Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron was a French philosopher, political scientist, journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals. In the book, Aron chastised French intellectuals for what he described as their harsh criticism of capitalism and democracy and their simultaneous defense of Marxist oppression and intolerance. Critic Roger Kimball suggests that Opium is "a seminal book of the twentieth century." Aron is known for his lifelong friendship, sometimes fractious, with philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. As a voice of moderation in politics, Aron had many disciples on both the political left and right, but he remarked that he was "more of a left-wing Aronian than a right-wing one."Aron wrote extensively on a wide range of other topics. Citing the breadth and quality of Aron's writings, historian James R. Garland suggests, "Though he may be little known in America, Raymond Aron arguably stood as the preeminent example of French intellectualism for much of the twentieth century."
Born in Paris, the son of a secular Jewish lawyer, Aron studied at the École Normale Supérieure, where he met Jean-Paul Sartre, who became his friend and lifelong intellectual opponent. He was a rational humanist, a leader among those who did not embrace existentialism. Aron took first place in the agrégation of philosophy in 1928, the year Sartre failed the same exam. In 1930, he received a doctorate in the philosophy of history from the École Normale Supérieure, he had been teaching social philosophy at the University of Toulouse for only a few weeks when World War II began. When France was defeated, he left for London to join the Free French forces, editing the newspaper, France Libre; when the war ended Aron returned to Paris to teach sociology at the École Nationale d'Administration and Sciences Po. From 1955 to 1968, he taught at the Sorbonne, after 1970 at the Collège de France. In 1953, he befriended the young American philosopher Allan Bloom, teaching at the Sorbonne. A lifelong journalist, Aron in 1947 became an influential columnist for Le Figaro, a position he held for thirty years until he joined L'Express, where he wrote a political column up to his death.
He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1960. Aron died of a heart attack in Paris on 17 October 1983. In Berlin, Aron witnessed the rise to power of the Nazi Party, developed an aversion to all totalitarian systems. In 1938 he participated in the Colloque Walter Lippmann in Paris. However, by the 1950s he had grown critical of the Austrian School and described their obsession with private property as an "inverted Marxism." Aron always promoted an "immoderately moderate" form of liberalism which accepted a mixed economy as the normal economic model of the age. Aron is the author of books on Carl von Clausewitz. In Peace and War he set out a theory of international relations, he argues that Max Weber's claim that the State has a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force does not apply to the relationship between States. In the field of international relations, in the 1950s, Aron hypothesized that despite the advent of nuclear weapons, nations would still require conventional military forces.
The usefulness of such forces would be made necessary by what he called a "nuclear taboo." A prolific author, he "wrote several thousand editorials and several hundred academic articles and comments, as well as about forty books", which include: La Sociologie allemande contemporaine, Paris: Alcan, 1935. Essai sur les limites de l'objectivité historique, Paris: Gallimard, 1938. La philosophie critique de l'histoire, Paris: Vrin, 1938 L'Homme contre les tyrans, New York, Editions de la Maison française, 1944 De l'armistice à l'insurrection nationale, Paris: Gallimard, 1945 L'Âge des empires et l'Avenir de la France, Paris: Défense de la France, 1945 Le Grand Schisme, Paris: Gallimard, 1948 Les Guerres en Chaîne, Paris: Gallimard, 1951. Essai d'analyse, Paris: Editions Monde nouveau, 1953 L'Opium des intellectuels, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1955. Essais non partisans, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1957 L'Algérie et la République, Paris: Plon, 1958 La Société industrielle et la Guerre, suivi d'un Tableau de la diplomatie mondiale en 1958, Paris: Plon, 1959 Immuable et changeante.
De la IVe à la Ve République, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1959 Introduction. Classes et conflits de classes dans la société industrielle, Paris: Mouton Éditeur, 1959 Dimensions de la conscience historique, Paris: Plon, 1961 Paix et guerre entre les nations, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1962. Initiation à la stratégie atomique, Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1963 Dix-huit leçons sur la société industrielle, Paris: Gallimard, 1963.
Patrick Drahi is a French-Israeli businessman with French and Israeli citizenship, living in Switzerland since 1999. He is the founder and controlling shareholder of the Netherlands-based telecom group Altice listed on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange. Patrick Drahi was born to a Moroccan Jewish family; when he was 15 years old, the family moved to France. His parents are both math teachers. Drahi has an engineering degree from the École Polytechnique university in Paris, he is married and lives in Geneva, with his Syrian-Greek Orthodox wife. In 2013, Drahi founded the international news channel i24news; this channel is based in Israel, broadcasts in French and English. Drahi became the owner of French cable operator Numericable. In 2013, Drahi bought SFR, the second largest mobile phone and internet provider in France, from media conglomerate Vivendi. Drahi and his group Altice entered the American telecommunications market in 2015 by purchasing a 70 per cent stake in Suddenlink Communications, the seventh-largest cable company in the US.
Suddenlink is valued at $9.1 billion. In 2015, Drahi bought Cablevision from the Dolan family, renaming it Altice USA with its flagship brand Optimum being the fifth-largest cable operator in the USA. Drahi owns the Israeli cable television company HOT; as of November 2015 Forbes estimated Drahi's net worth at $10.3 billion. Forbes ranked him as the 60th-richest person in the third-richest person in France, he was ranked until 2016, when he came in at second. The leaking of the Panama Papers in April 2016 confirmed publicly his identity as the shareholder of an offshore company
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Algerian War known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, the use of torture; the conflict became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France. Started by members of the National Liberation Front on November 1, 1954, during the Toussaint Rouge, the conflict led to serious political crises in France, causing the fall of the Fourth French Republic replaced by the Fifth Republic with a strengthened Presidency; the brutality of the methods employed by the French forces failed to win hearts and minds in Algeria, alienated support in metropolitan France and discredited French prestige abroad. After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence, De Gaulle decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN.
