know that they can access Galwa
Roman Catholic Diocese of Galway, Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Galway and Kilfenora is a Roman Catholic diocese in the west of Ireland. It is subject to the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Tuam; the deanery of Kilfenora a diocese in its own right, lies in the ecclesiastical province of Cashel. The Ordinary is Bishop Brendan Kelly, appointed on 11 December 2017; the geographic remit of the see includes the City of Galway, parts of the county of Galway and the northern coastal part of the county of Clare. Large population centres include Ennistymon and Oughterard; the cathedral church of the diocese is the Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas. The diocese has its origins in the Wardenship of Galway. Following the abolition of the Wardenship by the Holy See in 1831, the first Bishop of the new Diocese of Galway was appointed in the same year. In 1866, Bishop John McEvilly of Galway was made Apostolic Administrator of the diocese of Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora; when he was appointed coadjutor to the Archdiocese of Tuam in 1878, he retained Galway until he succeeded as archbishop in 1881.
McEvilly continued to oversee Kilmacduagh and Kilfenora until 1883 when Pope Leo XIII united the diocese with the neighbouring Diocese of Kilmacduagh. At the same time, the ordinary of the United Diocese of Galway and Kilmacduagh was appointed, in perpetuum, as the Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Kilfenora; the bishopric of Kilmacduagh had been a separate title until 1750 when Pope Benedict XIV decreed that it to be united with the bishopric of Kilfenora. Since Kilmacduagh was in the Ecclesiastical province of Tuam while Kilfenora was in the Province of Cashel, it was arranged that the ordinary of the united dioceses was to be alternately bishop of one diocese and apostolic administrator of the other; the first holder of this unusual arrangement was Peter Kilkelly, Bishop of Kilmacduagh since 1744, became Apostolic Administrator of Kilfenora in September 1750. Since that date, Kilfenora has been administered by that united diocese as an Apostolic Vicariate. Since the territory of an Apostolic Vicariate comes directly under the pope as "universal bishop", the pope exercises his authority in Kilfenora through a "vicar".
The united diocese is divided into five deaneries for which a Vicar Forane is appointed by the Bishop. The VF exercises limited jurisdiction in the deanery on behalf of the Bishop; the deaneries are divided further into parishes or group parishes. Deanery of Galway City East – Parishes: Ballybane · Ballinfoyle · Cathedral · Good Shepherd · Mervue · Renmore · Saint Augustine · Saint Francis · Saint Patrick. Deanery of Galway City West – Parishes: Knocknacarra · Sacred Heart · Salthill · Saint Joseph · Saint Mary, Claddagh. Deanery of Galway Rural – Parishes: An Spidéal · Barna · Castlegar · Killanin · Leitirmóir · Moycullen · Oranmore · Oughterard · Rosmuc · Shrule. Deanery of Kilmacduagh – Parishes: Ardrahan · Ballinderreen · Clarinbridge · Craughwell · Gort & Beagh · Kilbeacanty & Peterswell · Kilchreest & Castledaly · Kinvara. Deanery of Kilfenora – Parishes: Ballyvaughan · Carron & New Quay · Ennistymon · Kilfenora · Liscannor & Moymore · Lisdoonvarna & Kilshanny. and Apostolic Administrators of Kilfenora Fryde, E. B..
Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 429–430. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. "Diocese of Galway and Kilmacduagh". Catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 2009-02-12. GalwayDiocese.ie Official Diocesan Website Diocese of Galway and Kilmacduagh Diocese of Cill Fhionnúrach Diocese of Galway and Kilmacduagh Diocese of Kilfenora Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Galway and Kilmacduagh". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh