Chu Văn An High School (Hanoi)
Chu Van An High School known as Chu Van An National School or Pomelo School one of the three national high schools for the gifted in Vietnam along with Le Hong Phong High School in Ho Chi Minh City and Quoc Hoc High School in Huế. It is one of the three magnet high schools in Hanoi, along with Hanoi-Amsterdam High School and Nguyen Hue High School. Established by French authorities in 1908 as High School of the Protectorate, this is one of the oldest institutions for secondary education in Indochina. Despite the initial purpose of the French government for this school, training native civil servant to serve in their colonial establishments, Vietnamese students at Bưởi school, common name of the school, had many times struggled against colonial doctrine and the ruling power. With that patriotic and hard-working traditions, a lot of Bưởi alumni became renowned figures in many areas of Vietnamese society such as Prime Minister Phạm Văn Đồng, doctor Tôn Thất Tùng or poet Xuân Diệu. In 1945, Bưởi school was renamed Chu Van An High School and continued to keep its tradition in education and patriotism.
On 12 December 1908, the Governor-General of Indochina Antony Wladislas Klobukowski made the decision to create Collège du Protectorat based on the merger of the Thông ngôn Bờ sông school, the Jules Ferry Nam Dinh secondary school and the pedagogy class on Pottier street. In 1931, the school was upgraded to a lycée - Lycée du Protectorat. However, because the school was built on the land of Thuy Khuê village (in the Hậu Lê era, it was the place where the palace Thụy Chương was built at the Kẻ Bưởi area, beside the West Lake so the residents here called it the Bưởi school. Bưởi school was the name which students who opposed to the France used when mentioned to the school in order not to call the official name, named by the French. By 1943, because of the break out of the World War II, the school had to move to the Phúc Nhạc monastery in Ninh Bình and the others moved to Thanh Hóa, in 1945 they backed to Hà Nội. However, the number of students still increased from 1937 to 1944. After Japan overthrow France, on 12 June 1945, the northern king's special envoy Phan Kế Toại decided to change the name to Chu Van An high school - named after the famous teacher in the history of Viet Nam Chu Văn An and appointed professor Nguyễn Gia Tường to the principal position, the first Vietnamese principal of the Bưởi - Chu Văn An high school.
The name of the school has been used from that until now, despite of evacuating for sometimes in the Indochina War I. After the Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục school was forced to close in 1907, the French extended the Chu Van An school in order to train the Vietnamese high - graded officer for the ruling system, but in northern province at that time there was only one school, the Bưởi school was lycée for Vietnamese students because lycée Albert Sarraut was for French students, they chose just a few Vietnamese students, a long time after that they added another schools in Hải Phòng, Nam Định... so this was the beginning of the Vietnamese young intelligentsias, they chose 120 students of all Northern province for a year had a chance to learn in Bưởi school at that time was a big pride, students of the school worked in economy, cultural branch all of the representatives were excellent. Not only Vietnamese students, Bưởi school was the place where students of Laos and Cambodia went to learn such as Souphanouvong and Kaysone Phomvihane.
The tuition fee at that time was about 4 Indochina Dong for one month, so getting scholarships were important. As one of three high school for gifted students in Hanoi, Chu Van An High School is selective in its admission process; every year, the school receives over 3000 applications out of which only 500 to 600 would be admitted for the new class year. Applicants wishing to enroll in school are required to take an entrance examination conducted by Hanoi Department of Education and Training; this examination takes place around mid-June with three obligatory subjects, which are Mathematics and English, plus one additional subject for students who want to be admitted in specialized classes, for example Mathematics or Informatics class candidates have to take Mathematics while History class ones have to take History. The admission list will be announced in early July based on student's ranking by results in examination. Chu Xuan Dung 2012 - 2015 Le Mai Anh 2015 - present. Trinh, Van Thao. L'école française en Indochine - Hommes et sociétés.
KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 2-86537-572-2. - Chu Van An High School official website
First Battle of Quảng Trị
The First Battle of Quảng Trị resulted in the first major victory for the People's Army of Vietnam during the Easter Offensive of 1972. Quảng Trị Province was a major battleground for the opposing forces during the Vietnam War; as South Vietnamese soldiers were replacing their American counterparts, North Vietnam's General Văn Tiến Dũng was preparing to engage three of his divisions in the province. Just months before the battle, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam deployed its newly formed 3rd Division to the areas along the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone to take over former US bases. North Vietnamese forces deployed against the inexperienced ARVN 3rd Division included the PAVN 304th, 308th and 324B Divisions; the battle for Quảng Trị began on 30 March with preparatory artillery barrages on the key areas of the province. Meanwhile, infantry assaults firebases; the lightning speed of the PAVN attacks on those positions delivered a great shock to the soldiers of the ARVN, who were unprepared for the onslaught.
In 1972 Camp Carroll was occupied by the ARVN 56th Regiment, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Pham Van Dinh. During the first hours of the Easter Offensive, Camp Carroll was one of the first targets to come under the PAVN artillery barrage; the PAVN deployed a full artillery regiment against Camp Carroll with supporting infantry units, showing their full intention to take the camp. Throughout February and March 1972, the North and South Vietnamese armies exchanged artillery fire, but South Vietnamese resistance was worn down as ARVN artillerymen began seeking shelter against the PAVN's devastatingly accurate 130mm guns. By Easter, the morale of the ARVN had dropped after suffering heavy casualties, as a result Lieutenant Colonel Dinh informed his American advisors that what was left of the 56th Regiment would surrender to the PAVN; as the senior advisor to the ARVN 56th Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel William Camper refused to go through with the surrender, so he decided to leave Camp Carroll along with three officers.
Six 175mm M107 guns were captured by PAVN. On 2 April 1972, Camp Carroll was surrendered to the PAVN, with a white flag raised over the main gate of the camp. Following the surrender, a B-52 strike was ordered against Camp Carroll. However, it was too late as the PAVN had moved the M107 guns out of the camp. On 30 March 1972 the 258th Marine Brigade was deployed to Đông Hà to support the 3rd Division. By 1 April the PAVN had broken through the ARVN defensive positions along the DMZ and north of the Cam Lo River and fragmented ARVN units and terrified civilians began withdrawing to Đông Hà. By 11:00 on 2 April the ARVN 20th Tank Battalion moved forward to Đông Hà to support the 3rd Marine Battalion and 25th Marine Brigade in and around the town and defend the crucial road and rail bridges across the Cua Viet River. Marine ANGLICO units called in naval gunfire to hit PAVN forces near the bridges on the north bank of the river and destroyed 4 PT-76 amphibious tanks east of Đông Hà. More tanks were hit by a Republic of Vietnam Air Force A-1 Skyraider.
At midday PAVN tanks attempted to force the road bridge, but 6 tanks were destroyed by fire from the ARVN 20th Tank's M48s. At 13:00 Captain John Ripley an adviser to the Vietnamese Marines swung under the road bridge and spent 3 hours installing demolition charges to destroy the bridge; the bridge was blown up at 16:30 and the damaged railway bridge was destroyed around the same time temporarily halting the PAVN advance. Naval gunfire and a B-52 strike were soon directed at PAVN forces gathered on the northern bank. At 18:00 a USAF EB-66 was shot down west of Đông Hà and a no-fire zone was imposed around the area allowing the PAVN to capture the Cam Lo Bridge intact. Over the next two weeks PAVN forces kept up a barrage of artillery and small arms fire on the ARVN positions and infiltrated small units across the river in boats. On 7 April the Marines withdrew from Đông Hà leaving the defense to the 1st ARVN Armored Brigade, 20th Tank Battalion, the 4th and 5th Ranger Groups and the 57th Regiment.
On 18 April the PAVN 308th Division attacking from the southwest attempted to outflank Đông Hà but were repulsed. On 28 April the commander of the 20th Tank Battalion withdrew from Đông Hà to deal with a PAVN force threatening the Ái Tử Combat Base, seeing the tanks leaving the soldiers of the 57th Regiment panicked and abandoned their positions leading to the collapse of the ARVN defensive line; the VNMC 7th Battalion was sent to Ái Tử to help defend the base. At 02:00 on 29 April the PAVN attacked the ARVN positions north and south of the base and the ARVN defenses began to crumble, by midday on 30 April the 3rd Division commander ordered a withdrawal from Ái Tử to a defensive line along the south of the Thạch Hãn River and the withdrawal was completed late that day. On 1 May General Giai decided that any further defense of the city was pointless and that the ARVN should withdraw to a defensive line along the My Chanh River; as the 3rd Division headquarters departed the city in an armored convoy, the U.
S. advisors remained in the Quảng Trị Citadel, however the command element finding Highway 1 blocked by refugees and PAVN ambushes soon returned to the Citadel and requested helicopter evacuation. By late afternoon USAF helicopters from the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron and Army helicopters evacuated all remaining forces in the Citadel. By 2 May all of Quảng Trị Province had fallen to the PAVN and they were threatening Huế; the fall of Quảng Trị gave North Vietnam its first major victory of the 1972 offensive. The North Vietnamese imposed their authority in the province, as collective farms were set up and strict rules were forced on the villagers
The Việt Cộng known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam, the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U. S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958; the headquarters of the Viet Cong based at Memot came to be known as Central Office for South Vietnam or COSVN by its Military Assistance Command and South Vietnamese counterparts, a near-mythical "bamboo Pentagon" from which the Việt Cộng's entire war effort was being directed.
For nearly a decade the fabled COSVN headquarters, which directed the entire war effort of the Viet Cong was the target of the RVN/US war effort, which would have collapsed the insurgency war effort. US and South Vietnamese Special Forces sent to capture them were killed quickly or returned with heavy casualties to the point that teams refused to go. Daily B-52 bombings had failed to kill any of the leadership during Operation Menu despite flattening the entire area, as Soviet trawlers were able to forewarn COSVN, whom used the data on speed and direction to move perpendicular and to move underground. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on December 20, 1960, to foment insurgency in the South. Many of the Việt Cộng's core members were volunteer "regroupees", southern Việt Minh who had resettled in the North after the Geneva Accord. Hanoi gave the regroupees military training and sent them back to the South along the Hồ Chí Minh trail in the early 1960s; the NLF called for southern Vietnamese to "overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists" and to make "efforts toward the peaceful unification".
The PLAF's best-known action was the Tết Offensive, a gigantic assault on more than 100 South Vietnamese urban centers in 1968, including an attack on the U. S. embassy in Saigon. The offensive riveted the attention of the world's media for weeks, but overextended the Việt Cộng. Two further offensives were conducted in the mini-Tet and August Offensive. In 1969 the Việt Cộng would establish the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, a shadow-country in South Vietnam intended to represent the organisation on the world stage and was recognised by the communist bloc and maintained diplomatic links with many nations in the Non-Aligned Movement. Communist offensives were conducted predominantly by newly mechanised PAVN forces, as the ability of the Việt Cộng to recruit among the South Vietnamese became much more limited; the Việt Cộng remained an active political front. The organisation was dissolved in 1976 when North and South Vietnam were unified under a communist government.
Political and military organization of the Việt Cộng was complex, with a series of well-constructed, overlapping networks and organisations, see strategy and structure. Material aid was provided through the well-established, ingenious Hồ Chí Minh trail which withstood the most sustained bombing campaign in history while expanding the war effort, see logistics and equipment, they had further developed a complex insurgency warfare method capable of countering overwhelmingly superior numbers and technology, retaining the strategic initiative during much of the war. According to the Pentagon Papers, 90% of large firefights were initiated by the PAVN/VC and 80% were well-planned VC operations throughout most of the war and as early as 1966 US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara expressed doubt about the US ability to win the war; the term Việt Cộng appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956. It is a contraction of Việt Nam Cộng-sản, or alternatively Việt gian cộng sản; the earliest citation for Việt Cộng in English is from 1957.
Media worldwide referred to them as "Vietcong". American soldiers referred to them as Victor Charlie or V-C. "Victor" and "Charlie" are both letters in the NATO phonetic alphabet. "Charlie" referred to communist forces in both Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese. The official Vietnamese history gives the group's name as the Liberation Army of South Vietnam or the National Liberation Front for South Vietnam. Many writers shorten this to National Liberation Front. In 1969, the Việt Cộng created the "Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam", abbreviated PRG. Although the NLF was not abolished until 1977, the Việt Cộng no longer used the name after PRG was created. Members referred to the Việt Cộng as "the Front". Today's Vietnamese media most refers to the group as the "People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam". By the terms of the Geneva Accord, which ended the Indochina War and the Việt Minh agreed to a truce and to a separation of forces; the Việt Minh had become the government o
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Võ Nguyên Giáp was a general in the Vietnam People's Army and a politician. Võ Nguyên Giáp is considered one of the greatest military strategists of the 20th century, he first grew to prominence during World War II, where he served as the military leader of the Viet Minh resistance against the Japanese occupation of Vietnam. Giáp was a crucial military commander in two wars: the First Indochina War of 1946–1954, the Vietnam War of 1955–1975, participating in several significant battles: Lạng Sơn in 1950, Hòa Bình in 1951–1952, Điện Biên Phủ in 1954, the Tết Offensive in 1968, the Easter Offensive in 1972, the final Ho Chi Minh Campaign of 1975. Giáp had no direct military training and was a history teacher at a French-speaking academy, influenced by historical military leaders and citing T. E. Lawrence and Napoleon as his two greatest influences, he would earn the moniker "Red Napoleon" by some Western sources. Giáp was a journalist, an interior minister in President Hồ Chí Minh's Việt Minh government, the military commander of the Viet Minh, the commander of the People's Army of Vietnam, a defense minister.
He served as a member of the Politburo of the Vietnam Workers' Party, which in 1976 became the Communist Party of Vietnam. Giáp was a mastermind military builder, he was a effective logistician, laying the foundation of the Ho Chi Minh trail, recognised as one of the great feats of military engineering of the 20th century. Võ Nguyên Giáp served as Military Minister and Chief of Staff, is credited with North Vietnam's military victory over South Vietnam and the US during the Vietnam War. Recent scholarship indicates other leaders had played more prominent roles, with former subordinates and now rivals Văn Tiến Dũng and Hoàng Văn Thái assuming a more direct military responsibility than Giáp, he played a pivotal role in the second transformation of the PAVN into "one of the largest, most formidable" mechanised and combined-arms fighting force capable of delivering a knockout blow to an more powerful rival Army of the Republic of Vietnam in conventional warfare. Võ Nguyên Giáp was born on 25 August 1911 in French Indochina.
Giáp's father and mother, Võ Quang Nghiêm and Nguyễn Thị Kiên, worked the land, rented some to neighbors, lived a comfortable lifestyle. Giáp's father was both a minor official and a committed Vietnamese nationalist, having played a part in the Cần Vương movement in the 1880s, he was arrested for subversive activities by the French colonial authorities in 1919 and died in prison a few weeks later. Giáp had two sisters and one brother, soon after his father's incarceration, one of his sisters was arrested. Although she was not held for long, the privations of prison life made her ill and she too died a few weeks after being released. Giáp was taught at home by his father before going to the village school, his precocious intelligence meant that he was soon transferred to the district school and in 1924, at the age of thirteen, he left home to attend the Quốc Học, a French-run lycée in Huế. This school had been founded by a Catholic official named Ngo Dinh Kha, his son, Ngô Đình Diệm attended it.
