Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness, fertility and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. He may have been worshipped as early as c, 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks, traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms, some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, in some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner, in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, the god that comes and his festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a male and robed. He holds a staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth, in its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized.
His procession is made up of female followers and bearded satyrs with erect penises, some are armed with the thyrsus. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers and this procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. He is known as Bacchus, the adopted by the Romans. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care and those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a cult of the souls, his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings and he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity, Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon.
His mother was a woman, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus. Zeus wife, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant, appearing as an old crone, Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semeles mind, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes. These grapes are generally Vitis vinifera, or a hybrid with Vitis labrusca or Vitis rupestris, grapes are fermented without the addition of sugars, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine and these typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. There are made from fermenting other fruits or cereals. Wines made from other than grapes include rice wine and various fruit wines such as those made from plums or cherries. Some well known examples are hard cider from apples, perry from pears, pomegranate wine, Wine has been produced for thousands of years.
The earliest known traces of wine from Georgia in Eurasia where 8000-year-old wine jars were found and in Iran with 7, the earliest known winery is the 6, 100-year-old Areni-1 winery Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects, which are evident after the normal serving size of five ounces. Wine has long played an important role in religion, the earliest chemically attested grape wine was discovered at Hajji Firuz in the northwestern Zagros Mountains dating back to 5400 BC. The earliest evidence of a fermented drink was found in Georgia, where wine residue inside ceramic jars dates from 6000 BC. The earliest evidence of a production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old, presumably. A2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Lebanese, the wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact. As the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin
Helen of Troy
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy, known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and was a sister of Castor and Clytemnestra. In Greek myths, she was considered the most beautiful woman in the world, by marriage she was Queen of Laconia, a province within Homeric Greece, the wife of King Menelaus. Her abduction by Prince Paris of Troy brought about the Trojan War, elements of her putative biography come from classical authors such as Aristophanes, Cicero and Homer. In her youth, she was abducted by Theseus, a competition between her suitors for her hand in marriage sees Menelaus emerge victorious. An oath sworn beforehand by all the suitors requires them to military assistance in the case of her abduction. When she marries Menelaus she is very young, whether her subsequent involvement with Paris is an abduction or a seduction is ambiguous. The legends recounting Helens fate in Troy are contradictory, Homer depicts her as a wistful figure, even a sorrowful one, who comes to regret her choice and wishes to be reunited with Menelaus.
Other accounts have a treacherous Helen who simulates Bacchic rites and rejoices in the carnage, Paris was killed in action, and in Homers account Helen was reunited with Menelaus, though other versions of the legend recount her ascending to Olympus instead. A cult associated with her developed in Hellenistic Laconia, both at Sparta and elsewhere, at Therapne she shared a shrine with Menelaus and she was worshiped in Attica and on Rhodes. Her beauty inspired artists of all time to represent her, frequently as the personification of ideal beauty, Christopher Marlowes lines from his tragedy Doctor Faustus are frequently cited, Was this the face that launchd a thousand ships/And burnt the topless towers of Ilium. However, in the play this meeting and the ensuing temptation are not unambiguously positive, closely preceding death, images of her start appearing in the 7th century BC. In classical Greece, her abduction by—or elopement with—Paris was a popular motif, in medieval illustrations, this event was frequently portrayed as a seduction, whereas in Renaissance painting it is usually depicted as a rape by Paris.
The fact that rape and kidnapping were interchangeable terms lends additional ambiguity to the story, the etymology of Helens name continues to be a problem for scholars. Georg Curtius related Helen to the moon, Émile Boisacq considered Ἑλένη to derive from the noun ἑλένη meaning torch. It has suggested that the λ of Ἑλένη arose from an original ν. Linda Lee Clader, says none of the above suggestions offers much satisfaction. Inversely, others have connected this etymology to a hypothetical proto-indo-european sun goddess, in particular, her marriage myth may be connected to a broader indo-european marriage drama of the sun goddess, and she is related to the divine twins, just as many of these goddesses are. The origins of Helens myth date back to the Mycenaean age, the first record of her name appears in the poems of Homer, but scholars assume that such myths invented or received by the Mycenaean Greeks made their way to Homer
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Assyrian and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent.
