Đinh Bộ Lĩnh
Đinh Bộ Lĩnh named Đinh Hoàn, was the first Vietnamese emperor following the liberation of the country from the rule of the Chinese Southern Han Dynasty, as well as the founder of the short-lived Đinh Dynasty and a significant figure in the establishment of Vietnamese independence and political unity in the 10th century. He became the first emperor of Vietnam. Upon his ascension, he renamed the country Đại Cồ Việt. Đinh Bộ Lĩnh is known by his posthumous name Đinh Tiên Hoàng. Đinh Bộ Lĩnh was born in 924 in Hoa Lư. Growing up in a local village during the disintegration of the Chinese Tang Dynasty that had dominated Vietnam for centuries, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh became a local military leader at a young age. From this turbulent era, the first independent Vietnamese polity emerged when the warlord Ngô Quyền defeated the Southern Han's forces in the First Battle of the Bạch Đằng River in 938. However, the Ngô Dynasty was weak and unable to unify Vietnam. Faced with the domestic anarchy produced by the competition of twelve independent feudal warlords for control of the country, as well as the external threat represented by Southern Han, which regarded itself as the heir to the ancient kingdom of Nan Yue that had encompassed not only southern China but the Bac Bo region of northern Vietnam, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh sought a strategy to politically unify the Vietnamese.
Upon the death of the last Ngô king in 965, he seized power and founded a new kingdom the capital of, in his home district of Hoa Lư. To establish his legitimacy in relation to the previous dynasty, he married a woman of the Ngô family. In the first years of his reign, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh was careful to avoid antagonizing Southern Han. In 968, however, he took the provocative step of adopting the title of Emperor and thereby declaring his independence from Chinese overlordship, he called his kingdom Đại Cồ Việt. His outlook changed, when the powerful Song Dynasty annexed Southern Han in 971. In 972, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh ingratiated himself with the Song by sending a tribute mission to demonstrate his fealty to the Chinese Emperor. Emperor Taizu of Song subsequently recognized the Viet ruler as Giao Chỉ Quận Vương, a title which expressed a theoretical relationship of vassalage in submission to the empire. Well aware of Song's military might, eager to safeguard the independence of his country, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh obtained a non-aggression agreement in exchange for tributes payable to the Chinese court every three years.
In addition to managing relations with China, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh energetically reformed the administration and the armed forces of Vietnam in order to strengthen the foundations of the new state. He established a hierarchy of civil and military servants. Đinh Bộ Lĩnh instituted a rigorous justice system in which treason was punishable by being cooked in a vat of boiling oil or by being fed to a caged tiger, so as to provide a deterrent to all who threatened the new order in the kingdom. However, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh's reign did not last long. In 979, a palace official, inspired by a dream, killed both Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and his eldest son Đinh Liễn while they were sleeping in the palace courtyard; the killer was apprehended and executed by general Nguyễn Bặc. Bộ Lĩnh was succeeded by his six-year-old surviving son Dinh Phe De; the Song dynasty wanted to take advantage of the turbulent situation in Đại Cồ Việt in order to reestablish Chinese control over the country, sent an army to invade Vietnam. In this crisis, Lê Hoàn, the commander-in-chief of Đinh Bộ Lĩnh's army, stepped into the power vacuum, dethroned the child emperor, eliminated his opponents at court, entered into illicit relations with the Empress Dowager Dương Vân Nga.
Lê Hoàn defeated the Song invasion, proclaimed himself Emperor, founded the Early Lê Dynasty. He continued to call the country "Đại Cồ Việt." The article about Đinh Bộ Lĩnh on Vietsciences.free.fr
Ninh Bình Province
Ninh Bình is a province of Vietnam, in the Red River Delta region of the northern part of the country. The province is famous for a high density of natural and cultural attractions, including reserved parks in Cúc Phương National Park and Van Long, grotto caves and rivers in Tràng An, Tam Cốc-Bích Động and Mua Caves, historic monuments in the Hoa Lư ancient capital, Vietnam's largest buddhist worshiping complex, the Phát Diệm Cathedral with "eclectic architectural style". Thanks to its adjacency to Hanoi, day trips from the capital are manageable. Ninh Bình is subdivided into eight district-level sub-divisions: 6 districts: 2 provincial city: Ninh Bình Tam ĐiệpThey are further subdivided into seven commune-level towns, 122 communes, 16 wards. Ninh Bình is located to the south between the Red and Ma rivers, it is bordered by Hòa Bình and Hà Nam to the north, Nam Định to northeast, Thanh Hóa to the south and west. Ninh Bình has a short coastline abutting the Gulf of Tonkin; the population is 898,500 people.
The total area is 1,329.4 sq kilometer The ethnic groups include the Viet, as well as, Hoa, Hmong, Mường, Nùng, Tày, Thai and others. There are 23 ethnic communities, among which the Kinh account for more than 98%. Tam Cốc-Bích Động Mua Caves Tràng An Cúc Phương: primitive forest and ancient inhabited cave Dich Long cave and pagoda Ninh Binh was selected as among the main locations for the movie Kong: Skull Island. Cúc Phương National Park Van Long - the conserved wetland area Bích Động pagoda and cave Bái Đính Temple Ban Long Pagoda Dinh and Le Temples Hoa Lư ancient capital Hoa Lư Citadel. Thai Vi festival Truong Yen Festival Yen Cu Festival Non Khe Festival Embroidered handicrafts in Hoa Lư District Sea reed handicrafts in Kim Sơn District Ninh Bình is located 91 km from Hanoi and has both rail and road transport links. Express rail connections with Hanoi in the north and Thanh Hóa and Vinh in the south. Buses from Hanoi's South Bus Station stop by Ninh Bình; the province's name derives from Sino-Vietnamese 寧平.
Kaifeng, known by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, for being the capital seven times in history, is most famous for being the capital of China in the Northern Song dynasty. There are about 5 million people living in its metropolitan area. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, Heze of Shandong to the northeast; the postal romanization for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 汴, it has been known as Dàliáng Biànliáng Biànzhōu Nánjīng Dōngjīng Biànjīng The name "Kaifeng" first appeared as the area's name after the Qin's conquest of China in the second century BC and means "expand the borders" and figuratively "hidden" and "vengeance". Its name was Qifeng, but the syllable qi was changed to the synonymous kai （/*Nə-ʰˤəj/, /*ʰˤəj/） to avoid the naming taboo of Liu Qi.
The prefecture-level city of Kaifeng administers five districts and four counties: Gulou District Longting District Yuwangtai District Xiangfu District Shunhe Hui District Weishi County Qi County Tongxu County Lankao County Kaifeng is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China. As with Beijing, there have been many reconstructions during its history. In 364 BC during the Warring States period, the State of Wei founded a city called Daliang as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed linking a local river to the Yellow River; when the State of Wei was conquered by the State of Qin, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in place. Early in the 7th century, Kaifeng was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the Grand Canal as well as through the construction of a canal running to western Shandong. In 781 during the Tang dynasty, a new city was named Bian. Bian was the capital of the Later Jin, Later Han, Later Zhou of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Song dynasty made Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960. Shortly afterwards, the city underwent further expansion. During the Song, when it was known as Dongjing or Bianjing, Kaifeng was the capital, with a population of over 400,000 living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhus was an acute problem in the city; the historian Jacques Gernet provides a lively picture of life in this period in his Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276, which draws on Dongjing Meng Hua Lu, a nostalgic memoir of the city of Kaifeng. In 1049, the Youguosi Pagoda – or Iron Pagoda as it is called today – was constructed measuring 54.7 metres in height. It has survived the vicissitudes of war and floods to become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song-dynasty pagoda, Po Tower, dating from 974, has been destroyed. Another well-known sight was the astronomical clock tower of the engineer and statesman Su Song, it was crowned with a rotating armillary sphere, hydraulically-powered, yet it incorporated an escapement mechanism two hundred years before they were found in the clockworks of Europe and featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.
Kaifeng reached its peak importance in the 11th century when it was a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and had a population of between 600,000 and 700,000, it is believed that Kaifeng was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127. This period ended in 1127, it subsequently came under the rule of the Jurchen Jin dynasty, which had conquered most of North China during the Jin–Song Wars. While it remained an important administrative center, only the city area inside the inner city wall of the early Song remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned. One major problem associated with Kaifeng as the imperial capital of the Song was its location. While it was conveniently situated along the Grand Canal for logistic supply, Kaifeng was militarily vulnerable due to its position on the floodplains of the Yellow River. Kaifeng was reconstructed during this time; the Jurchen kept their main capital further north until 1214 when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee from the onslaught of the Mongols.
In 1232 they succumbed to the combined Song forces in the Mongol siege of Kaifeng. The Mongols captured the city, in 1279 they conquered all of China. At the beginning of the Ming dynasty in 1368, Kaifeng was made the capital of Henan province. In 1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from the Yellow River to prevent the peasant rebel Li Zicheng from taking over. After this disaster, the city was abandoned again. In 1662, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty, Kaifeng was rebuilt. However, further flooding occurred in 1841 followed by another reconstruction in 1843, which produced the contemporary Kaifeng as it stands today. On 6 June 1938, the city was occupied by the invading Japanese Imperial Army. Kaifeng is also
Hoa Lư was the capital of Vietnam in the 10th and 11th centuries. It lies in Truong Yen Thuong village, Truong Yen Commune, Hoa Lư District, Ninh Bình Province, Vietnam; the area is one of ricefields broken by picturesque limestone mountains, is 90 km south of Hanoi. Together with Phát Diệm Cathedral, Tam Cốc-Bích Động, Bái Đính Temple, Tràng An, Cúc Phương, Hoa Lư is a tourist destinations in Ninh Bình Province. In the late 10th century, Hoa Lư was the capital as well as the economic and cultural center of Đại Cồ Việt, an independent Vietnamese polity founded in 968 A. D. by the local warlord Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, following years of civil war and a violent secessionist movement against China's Southern Han Dynasty. Hoa Lư was the native land of the first two imperial dynasties of Vietnam: the Đinh founded by Đinh Tiên Hoàng, the Early Lê founded by Lê Đại Hành. Following the demise of the Lê Dynasty, in 1010 Lý Công Uẩn, the founder of the Lý Dynasty, transferred the capital to Thăng Long, Hoa Lư became known as the "ancient capital."The capital at Hoa Lư covered an area of 300 ha, including both the Inner and Outer Citadels.
It included defensive earthen walls, palaces and shrines, was surrounded and protected by mountains of limestone. Today, the ancient citadel no longer exists, few vestiges of the 10th century remain. Visitors can see temples built in honor of the emperors Đinh Tiên Hoàng and Lê Đại Hành, their sons, Queen Dương Vân Nga, married first to Đinh Tiên Hoàng and to Lê Đại Hành; the tomb of Đinh Tiên Hoàng is located on nearby Mã Yên mountain, while the tomb of Lê Đại Hành lies at the foot of the mountain. The ancient capital of Hoa Lư was located in a flat valley between small but steep limestone mountains that created impenetrable barriers to human traffic. Today, many of the mountains are accessible only to the mountain goats that roam the area; the 10th century rulers of Đại Cồ Việt took advantage of this topography in order to design enclosures that would be difficult to attack. In order to block the gaps between the limestone mountains, they ordered the construction of earthen walls reinforced and anchored in the soft earth by wooden stakes.
In all, the capital was protected by ten sections of wall, the longest being 500m in length and the shortest 65m in length. They were 10m high and 15m thick. Several sections of wall still have been excavated by archeologists. During the time it served as the capital, Hoa Lư's defenses were never tested by an enemy army. In 972, the king of Champa sent a fleet against Hoa Lư, but it was devastated by a storm as it tried to enter the river system from the sea and was forced to return home with great loss. In 981, two Chinese armies of the Song Dynasty invaded the Đại Cồ Việt with the aim of working their way south and taking the capital, but they were stopped and defeated in the northern part of the country; the ancient capital at Hoa Lư consists of two separate enclosures, the Inner Citadel which lies to the west and the Outer Citadel which lies to the east, which includes most of the sites visited by tourists. The two citadels are separated by a limestone mountain. Both have access to the Hoàng Long River that runs just north-west of the capital and that, via a system of rivers, connects Hoa Lư to the sea.
In the 10th century, the dwellings of the common people, as well as the markets and the storehouses connected with the river trade, were concentrated near the river. The area of the ancient imperial capital of Hoa Lư features several dozen monuments, including the following: Đinh Tiên Hoàng Temple Lê Đại Hành Temple Đinh Tiên Hoàng Tomb Lê Đại Hành Tomb Nhật Trụ Pagoda Noi Lam Temple Bái Đính Temple Thiên Tôn Cave Trang An Grottoes Ban Long Pagoda The temple dedicated to Đinh Tiên Hoàng was constructed by local residents near the center of the old capital in order to honor Dinh Bo Linh, the first emperor of Vietnam. Bộ Lĩnh grew up in this area in the mid-10th century during the reign of Ngô Quyền, a warlord who evicted Chinese occupiers from the country and declared himself king in 938. Born into the family of a high-level official, Bo Linh soon revealed his talent for government and military affairs; as he reached maturity, he became a powerful warlord. Following the crumbling of the short-lived Ngô Dynasty founded by Ngô Quyền, he defeated twelve rival warlords, reunified the country, in 968 founded the first imperial dynasty of Vietnam.
Due to Đinh Tiên Hoàng's failure to provide for an orderly succession, the country was again plunged into turmoil after his death, until order was reestablished by Lê Hoàn, Bộ Lĩnh's top general, who defeated his rivals and established the Lê Dynasty, Vietnam's second imperial dynasty. The temple to Đinh Tiên Hoàng is located on the grounds of the former main palace of the royal citadel; the location is in the "tien thuy hau son" style incorporating the principles of "phong thủy", with a river to the front and a mountain at the back. The temple was designed in the "noi cong ngoai quoc" style; the temple of Lê Đại Hành is 200m north of the temple of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, has Den Mountain as a backdrop. Lê Hoàn occupied the highest military post in the administration of Đinh Bộ Lĩnh; when Bộ Lĩnh was assassinated in 979, his six-year-old son Đinh Toàn took the throne, Lê Hoàn served as his regent. Suspecting that Lê Hoàn was secretly planning to take over the country himself, other leading men went into rebellion.
The ensuing disorder raised eyebrows at t
Lê Lợi, posthumously known by his temple name Lê Thái Tổ, was emperor of Vietnam and founder of the Later Lê dynasty. Lê Lợi is among one of its greatest heroes. Lê Lợi was the youngest of three sons, his father was an aristocratic nobleman in Lam Sơn. The town was in a newly colonized area of Vietnam which would be called Thanh Hóa Province. Lam Son had been established by Lê Lợi's great-grandfather Le Hoi sometime in the 1330s, his exact date of birth is not certain, but 1384 is agreed upon by historians. Lam Son was on the frontier of Vietnam, as a result it was further and hence more free from government control; this was a troubled time in Vietnam's history as the Hồ dynasty in 1400 displaced the Trần dynasty and set about reforming the empire. Hồ rule was short lived as members of the Trần dynasty petitioned for intervention from the Yongle Emperor of the Chinese Ming Empire to the north, he responded by sending a powerful army south into Vietnam and vanquished the Hồ. Upon failing to find a Trần heir, the Ming government chose to re-establish sovereignty over Vietnam, as was the case in the days of the Tang dynasty, some 500 years prior.
The Ming government enjoyed some support from the Vietnamese, at least in the capital of Thăng Long, but their efforts to assert control in the surrounding countryside were met with stiff resistance. The Vietnamese claim that the Ming military stole valuable artifacts from Vietnam such as gems, golden pieces of art as well as books. Lê Lợi himself said that he chose the path of revolt against China's brutal government when he witnessed the destruction of a Vietnamese village by Ming forces. Lê Lợi began his campaign against the Ming Empire on the day after Tết February 1418, he was supported by several prominent families from his native Thanh Hóa, most famously were the Trịnh and the Nguyễn families. Lê Lợi campaigned on the basis of restoring the Trần to power. A relative of the Trần emperor was chosen as the figurehead of the revolt but within a few years, the Trần pretender was removed and the unquestioned leader of the revolt was Lê Lợi himself, under the name "Pacifying King"; the revolt enjoyed patchy initial success.
While Lê Lợi was able to operate in Thanh Hóa, he was, for 2–3 years, unable to muster the military forces required to defeat the Ming army in open battle. As a result, he waged a type of guerrilla war against the well organized Ming army. One famous story from this time is about the heroism of one of Lê Lợi's commanders, Lê Lai. One time during the revolt, Lê Lợi's forces had been surrounded by Ming forces on the top of a mountain. Lê Lai devised a plan that would allow the main bulk of the force to escape, he pretended to be Lê Lợi to divert the Ming army's attention by dressing himself in Lê Lợi's attire and lead a kamikaze-like charge down to attack the enemy. During the battle, Lê Lợi was able to escape. Besides fighting Ming forces, Lê Lợi and his army had to fight against ethnic minorities' forces whom the Ming government bribed known collectively as Ai Lao. Although there were many difficulties, Lê Lợi's army was able to suppress Ai Lao multiple times. However, because his force was not strong enough at the time, he had to lurk in the forests or mountains of Thanh Hoa province.
Due to lack of food supplies, Lê Lợi had to order the killing of army horses and elephants for use as food. In one dangerous situation in 1422, Lê Lợi made peace with the Ming army, but in 1423 when his forces were built up better, Lê Lợi broke the peace agreement when the Ming army captured and killed his envoy. By 1427, the revolt had spread throughout Vietnam and the original Ming army of occupation had been ground down and destroyed; the new Ming ruler, the Xuande Emperor, wished to end the war with Vietnam, but his advisors urged one more effort to subdue the rebellious province. The result was a massive army being sent into Vietnam; the final campaign did not start well for the Ming forces. Lê Lợi's forces met the Ming army in battle but staged a mock retreat; the Ming general, Liu Sheng, urging his troops forward, was cut off from the main part of his army and executed by the Vietnamese. By sending false reports of dissent within the ranks of Lê Lợi's own generals, the Ming army was lured into Hanoi where it was surrounded and destroyed in a series of battles.
A Vietnamese historian, Trần Trọng Kim, told. By Nguyen Chich tactic, 1424 Lê Lợi decided to march his army to Nghe An plain. On the way, Lam Son army captured Da Cang fortress, beaten back Cam Banh forces, a commander who worked for the Ming. Lam Son forces attacked Tra Long garrison. Ming general Chen Zhi led reinforcement from Nghe An to Tra Long to rescue Cam Banh but was beaten back by Lam Son forces. Besieged by Lê Lợi, with Chen Zhi unable to rescue, Cam Banh surrendered. Lê Lợi sent Dinh Liet with a detachment to attack Nghe An, the same time he took the main part of the army. Zhen Zhi was defeated and had to retreat inside the Nghe An citadel. Li An, Fang Zheng from Dong Quan came to Nghe An to rescue Chen Zhi, while Chen moved out his forces from the castle to join force with them; however the Ming forces were defeated, Chen Zhi had to retreat to Dong Quan, An and Chinh withdraw in Nghe An citadel. In May 1425, Lê Lợi commanded Dinh Le to attack Dien Chau. Ming army retreated to Dong Do.