Diem went on to become President of South Vietnam. Years earlier the same school had educated another boy, Nguyen Sinh Cung the son of an official. In 1943 Cung adopted the name Ho Chi Minh. At age 14, Giáp became a messenger for the Haiphong Power Company, he was expelled from the school after two years for taking part in protests, went home to his village for a while. While there, he joined the Tân Việt Revolutionary Party, an underground group founded in 1924, which introduced him to communism, he continued his political activities. He was arrested in 1930 for taking part in student protests and served 13 months of a two-year sentence at Lao Bảo Prison. By Giáp's own account the reason for his release was lack of evidence against him, he joined the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1931 and took part in several demonstrations against French rule in Indochina as well as assisting in founding the Democratic Front in 1933. Although he has denied it, Giáp was said by the historian Cecil B. Currey to have spent some time in the prestigious Hanoi Lycée Albert Sarraut, where the local elite was educated to serve the colonial regime.
He was said to have been in the same class as Phạm Văn Đồng, a future Prime Minister, who has denied having studied at Albert Sarraut, Bảo Đại, the last Emperor of Annam. From 1933 to 1938, Giáp studied at the Indochinese University in Hanoi where he earned a bachelor's degree in law with a major in political economy. While a student, Giáp had taken lodgings with Professor Dang Thai Minh, whose daughter, Nguyen Thi Minh Giang, he had first met at school in Hue, she too had learned nationalism from her father and had joined the revolutionary activities which Giáp was involved with. In June 1938 they were married and in May 1939 they had a daughter, Hong Anh. Giáp's busy political activities took a toll on his postgraduate studies, he failed to pass the examinations for the Certificate of Administrative Law. Unable therefore to practice as a lawyer, he took a job as a history teacher at the Thăng Long School in Han
General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army
The General Staff is the commanding and managing organisation of the Vietnam People's Army, the paramilitary forces and other activities relating to defence of Vietnam. The General Staff was established on 7 September 1945, right after the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the first Chief of the General Staff was General Hoàng Văn Thái. During the Second Indochina War, Vietnam War, Cambodian-Vietnamese War, Sino-Vietnamese War and other skirmishes, the General Staff always had an essential role in organising, commanding the armed forces and planning, operating military campaigns for the Ministry of Defence and the Government of Vietnam; the current Chief of the General Staff is Senior Lieutenant General Phan Văn Giang who holds the position of Deputy Minister of Defence. Right after the August Revolution and the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on 2 September 1945, the General Staff was established on 7 September 1945; the first Chief of the General Staff was Major General Hoàng Văn Thái who held the position from 1945 to 1953.
During the existence of the General Headquarters of the Vietnam People's Army, the supreme commanding organ of the armed forces from 1946 to 1975, the General Staff was directly under the General Headquarters and acted as staff of the General Headquarters according to the decree No. 47/SL, issued on 1 May 1947. After the Vietnam War, the General Headquarters was dissolved and the General Staff began to operate under the Ministry of Defence in the position of commanding and managing organisation of the Vietnam People's Army, the paramilitary forces and other activities relating to defence of Vietnam. From 1978, the Chief of Staff was Deputy Minister of Defence and would take the position of acting minister during the absence of the Minister of Defence. Following the demise of Senior Lt Gen Võ Văn Tuấn in 2016, Senior Lt Gen Phan Văn Giang became the new Chief of Staff; the organisation of the General Staff consists of: Office of the General Staff Department of Political Affairs Department of Operations Department of Personnel Department of Military Intelligence Department of Information Technology Department of Electronic Warfare Department of Politico-Military Training.
