click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

L'Équipe

L'Équipe is a French nationwide daily newspaper devoted to sport, owned by Éditions Philippe Amaury. The paper is noted for coverage of association football, rugby and cycling, its predecessor was L'Auto, a general sports paper whose name reflected not any narrow interest but the excitement of the time in car racing. L'Auto originated the Tour de France cycling stage race in 1903 as a circulation booster; the race leader's yellow jersey was instituted in 1919 to reflect the distinctive yellow newsprint on which L'Auto was published. The competition that would become the UEFA Champions League was the brainchild of a l'Équipe journalist, Gabriel Hanot. L'Auto and therefore L'Équipe owed its life to a 19th-century French scandal involving soldier Alfred Dreyfus - the Dreyfus affair. With overtones of antisemitism and post-war paranoia, Dreyfus was accused of selling secrets to France's old enemy, the Germans; as different sides of society insisted he was guilty or innocent – he was cleared but only after rigged trials had banished him to an island prison camp – the split came close to civil war and still has its echoes in modern French society.

France's largest sports paper, Le Vélo, mixed sports coverage with political comment. Its editor, Pierre Giffard, believed Dreyfus innocent and said so, leading to acrid disagreement with his main advertisers. Among them were the automobile-maker the Comte de Dion and the industrialists Adolphe Clément and Édouard Michelin. Frustrated at Giffard's politics, they planned a rival paper; the editor was a prominent racing cyclist, Henri Desgrange, who had published a book of cycling tactics and training and was working as a publicity writer for Clément. Desgrange was a strong character but lacked confidence, so much doubting the Tour de France founded in his name that he stayed away from the pioneering race in 1903 until it looked like being a success. Three years after the foundation of L'Auto-Vélo in 1900, a court in Paris decided that the title was too close to its main competitor, Giffard's Le Vélo, thus reference to'Vélo' was dropped and the new paper became L'Auto. It was printed on yellow paper.

Circulation was sluggish and only a crisis meeting called "to nail Giffard's beak shut", as Desgrange phrased it, came to its rescue. On the first floor of the paper's offices in the rue du Faubourg-Montmartre in Paris, a 26-year-old cycling and rugby writer called Géo Lefèvre suggested a race round France, bigger than any other paper could rival and akin to six-day races on the track; the Tour de France proved a success for the newspaper. The record circulation claimed by Desgrange was 854,000, achieved during the 1933 Tour. Desgrange died in ownership passed to a consortium of Germans; the paper began printing comments favourable to the occupying Nazis and so its doors were nailed shut with the return of peace, like all other papers that had printed under the Germans. In 1940 Jacques Goddet succeeded Desgrange as editor and nominal organiser of the Tour de France. Jacques Goddet was the son of Victor Goddet. Goddet defended his paper's role in a court case brought by the French government but was never wholly cleared in the public mind of being close to the Germans or to the Head of the French State, Philippe Pétain.

Goddet could point, however, to clandestine printing of Resistance newspapers and pamphlets in the L'Auto print room and so was allowed to publish a successor paper called L'Équipe. It occupied premises across the road from where L'Auto had been, in a building, in owned by L'Auto, although the original paper's assets had been sequestrated by the state. One condition of publication imposed by the state was that L'Équipe was to use white paper rather than yellow, too attached to L'Auto; the new paper published three times a week from 28 February 1946. Since 1948 it has been published daily; the paper benefited from the demise of its competitors, L'Élan, Le Sport. Its coverage of car racing hints at the paper's ancestry by printing the words L'Auto at the head of the page in the gothic print used in the main title of the prewar paper. L'Équipe is published in broadsheet format. In 1968 L'Équipe was bought by founder of the Amaury publishing empire. Among L'Équipe's most respected writers have been Antoine Blondin and Gabriel Hanot.