Lê Lợi sent Le Sat, Le Nhan Chu. Le Trien supported Dinh Le for attack Tay Do, Ming army must retreat inside the castle
Dương Vân Nga
Dương Thị Ngọc Vân courtesy name Vân Nga was the only empress dowager of the Đinh Dynasty and afterwards empress of Lê Đại Hành, the first emperor of the Early Lê Dynasty. When her husband Đinh Tiên Hoàng was assassinated in 979, Dương Vân Nga became the Empress Dowager of the Đinh Dynasty as her son Đinh Phế Đế succeeded the throne. During the short-lived reign of Đinh Phế Đế, Dương Vân Nga and the general Lê Hoàn jointly held the regentship for the 6-year-old emperor it was Dương Vân Nga and general Phạm Cự Lượng who decided to cede the Đinh Dynasty's throne for Lê Hoàn in 980 so that Đại Cồ Việt could stand the Song Dynasty's invasion with a capable ruler. Subsequently, Lê Hoàn entitled Dương Vân Nga as his empress, hence she became the first woman in the history of Vietnam to be married to two emperors. According to some sources, Dương Vân Nga was the daughter of a subordinate of the warlord Dương Đình Nghệ and came from the Ái province, others claim that Dương Vân Nga was from the same town Hoa Lư as Đinh Tiên Hoàng.
Being one of Đinh Tiên Hoàng's wives, Dương Vân Nga gave birth to his youngest son Đinh Toàn in 974. At the end of 979, as Đinh Tiên Hoàng and his eldest prince Đinh Liễn were assassinated by Đỗ Thích, the 6-year-old prince Đinh Toàn was made the successor of the throne of the Đinh Dynasty while his mother Dương Vân Nga became the Empress Dowager of the Đinh Dynasty and took charge of the regentship with the general Lê Hoàn, promoted to the position of viceroy of the Đinh Dynasty; the short-lived reign of Đinh Toàn, now Đinh Phế Đế was perturbed by the revolt of Đinh Điền and Nguyễn Bặc, important officials in the royal court of Đinh Tiên Hoàng while the country had to face with the intrusion led by Ngô Nhật Khánh, son-in-law of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, with reinforcements from the kingdom of Champa in the southern border. The rebellion of Đinh Điền and Nguyễn Bặc was put down by Lê Hoàn but in the north, the Song Dynasty began an invasion of Đại Cồ Việt in profiting its chaotic situation after the death of Đinh Tiên Hoàng Dương Vân Nga and the general Phạm Cự Lượng with the agreement from the majority of officials in royal court, decided to elevate Lê Hoàn for the throne so that the country had an able ruler who could deal with grave troubles at that time, hence the Early Lê Dynasty was established and replaced the Đinh Dynasty.
The account of Đinh Phế Đế's abdication for Lê Hoàn is different in each historical record, for example in Đại Việt sử lược, the oldest chronicles of history of Vietnam that remains, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, it was Phạm Cự Lượng who proposed the Empress Dowager to cede her son's throne to Lê Hoàn, On the other hand, in Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục, since Dương Vân Nga appeared to have affection for Lê Hoàn during their regency, Nguyễn Bặc and Đinh Điền decided to rise a revolt with the main purpose of overthrowing Lê Hoàn and protecting the child emperor, subsequently it was the Empress Dowager who had the principal role in the enthronement of Lê Hoàn when she entrusted the defence against the Song Dynasty's invasion for Lê Hoàn and herself persuaded him to accept the proposition of Phạm Cự Lượng. Trần Trọng Kim in his Việt Nam sử lược agreed with Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục about the affair between Dương Vân Nga and Lê Hoàn during their regentship. After his coronation, Lê Hoàn succeeded in driving out the invasion of the Song Dynasty in 981, afterwards he entitled the former empress dowager Dương Vân Nga as the new empress of the Early Lê Dynasty with the name Empress Đại Thắng Minh.
With this second marriage, Dương Vân Nga became the first woman in the history of Vietnam to be married to two emperors. The marriage between Lê Hoàn and Dương Vân Nga was criticized by the Confucian historian Ngô Sĩ Liên who remarked that the fornication between the general and his emperor's wife and their marriage violated the Confucian moral codes and so became the seeds for the immorality of his son afterwards. Another dynastic historian, Ngô Thì Sĩ despised the new title Empress Đại Thắng Minh of Dương Vân Nga, identical with the title of her first husband Emperor Đại Thắng Minh Đinh Tiên Hoàng, in Ngô Thì Sĩ's opinion, this naming was a "forever derision" in the history of Vietnam. Dương Vân Nga died in the seventh year of the Ứng Thiên era of Lê Đại Hành, she died in the same year as the eldest son of Lê Hoàn. Today Dương Vân Nga, together with Lê Đại Hành and his sons Lê Long Đĩnh and Lê Long Việt, is still worshipped in the Temple of Lê Đại Hành in Hoa Lư, located next to the tomb of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, her first husband.