This is the office responsible for the sport activities of the Army including the operation of the Thể Công football club. Department of Cartography Department of Cryptography Department of Logistics Department of Schools Department of Civil Defence Department of Search and Rescue In addition, the General Staff directly manages the operation of the 144th Brigade, the Military Honor Guard Battalion, several companies and project management authorities; the Chief of the General Staff is the chief of staff of the General Staff of the People's Army of Vietnam. He is appointed by the President of Vietnam, the Commander-in-Chief. Air Force – 1 Ground Force – 12 Navy Force – 0
The August Revolution known as the August General Uprising, was a revolution launched by Ho Chi Minh's Việt Minh against French colonial rule in Vietnam, on August 14, 1945. Within two weeks, forces under the Việt Minh had seized control of most rural villages and cities throughout the North and South Vietnam, including Hanoi, where President Hồ Chí Minh announced the formation of the Provisional Democratic Republic, Huế, exception in townships Móng Cái, Vĩnh Yên, Hà Giang, Lào Cai, Lai Châu. However, according to Vietnamese document, Việt Minh, in fact, seized control of Vietnam. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnamese Independence; the August Revolution created a uniform government for the entire country. Vietnam was a French colony from 1858, until the Japanese coup d'état in 1945. By 1897, the French had created the Federation of Indochina, with Vietnam divided for convenience into the separately ruled territories of Tonkin and Cochin China, plus newly acquired Cambodia and Laos.
To justify their imperial domination, the French claimed that it was their responsibility to help undeveloped regions in Asia become civilized. Without French intervention, they asserted, these places would remain backward and impoverished. In reality, French imperialism was driven by the demand for resources — raw materials and cheap labor, it is agreed that French colonial rule was politically repressive and economically exploitative. The Vietnamese struggle against French colonialism was a century old at the end of World War II. Incursions by missionaries and diplomats in the nineteenth century had set off repeated periods of resistance due to the loyalty of the people to the Vietnamese monarchy and Confucian values. From the beginning of the French occupation of Vietnam, thousands of poorly-armed Vietnamese reacted to foreign control as they always had, with various rebellions. One of the famous rebellions is called Cần Vương movement, a large-scale Vietnamese insurgency between 1885 and 1889 against French colonial rule.
In 1917, an eclectic band of political prisoners, common criminals and mutinous prison guards seized the Thái Nguyên Penitentiary, the largest penal institution in northern Tonkin. The extraordinary regional and social diversity of its force makes the Thái Nguyên uprising a compelling prequel to the modern nationalist movements of the 1930s. Although all these rebellions failed, the rebels remained a powerful symbol of resistance for generations. During the colonial period, the French did transform Vietnamese society. Education and national industry were promoted which had the unintended effect of stimulating the development of nationalist movements. In the north, the anticolonial nationalist movement was dominated by Communism after Hồ Chí Minh created the Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League in 1925. On February 3, 1930, a special conference was held in Hong Kong under the chairmanship of Hồ Chí Minh. Out of this conference the "Vietnamese Communist Party" was born. In October, following a Comintern directive, this name was changed to "Indochinese Communist Party" or in short, I.
C. P; until the Party was disbanded by Hồ Chí Minh in November 1945, it held a leading position in the Vietnamese anti-colonial revolution. Ho Chi Minh went by many names during his rise to power, including Nguyen Tat Thanh "Nguyen Who Will Be Victorious," Nguyen O Phap "Nguyen Who Hates the French" and Nguyen Ai Quoc "Nguyen Who Loves His Country"; these name changes were used to further his cause of uniting the citizens and encouraging them to rebel. Ho Chi Minh means "Ho Who Aspires To Enlightenment." In the south, the anticolonial nationalist movement is more complicated than the north. The Cao Đài was the first of southern Vietnam's three most influential politico-religious organizations to emerge in the colonial era. Founded by colonial civil servant Ngô Văn Chiêu in 1926, it would grow to be the largest of the region's politically oriented religious entities, in many ways the most powerful. More than a decade in 1939, Prophet Huynh Phu So introduced another politico-religious organization into southern Vietnam's anticolonial milieu by founding the Hòa Hảo.