The death of Émilien Amaury in 1977 led to a six-year legal battle over inheritance between his son and daughter. This was settled amicably with Philippe Amaury owning the dailies while his sister owned magazines such as Marie-France and Point de Vue. Philippe founded Éditions Philippe Amaury, which included L'Équipe, Le Parisien and Aujourd'hui. At Philippe's death in 2006, the group passed to his widow, Marie-Odile, their children. In 1980 L'Équipe began publishing a magazine with its Saturday edition. On 31 August 1998, L'Équipe TV was formed. In 2005 a Sports et Style supplement was added to the Saturday edition. In 2006 L'Équipe Féminine was first published. In 2006 L'Équipe bought Le Journal du Golf. In early 2007 L'Équipe supplemented its main website with L'équipe junior, dedicated to youth; the biggest-selling issue was 13 July 1998, the day after the France national football team won the World Cup. It sold 1,645,907 copies; the second best was on 3 July 2000 after France won the Europe

Citroën Traction Avant

The Citroën Traction Avant was a range of 4-door saloons and executive cars, with four or six-cylinder engines, produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1934 to 1957. 760,000 units were produced. The Traction Avant pioneered mass-production of three revolutionary innovations adopted since, still used today: front-wheel drive, four-wheel independent suspension, the use of a crash resistant, monocoque body. Additionally, the car was one of the earliest mass-production adopters of pinion steering. Although the car's name emphasized its front-wheel drive power delivery – the car stood out at least as much by its much lower profile and stance – made possible by the absence of a separate chassis under the car's unitary body – distinguishing it visually from its contemporaries; the Traction Avant, French for front-wheel drive, was designed by André Lefèbvre and Flaminio Bertoni in late 1933 / early 1934. The Traction Avant pioneered front-wheel drive on the European mass car market, along with DKW's and Adler's 1930s models.

Front-wheel drive had just appeared for the first time through luxury vehicle manufacturers Alvis, which built the 1928 Racing FWD in the UK, Cord, which produced the L29 from 1929 to 1932 in the United States. The Traction Avant's structure was a welded unitary body / chassis. Most other cars of the era were based on a separate frame onto which the non-structural body was built. Unitary construction results in a lighter vehicle, is now used for all car constructionThis unitary body saved 70 kg in steel per car, it was mass-produced. Weight reduction was a motivation for Citroën; this method of construction was viewed with great suspicion in many quarters, with doubts about its strength. A type of crash test was conceived, taking the form of driving the car off a cliff, to illustrate its great inherent resilience; the novel design made the car low-slung relative to its contemporaries – the Traction Avant was always distinctive, which went from appearing rakish in 1934 to familiar and somewhat old fashioned by 1955.

The suspension was advanced for the car's era. The front wheels were independently sprung, using a torsion bar and wishbone suspension arrangement, where most contemporaries used live axle and cart-type leaf spring designs; the rear suspension was a simple steel beam axle and a Panhard rod, trailing arms and torsion bars attached to a 75-millimetre steel tube, which in turn was bolted to the main platform. Since it was lighter than conventional designs of the era, it was capable of 100 km/h, consumed fuel only at the rate of 10 L/100 km; the scale of investment in production capacity reflected André Citroën's ambitions for the car. Site preparation began during the winter of 1932/33, on 15 March 1933 demolition of the existing 30,000 m2 factory started. Construction of the new factory started on 21 April, by the end of August the building's shell had been erected, four times the size of the factory that it replaced, using 5,000 t of structural iron and steel. All this was achieved while continuing to produce several hundred Rosalies every day.

With characteristic showmanship, André Citroën celebrated by inviting 6,000 guests – dealers and agents and others who would be involved in selling and promoting the car – to a spectacular banquet in the new and at this stage still empty factory, on 8 October 1933. Citroën's gesture came to be seen as hubristic, as the ensuing months became a race against time to finish the development of the car and tool up for its production before his investors lost patience. In the end the first car was presented at Citroën's huge Paris showroom on 18 April 1934, by which time principal dealers had had their own private unveiling on 23 March. There had been much chatter and speculation, before April 1934 the details of the car had been kept remarkably quiet outside the walls of the Quai de Javel plant. Volume production formally started on 19 April 1934. Although the revolutionary unitary bodyshell was, according to most reports, not affected by the rushed launch schedule, problems with transmission joints and the hydraulic brakes – another "first" in a volume car in Europe – reflected the financial pressure to get the car into production as as possible.