The end of the Dark Ages is dated to 776 BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC. It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. e. classical, as shown in the Parthenon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon, following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field.
Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC
The term Merrythought cup is used by scholars to describe a specific type of Attic kylix. The Merrythought cup probably developed as a form of a rural cup type normally made of wood. It is the first Attic cup shape that lacks a distinctive break between lip and vessel body, rather than forming a semi-circle, as is the case in virtual all other cup shapes, they are bent upwards and terminate in a lug-like shape. Equally unusually, the handles extend beyond the height of the vessel body, the cups, mostly covered in black slip, occasionally feature thin stripes of red paint on the foot or the interior. This resembles East Greek and other Attic decorative styles, the vase body is nearly hemispherical. The first Attic artist to decorate Merrythought cups in the style was the C Painter. John Boardman, Schwarzfigurige Vasen aus Athen, ein Handbuch, von Zabern, Mainz 1977 ISBN 3-8053-0233-9, p.36
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
The Komast cup is a cup shape at the beginning of the development of Attic drinking cups. Komast cups were widespread especially in Ionia and Corinth, like other vase painters of the time, the Attic painters were under strong influence from Corinthian vase painting. The name is derived from the artists’ preferred theme, the komos and this is a motif closely connected with Etruscan vase painting. The typical hemispherical shape with an offset lip and a low foot of only 1–2 cm height was an Attic development. The interior of the cups is black, only a narrow stripe or band below the lip is left in the base clay colour, the foot and the exterior of the handles are black. The first specimens were large, but throughout the period of their production. The most important painters of Komast Cups formed the so-called Comast Group, eine Einführung, Stuttgart 2002, p. 108f
Thespiae was an ancient Greek city in Boeotia. It stood on level ground commanded by the low range of hills which run eastward from the foot of Mount Helicon to Thebes, in the history of ancient Greece, Thespiae was one of the cities of the federal league known as the Boeotian League. Other traditions suggest that they were of Mycenean origin, in the Archaic Period the Thespian nobility was heavily dependent on Thebes. This possibly reflected that land ownership was concentrated in the hands of a number of nobles. Thespiae therefore decided to become an ally of Thebes. The Thespians destroyed Ascra at some point between 700 and 650, and settled Eutresis between 600 and 550, Thespiae took control over Creusis, Siphae and Chorisae, probably some time in the late sixth century. The Thessalians invaded Boeotia as far as Thespiae, more than 200 years before Leuctra, c.571 BC, but elsewhere Plutarch gives a date for the Thessalian invasion as shortly preceding the Second Persian War. Herodotus suggests that Thespiae had been a member of the league as long as Thebes had been, following the Persian Wars, Thespiae provided two Boeotarchs to the league, rather than one, perhaps one for the city and one for the districts under its control.
During the Persian invasion of 480 BC Thespiaes ability to field a force of hoplites had changed. In 1997, the Greek government dedicated a monument to the Thespians who fell alongside that of the Spartans, after the city was burned down by Xerxes, the remaining inhabitants furnished a force of 1800 men for the confederate Greek army that fought at Plataea. During the Athenian invasion of Boeotia in 424 BC, the Thespian contingent of the Boeotian army sustained heavy losses at the Battle of Delium. In the next year the Thebans dismantled the walls of Thespiae on the charge that the Thespians were pro-Athenian, in 414 the Thebans aided the Thespians in suppressing a democratic revolution. In the Corinthian War, Thespiae was initially part of the anti-Spartan alliance, at the Battle of Nemea in 394 BC, the Thespian contingent fought the Pellenes to a standstill while the rest of the Spartan allies were defeated by the Boeotians. After Nemea, Thespiae became an ally to Sparta and served as staging point for Spartan campaigns in Boeotia throughout the Corinthian War, the city became autonomous as stipulated in the Kings Peace of 386 which resolved the Corinthian War, and maintained autonomy until 373.