By performing alleged miracle cures and carrying out acts of extreme charity for the poor, by the end of 1939, Prophet Huynh Phu So had attracted tens of thousands of adherents to the new Hòa Hảo organization. The third politico-religious organization called Bình Xuyên, can be traced back to the early 1920s, but Bình Xuyên didn't become a organized political force until the end of the Second World War. All three of these organizations constituted major anticolonial powers in southern Vietnam. Before 1945, France and Japan had uneasily ruled Vietnam together for over four years. In September 1940, just months after France capitulated to Germany, Japanese troops took advantage of French weakness to station troops in northern Vietnam for the purpose of cutting off the supply route to the southern flank of the China Theater. From 1940 to March 1945, the French retained their administrative responsibilities, police duties, their colonial army, in exchange for allowing Japanese troops and material to pass through Indochina.
By 1943, there were signs that the Japanese might lose the war. The United States had begun the island-hopping sweep through the South Pacific. A sea-borne Allied landing in Indochina, an overland attack from China, became real threats to the Japanese. In addition, an upsurge of Gaullist sentiment in Indochina after Charles de Gaulle returned to Paris at the head of the French Provisional Government in September 1944 add
People's Army of Vietnam
The People's Army of Vietnam known as the Vietnamese People's Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Defence Force, Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army; the military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng added in yellow at the top left. During the French Indochina War, the PAVN was referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army; this allowed writers, the U. S. military, the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong.
However, both groups worked under the same command structure. The Viet Cong was considered a branch of the VPA by the North Vietnamese. In 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history, it is recognized as one of the most battle-hardened and best trained militaries in Asia. The first historical record of Vietnamese military history dates back on the era of Hồng Bàng, the first recorded state in ancient Vietnam to have assembled military force. Since military plays a crucial role on developing Vietnamese history due to its turbulent history of wars against China, Cambodia and Thailand; the Southern expansion of Vietnam resulted with the destruction of Champa as an independent nation to a level that it didn't exist anymore. In most of its history, the Royal Vietnamese Armed Forces was regarded to be one of the most professional, battle-hardened and trained armies in Southeast Asia as well as Asia in a large extent.
The PAVN was first conceived in September 1944 at the first Revolutionary Party Military Conference as "armed propaganda brigades" to educate and mobilise the Vietnamese to create a main force to drive the French colonial and Japanese occupiers from Vietnam. Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades and the Armed Propaganda Unit for National Liberation came into existence on 22 December 1944; the first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, fourteen breech-loading flintlocks. The United States' OSS agents, led by Archimedes Patti –, sometimes referred as the founding father of the PAVN due to his role, had provided ammunitions as well as logistic intelligence and equipments and they had helped training these soldiers, become the vital backbone of the Vietnamese military to fight the Japanese occupiers as well as the future wars; the group was renamed the "Vietnam Liberation Army" in May 1945.
In September, the army was again renamed the "Vietnam National Defence Army". At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers. In 1950, it became the People's Army of Vietnam. Võ Nguyên Giáp went on to become the first full general of the VPA on 28 May 1948, famous for leading the PAVN in victory over French forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and being in overall command against U. S. backed South Vietnam at the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd'Capital' Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division well known as the Pioneer Division, was formed from the 88th Tu Vu Regiment and the 102nd Capital Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment. At that time, the 308th Division was backed by the 11th Battalion that became the main force of the 312th Division. In late 1951, after launching three campaigns against three French strongpoints in the Red River Delta, the PAVN refocused on building up its ground forces further, with five new divisions, each of 10–15,000 men, created: the 304th Glory Division at Thanh Hóa, the 312th Victory Division in Vinh Phuc, the 316th Bong Lau Division in the northwest border region, the 320th Delta Division in the north Red River Delta, the 325th Binh Tri Thien Division in Binh Tri Thien province.
In 1951, the first artillery Division, the 351st Division was formed, before Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, for the first time in history, it was equipped by 24 captured 105mm US howitzers supplied by the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The first six divisions became known as Iron' divisions. In 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Vietminh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd, 350th in the north of the DRV, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos. In 1957, the theatres of the war with the French were reorganis