Traction Avant, which translates as "front wheel drive," is not the official name. The car was named according to the French fiscal horsepower rating, or CV, used to determine annual car tax levels. However, manufacturers did not change the model name every time a change of engine size caused a change in fiscal horsepower. For example, in 1934, Citroën introduced the 7, unofficially the 7A, they continued calling the car 7. Other designations were 11, 15/6 into the 16 CV tax band and 22. In France, the Traction is known as "Reine de la Route". In September 1939 France declared war on Germany and in June 1940 the German Army invaded and occupied Northern France; the war years were characterised by a desperate shortage of raw materials for civilian industry and of petrol, but these factors were not apparent instantly. The Paris Motor Show scheduled for October 1939 was cancelled at short notice. For the Traction Avant, the

Slayers Great

Slayers Great is a 1997 anime film written by Hajime Kanzaka and directed by Kunihiko Yuyama and Hiroshi Watanabe. It was the third film released in the Slayers saga and was met with a positive reception from Western critics. Great was followed by Slayers Gorgeous in 1997. In the film, protagonist sorceresses Lina Inverse and Naga the Serpent arrive at a town where the art of golem-making is prized and become involved in the rivalry between a father and son with different ideas on how golems should be made; when two opposing lords seek the aid of the men against each other and Naga find themselves the central attractions in a festive duel of massive golems powered by their magic. Two companion sorceresses and on-and-off adversaries, the overpowered Lina Inverse and the underdressed Naga the Serpent, wander into the town of Stoner, famous of its entertainment golem makers. There, they rescue a young girl named Laia Einberg from an out-of-control golem. Lina and Naga expect to be rewarded for their not-so selfless deed, so Laia takes them to her workplace and introduces them to her father and her brother, Huey.

Galia is a renowned crafter of classic toy golems but he is struggling for money. He is in conflict with Huey, his son and student, over their opposing ideas as to how their golems should look and act like. Huey becomes infatuated with Naga's looks, while Galia takes a liking to Lina, so they choose both sorceresses as models for their respective new golems. There is an upcoming event in Stoner in which huge, remote-controlled golems will fight each other in a competition; the same contest will decide which of two feuding lords sponsoring the festival and Granion, will take control over the town. Secretly, both of the lords scheme to have their golems mass-produced as unstoppable weapons of war. Haizen succeeds in hiring Huey and Naga, while Lina get employed by Granion. Lina and Naga can become antagonistic, following an inconclusive magical duel, they end up battling it out again — but this time they are going to fight through the golems made in their appearance. Due to Galia lacking magical clay due to Huey's sabotage, his golem is built with the sleeping Lina trapped inside so she would use her own magic to power it at the tournament.

Huey has lured Naga into his golem and so now there is a powerful sorceress in each. To Lina's dismay, Granion's disappointment, the golem, made in her image is a super deformed giant kawaii toy with funny squeaky shoes, dubbed "Piko-Piko Lina-chan" — instead of finding her beautiful as she believed, Galia thought she was "a girl with no hips or breasts, with a face just screaming to be characterized." She is irked more to see Huey's towering "Grand Goddess" golem that resembles Naga to the point of having bouncing breasts. Their battle begins, but Piko-Piko Lina-chan's short limbs can not hit the Grand Goddess while Naga just plays with her. Further enraged, Lina attempts to attack with magic, but the golem's magical properties absorb magic, making Lina's spells useless. During that one-sided fight, one physical attack by the Grand Goddess makes a large hole in the back of Lina's golem; the furious Lina gets free and unleashes her most powerful spell, Dragu Slave, to defeat the Grand Goddess.

Lina wins, but her spell has destroyed the castles of both Haizen and Granion. Lina flees the outraged Naga and both of them get pursued by the angry lords manning the Piko-Piko Lina-chan, which soon stops when it runs out of power. During the film's closing credits, the ex-lords Haizen and Granion find themselves reduced to the guards for the king of the land. Galia and Huey resolve their differences, deciding to start making toys that are to be both cute and sexy at the same time, while the now derelict Piko-Piko Lina-chan becomes the new symbol and mascot of the entire town. Elsewhere and Naga continue their travels together, as prone to failing-out with each other as ever. Slayers Great was theatrically released in Japan on August 2, 1997, distributed by Toei Animation and screened as a double feature along with Tenchi the Movie 2: The Daughter of Darkness. Bandai Visual's home version was released on the VHS and LaserDisc in April 1997, re-released on the DVD as part of the EMOTION the Best Slayers Movie Edition DVD-BOX collection of all Slayers films in 2010.