In 373 Thespiae was subdued by the Thebans, the Thespians were exiled from Boeotia, but they still sent a contingent to fight against the Spartans at the Battle of Leuctra in 371. The Boeotarch Epameinondas allowed the Thespians to withdraw before the battle, not long after the battle Thespiae was razed by Thebes and its inhabitants expelled. At some point the city was restored, in 335 BC, the Thespians joined in an alliance with Alexander the Great in destroying Thebes. The famous hetaera Phryne was born at Thespiae in the 4th century BC, during the Hellenistic Period Thespiae sought the friendship of the Roman Republic in the war against Mithridates VI
The Kōmos was a ritualistic drunken procession performed by revelers in ancient Greece, whose participants were known as komasts. Its precise nature has been difficult to reconstruct from the literary sources. The earliest reference to the komos is in Hesiods Shield of Herakles, and famously Alcibiades gate-crashes the Symposium while carousing in a komos. The komos must be distinguished from the pompe, or ritual procession, the komos lacked a chorus leader, script, or rehearsal. Nevertheless some komoi were expressly described as semnoí, which implies that standard komoi were anything, demosthenes upbraids the brother-in-law of Aeschines for not wearing a mask during the komos, as was the custom, suggesting costume or disguise may have been involved. The playing of music during the komos is mentioned by Aristophanes, there are depictions of torch-lit processions in vase painting, yet it is not always clear from the evidence of vases if they depict symposia, choruses or komoi. It is now thought that komos and κωμῳδία - komoidia comedy are etymologically related.
However, in part III of the Poetics, Aristotle records the tradition that the word derives from the Megaran mime that took place in the villages of Sicily. Nevertheless, it unclear exactly how the revel-song developed into the Greek Old comedy of the Dionysian festival in the 6th century BCE. Corpus vasorum antiquorum Kenneth S. Rothwell Jr. ‘’Nature and the Origins of Greek Comedy, A Study of Animal Choruses’’
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Onesimos (vase painter)
Onesimos was an ancient Athenian vase painter who flourished c. He specialized in decorating cups, mostly of Type B, which virtually all known examples of his work. Like many of his fellow painters, Onesimos emphasized realistically rendered, active figures. A number of the pieces painted by Onesimos bear the signature of Euphronios as potter, in light of this evidence of the two artists close collaboration, as well as similarities in their painting styles, many researchers believe that Onesimos learned his trade as Euphronioss pupil. Similarly, the works of the Antiphon Painter bear a close resemblance to those of Onesimos. The Getty Museum - Biography of Onesimos
Little-master cups are a type of Attic black-figure cups, produced around the middle and third quarter of the sixth century BC. Their name is based on their fine small-format decoration, Little-master cups are in origin than Siana cups, but both types were produced over a considerable period of time. The Little masters painted only the upper frieze above the carination of the cup. It is probably that few of the painters of Siana cups painted Little-master cups. One of the first artists to introduce the Little-master cup in Athens was Kleitias, the change in decoration went along with a lengthening of the cup foot. The dedicated painters of Little-master cups rarely painted larger formas, whereas painters primarily specialised in large vases are known to have painted Little-master cups, stylistic comparison between larger and smaller formats of the period remains difficult. Many Little-master cups are signed, as the signature was incorporated in the overall decor. The signatures are mostly by potters, probably because the potting was often of higher quality than the painting.
Several types of Little-master cups are known Band cups Droop cups Gordion cups Kassel cups Lip cups Band skyphoi John Beazley, Little-master Cups, in, John D. Beazley, Attic Black-figure Vase-Painting, Oxford 1956, p. 159-197. Dieter Metzler, Eine attische Kleinmeisterschale mit Töpferszenen in Karlsruhe, in, additions to Attic black-figure vase-painters and to Attic red-figure vase-painters, Oxford 1971, p. 67-80. Joan Tarlow Haldenstein, Little master cups, Studies in 6th century Attic black-figure vase painting, Dissertation University of Cincinnati 1975. Heide Mommsen, Kleinmeister-Schalen, in, Der Neue Pauly Vol.6,1999, Col.563 Rudolf Wachter, a catalogue, in, Kadmos 42 p. 141-189. Peter Heesen, Drinking inscriptions on Attic little-master cups, a contribution to the AVI Project, in, Museum Helveticum 63 p. 44-62