These concluded with the signing of the Évian Accords in March 1962. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords; the final result was 91% in favor of the ratification of this agreement and on 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where 99.72% voted for independence and just 0.28% against. The planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis; this included various assassination attempts on de Gaulle as well as some attempts at military coups. Most of the former were carried out by the Organisation armée secrète, an underground organization formed from French military personnel supporting a French Algeria, which committed a large number of bombings and murders both in Algeria and in the homeland to stop the planned independence. Upon independence in 1962, 900,000 European-Algerians fled to France within a few months in fear of the FLN's revenge; the French government was unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France.
The majority of Algerian Muslims who had worked for the French were disarmed and left behind as the treaty between French and Algerian authorities declared that no actions could be taken against them. However, the Harkis in particular, having served as auxiliaries with the French army, were regarded as traitors and many were murdered by the FLN or by lynch-mobs after being abducted and tortured. About 90,000 managed to flee to France, some with help from their French officers acting against orders, as of 2016 they and their descendants form a significant part of the Algerian-French population. On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algeria in 1830. Directed by Marshall Bugeaud, who became the first Governor-General of Algeria, the conquest was violent, marked by a "scorched earth" policy designed to reduce the power of the native rulers, the Dey, including massacres, mass rapes, other atrocities. Between 500,000 and 1,000,000, from 3 million Algerians, were killed within the first three decades of the conquest.
French losses from 1830–51 were 3,336 killed in action and 92,329 dead in the hospital. In 1834, Algeria became a French military colony and was subsequently declared by the constitution of 1848 to be an integral part of France and divided into three departments: Alger and Constantine. Many French and other Europeans settled in Algeria. Under the Second Empire, the Code de l'indigénat was implemented by the Sénatus-consulte of July 14, 1865, it allowed Muslims to apply for full French citizenship, a measure that few took, since it involved renouncing the right to be governed by sharia law in personal matters and was considered a kind of apostasy. Its first article stipulated: The indigenous Muslim is French, he may be admitted to serve in the navy. He may be called to civil employment in Algeria, he may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen. Prior to 1870, fewer than 200 demands were registered by 152 by Jewish Algerians; the 1865 decree was modified by the 1870 Crémieux decrees, which granted French nationality to Jews living in one of the three Algerian departments.
In 1881, the Code de l'Indigénat made the discrimination official by creating specific penalties for indigènes and organizing the seizure or appropriation of their lands. After World War II, equality of rights was proclaimed by the Ordonnance of March 7, 1944, confirmed by the Loi Lamine Guèye of May 7, 1946, which granted French citizenship to all the subjects of France's territories and overseas departments, by the 1946 Constitution; the Law of September 20, 1947 granted French citizenship to all Algerian subjects, who were not required to renounce their Muslim personal status. Algeria was unique to France because, unlike all other overseas possessions acquired by France during the 19th century, only Algeria was considered and classified an integral part of France. Both Muslim and European Algerians took part in World War II. Algerian Muslims served as tirailleurs (such regiments were created as
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
Roularta Media Group is a publishing and broadcasting company based in Roeselare, Belgium. Roularta was established by lawyer Willy De Nolf in 1954; the group operates in the France and Portugal in addition to its native Belgium. The chief executive officer of the company is Rik de Nolf, who succeeded his father, Willy De Nolf, in the post in 1981. In the early years the group published and distributed free newspapers in the Dutch-speaking regions of Belgium; the first publication of the company was De Weekbode. The group has two main segments: audiovisual media; the print media segment consists of free newspapers such as De Streekkrant, De Zondag and Steps published in Belgium and magazines. Roularta publishes Dutch language and French language magazines in Belgium; the group was top magazine publishing company in Belgium in 2008 with total revenue of 101,062,000 €. The same year it owned 24.2% of the French language magazines and 10.6% of the Dutch language magazines in the country. The group is the sole owner of news magazines published in the country and has a monopoly in this sector.
News magazines Knack and Le Vif/L’Express are owned by it. The Belgian business magazine Trends is part of the company. In addition, the group is the owner of some French magazines most of which it acquired in 2006; these include L'Expansion, L'Etudiant and Point de Vue. At the beginning of 2015 the group sold some of its French titles, namely L'Express, L'Expansion, Mieux Vivre Votre Argent, Classica and Studio Cine Live, to French businessman Patrick Drahi; the group owned the Norwegian magazine Vi over 60 from 1999 to June 2008. The other segment includes co-ownership of VMMA which includes TV and radio activities and of the Regionale Media Maatschappij which owns two local TV channels, Focus TV and WTV. Kanaal Z / Canal Z, a Belgian news and business channel is part of the group. In addition, the group has internet properties such as knack.be and letudiant.fr. In 2004 the Roularta acquired the Press News, the Belgian publisher of Royals, Hors Serie and Ace magazines. In March 2012 the group started the Dutch edition of the news and lifestyle magazine the Good Life in Belgium.
Coface Services Belgium was bought by the group in March 2013. In September 2014 the group became the sole owner of the DSDW and Roularta Printing, owned by it. Official website 2010 report by the Group