It will be included in the collection of digitally remastered Slayers films and OAV series, released on Blu-ray in Japan on October 30, 2015. The film was released by ADV Films on the DVD in North America on January 1, 2004. With the other four Slayers movies in a "Movie" boxset, it was released by ADV with the other four Slayers movies and both OVA series in a "Movies and OVAs" box set. The film was broadcast in the English version by ADV's Anime Network, was released in Australia and New Zealand by Madman Entertainment, in France by Déclic Images, in Italy by Yamato Video, in Germany by ACOG and OVA Films. A 15-track original soundtrack Slayers Great: The Motion Picture "G" was composed by Takayuki Hattori and released on CD in Japan on September 26, 1997, it features three songs with vocals by Megumi Hayashibara: "Reflection", "Gloria ~君に届けたい~" and "Reflection". The songs were released as a single CD Reflection in 1997 and were included in the CD collection The Best of Slayers Vol. 2. "Reflection" alone was included in Hayashibara's 1997 album Irāvatī.

A 102-page compa

Steve Martin (motorcyclist)

Steve Martin is a motorcycle road racer from Australia. He resides in Switzerland, he is the 2009 World Endurance Champion for YART, but is a veteran of the World Superbike Championship, former champion of the Australian series. After success in trials, he started racing in his home Superbike Championship in 1990 on a factory Suzuki. Years on private bikes followed, but he earned a Ducati ride, he led the 1998 standings until a crash at Phillip Island, but won the title in 1999. He did an assortment of wild card rides in the Superbike World Championship rounds at Phillip Island over the years, as well as four 500cc Grand Prix races in 1999. After that, he moved to the Australian Supersport series, before moving to the Superbike World Championship full-time for 2001, riding on Pirelli tyres for DFXtreme, he scored a pair of top-6 finishes at Imola in 2001, set fastest lap at the Lausitzring that year, but he was not a frontrunner for much of 2001 or 2002. However, he stepped up to 8th overall in 2003 and 7th in 2004, along with 3 pole positions and five podiums.

He spent the next 2 years with Carl Fogarty's Foggy Petronas team, which struggled to be competitive with its three-cylinder machine, although beating team-mates Garry McCoy and Craig Jones in those years. He returned to DFXtreme for 2007, turning down other offers as he believed the team had enough funds for the full season, it soon became clear that this was not the case - he nearly lost the ride after 2 races, but continued for rounds 3 and 4, before leaving the team as it could not provide a full-time entry. He moved into the World Supersport Championship at Assen, replacing injured countryman Kevin Curtain Later in 2007 he contested the Suzuka 8 Hours race, he made World Superbike starts on Yamaha and Suzuki equipment, but finished the season with a broken metatarsal. In 2008 he retired from World Superbike racing but joined the World Superbike Championship as a commentator alongside Jonathan Green, he continued to race a Superbike and finished 1st in the World Endurance Championship for YART.

BMW retained his services as a development rider for their new S1000RR Superbike project, which led to a one-off return at Kyalami in place of Troy Corser

The Happy Cricket

The Happy Cricket is a 2001 animated children's fantasy film directed by Walbercy Ribas. The film is about Christopher, a happy, guitar-playing, music-loving cricket who must rescue his friends from the evil, music-hating lizard king and save Linda the Night Star from that villain's grasp; the title character was first seen in local commercials for Sharp Electronics in the 1980s. The film spent over 20 years in development, 30 months in production; the English-language dub is dedicated to one of the late Bob Papenbrook. This Brazilian musical adventure fantasy animated film was produced by StartAnima in São Paulo, Brazil, it uses both traditional animation and computer animation with Adobe After Effects, Adobe Photoshop, Avid Media Composer, Autodesk Maya and paper, oil-paint and paper, Pixar RenderMan and Toonz Premium was created using software from industries Adobe Inc. Avid Technology, Digital Video and Silicon Graphics. In early 2009, 20th Century Fox released O Grilo Feliz e os Insetos Gigantes.