Since she witnessed a turbulent time and herself participated in various important events in history of Vietnam, the life of Dương Vân Nga becomes subject of several chèo, cải lương plays and a novel named Hoàng hậu hai triều Dương Vân Nga. Dương Vân Nga and Lê Đại Hành's only known daughter, Princess Lê Thị Phất Ngân married Lý Công Uẩn, who became Emperor Lý Thái Tổ, their son was Emperor Lý Thái Tông. Ngô Sĩ Liên, Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Hanoi: Social Science Publishing House National Bureau for Historical Record, Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Hanoi: Education Publishing House Trần Trọng Kim, Việt Nam sử lược, Saigon: Center for School Materials Chapuis, Oscar, A history of Vietnam: from Hong Bang to Tu Duc, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-29622-7
The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period; the Song came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia dynasties in the north. It was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty; the Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass; the Song dynasty is divided into two distinct periods and Southern. During the Northern Song, the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China; the Southern Song refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars.
During this time, the Song court retreated south of the Yangtze and established its capital at Lin'an. Although the Song dynasty had lost control of the traditional "birthplace of Chinese civilization" along the Yellow River, the Song economy was still strong, as the Southern Song Empire contained a large population and productive agricultural land; the Southern Song dynasty bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging the mountain castle Diaoyucheng, Chongqing, his younger brother Kublai Khan was proclaimed the new Great Khan, though his claim was only recognized by the Mongols in the west.
In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279; the Mongol invasion led to a reunification under the Yuan dynasty. The population of China doubled in size during the 10th and 11th centuries; this growth was made possible by expanded rice cultivation in central and southern Song, the use of early-ripening rice from south-east and southern Asia, the production of widespread food surpluses. The Northern Song census recorded double of the Han and Tang dynasties, it is estimated that the Northern Song had a population of some 120 million people, 200 million by the time of the Ming dynasty. This dramatic increase of population fomented an economic revolution in pre-modern China; the expansion of the population, growth of cities, the emergence of a national economy led to the gradual withdrawal of the central government from direct involvement in economic affairs. The lower gentry assumed a larger role in local affairs.
Appointed officials in county and provincial centers relied upon the scholarly gentry for their services and local supervision. Social life during the Song was vibrant. Citizens gathered to view and trade precious artworks, the populace intermingled at public festivals and private clubs, cities had lively entertainment quarters; the spread of literature and knowledge was enhanced by the rapid expansion of woodblock printing and the 11th-century invention of movable-type printing. Technology, philosophy and engineering flourished over the course of the Song. Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism. Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period; the officials who gained power by succeeding in the exams became a leading factor in the shift from a military-aristocratic elite to a bureaucratic elite.
After usurping the throne of the Later Zhou dynasty, Emperor Taizu of Song spent sixteen years conquering the rest of China, reuniting much of the territory that had once belonged to the Han and Tang empires and ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. In Kaifeng, he established a strong central government over the empire; the establishment of this capital marked the start of the Northern Song period. He ensured administrative stability by promoting the civil service examination system of drafting state bureaucrats by skill and merit and promoted projects that ensured efficiency in communication throughout the empire. In one such project, cartographers created detailed maps of each province and city that were collected in a large atlas. Emperor Taizu promoted groundbreaking scientific and technological innovations by supporting such works as the astronomical clock tower designed and built by the engineer Zhang Sixun; the Song court maintained diplomatic relations with Chola India, the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt, the Kara-Khanid Khanate of Central Asia, the Goryeo kingdom in Korea, other countries that were trade partners with Japan.
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