Vagner Fagundes - Grilo Araken Saldanha - Maledeto Régis Monteiro - Faz Tudo Fátima Noya - Bituquinho Letícia Quinto - Juliana Nelson Machado - Sapo 1 Renato Master - Sapo 2 Antonio Moreno - Sapo 3 Camila Bullara - Pouco Grilo Jorge Barcellos - Caracol velho / Geral Emerson Caperbat - Pai José Soares Maya - Tucano Isaura Gomes - Saranha Rita de Almeida - Caracolino Marli Bortoletto - Bacaninha Rodrigo Andreatto - Rafael Ursula Bezerra - Moreninha Tatiana de S. Parra - Linda Estrela Da Noite José Luiz Burato - Grilo Sam Riegel - Christopher The Happy Cricket Bob Papenbrook - Wartlord Cindy Robinson - Honeydew / Spidora Peter Doyle - Magic Toucan / Soldier 1 Bob Buchholz - Barnaby / Sergeant Dave Mallow - Buffuno Steve Staley - Leonardo Neil Kaplan - Toad 1 Dan Woren - Toad 2 Grant George - Father / Toad 3 Stephanie Sheh - Little Christopher / Sneally Steve Kramer - Old Snail / General Mona Marshall - Cartibella Philece Sampler - Isabella Tatiana de S. Parra - Linda The Night Star Cinema of Brazil List of animated feature-length films Official franchise site Official site of Clever Image Studios The Happy Cricket on IMDb

Outline of anthropology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anthropology: Anthropology – study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, the humanities, the social sciences; the term was first used by François Péron. Anthropology can be described as all of the following: Academic discipline – body of knowledge given to - or received by - a disciple. Field of science – recognized category of specialized expertise within science, embodies its own terminology and nomenclature; such a field will be represented by one or more scientific journals, where peer reviewed research is published. There are many sociology-related scientific journals. Social science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human society. History of anthropology Archaeology Biological anthropology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology Social anthropology Anthrozoological Biocultural Evolutionary Feminist Forensic Maritime Palaeoanthropological Descriptive Ethno- Historical Semiotic Sociolinguistics Applied anthropology Anthropology of art Cognitive anthropology Communication studies Cultural studies Digital anthropology Anthropology of development Ecological anthropology Economic anthropology Historical anthropology Anthropology of gender & sexuality Kinship & family Legal anthropology Media anthropology Medical anthropology Political anthropology Psychological anthropology Public anthropology Anthropology of religion Transpersonal anthropology Urban anthropology Visual anthropology Anthropological theories of value Culture Society Kinship and descent Marriage and family Evolution Material culture Race and ethnicity Globalization and postcolonialism Gender Socialization Actor–network theory Alliance theory Cross-cultural studies Cultural materialism Culture theory Feminism Functionalism Interpretive Performance studies Political economy Practice theory Structuralism Post-structuralism Systems theory Ethnography Ethnology Cross-cultural comparison Participant observation Online ethnography Holism Reflexivity Thick description Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Emic and etic American Anthropological Association American Ethnological Society Moving Anthropology Student Network Anthropological Society of London Center for World Indigenous Studies Ethnological Society of London Institute of Anthropology and Ethnography Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Network of Concerned Anthropologists N. N. Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Society for anthropological sciences Society for Applied Anthropology USC Center for Visual Anthropology Bibliography of anthropology List of anthropology journals List of members of the National Academy of Sciences List of museums with major collections in ethnography and anthropology List of visual anthropology films Anthropological Index Online Human evolution Intangible Cultural HeritageRelated fields Ethnology Folklore Philosophical anthropology–, not part of anthropology but a subfield of philosophy Sociology Theological anthropology –, not part of anthropology but a subfield of theology Periodic Table of Human Sciences / Anthropology in Tinbergen's four questions American Anthropological Association: What is Anthropology?

National Association for the Practice of Anthropology: The Profession of Anthropology