Vietnamese National Army
On March 8, 1949, after the Élysée Accords, the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại. The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army was the State of Vietnam's military force created shortly after that, it was loyal to Bảo Đại. The VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the communist Việt Minh forces led by Xantares Nguyen. Different units within the VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Hautes Alpes, Operation Atlas and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. With the departure of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps from Indochina in 1956, the VNA was reorganized under American tutelage as the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. While loyalist to the Chief of State of Vietnam Emperor Bảo Đại, the VNA fought along the French Union forces against the communist Việt Minh led by Ho Chi Minh during the First Indochina War until 1954 and the partition of Vietnam.
In 1955, the State of Vietnam was dissolved and replaced by Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north and Ngô Đình Diệm's Republic of Vietnam in the south. In early May, civil war ensued in the capital of South Vietnam when the VNA fought General Lê Văn Viễn's Bình Xuyên forces in the latter's controlled areas of Saigon. By 1956 all French Union troops withdrew from Vietnam and most of the VNA officers remained in service in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. After the fall of Saigon breaking in 1975, some joined the French Foreign Legion and others exiled to France or the United States. Benefiting with French cadres assistance and United States material support the VNA became a modern army modeled after the CEFEO Expeditionary Corps. Officers and Non-commissioned officers were trained in local schools of cadres known in French as Ecoles des Cadres, or at the elite National Military Academy, Dalat; the Preparatory Military School of Dalat was directed by Lieutenant Savani, a metropolitan French, educated in the Autun EMP.
It was created in 1936 after the Autun EMP as the Dalat School of the Eurasian Children of Troops. Once dissolved during the Japanese occupation in 1944, General de Lattre reformed the EETED as the EETD Dalat School of the Children of Troops in 1950. In 1953, the cadres formation raised with 54 new battalion created and hundreds of new officers formed by early March. By November the Vietnamese National Army was enlisted of Vietnamese recruits from the Privates to Generals. On the other hand, until 1954 some Vietnamese were trained four months in an Infantry Instruction Centers based in southern Vietnam. Once licensed these recruits would not be part of the VNA but the French CEFEO. Other officer and NCO alumni were coming from all French Union including Cambodia, metropolitan French and "French citizens" of French West Africa and India. On April 20, 1952, the Dalat academy celebrated its first promotion with a "baptism", the Saint Cyr -French West Point- fashion. Celebrating officials included Chief of State, H.
M. Emperor Bảo Đại, Prime Minister Trần Văn Hữu, General Governor of French Indochina Gautier and French General Salan, commander of the CEFEO, his Majesty Emperor Bảo Đại awarded the Hoàng Diệu promotion's senior and junior classes with a Saint-Cyr offered saber. As a symbol of the handover of self-defense responsibility of the whole Vietnam to the VNA, the senior class fired 4 traditional arrows in each direction. Alumni of the Vatchay Light Infantry Commando school located in the Halong Bay, were trained to anti-guerrilla warfare including bayonet fighting, close quarters combat, jujutsu art, river crossing, basic rope bridge crossing, enhanced camouflage, minefield crossing, barbed wire field crossing and trench warfare. Military ranks were organized after the French army's hierarchy. Shoulder patch insignia would star. Generals would have three stars while NCO officers with a straight bar were called Ong Mot and those with two straight bars were unofficially named Ong Hai. Since anyone working for the government was called Quan the rank Lieutenant soon replaced it, Quan Mot became Sous-Lieutenant, Quan Hai became Lieutenant and so forth.
After the founding of the Republic of Vietnam in 1955, the VNA was renamed the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Its military ranks and hierarchy were reformed. Organized as a modern army the Ground Force included artillery, signal communications and armored cavalry units. Airborne regiments including paratrooper "TDND", the so-called 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th BAWOUAN, were created; these elite units were referred as the "BPVN" by their French allies. Some of these paratroopers were attached to the GCMA special forces; the VNA air force first took part in the First Indochina War during the joint Operation Atlas in April 1953. The aviation consisted of Morane Saulnier MS-500 reconnaissance planes and Douglas DC-3 and DC-4 transport aircraft useful in airborne operations; the navy included amphibious vehicles such as Landing Craft Infantry, Landing Craft Mechanized, small craft and materiel. The Marine Troops corps w
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Fall of Saigon
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tan Son Nhat International Airport killed the last two American servicemen killed in combat in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace; the city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh. The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians, associated with the southern regime.
The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history. In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population. Various names have been applied to these events; the Vietnamese government calls it the "Day of liberating the South for national reunification" or "Liberation Day", but the term "Fall of Saigon" is used in Western accounts. It is called the "Ngày mất nước", "Tháng Tư Đen", "National Day of Shame" or "National Day of Resentment". by many Overseas Vietnamese who were refugees from communism. The rapidity with which the South Vietnamese position collapsed in 1975 was surprising to most American and South Vietnamese observers, to the North Vietnamese and their allies as well. For instance, a memo prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and U. S. Army Intelligence and published on March 5 indicated that South Vietnam could hold out through the current dry season—i.e. At least until 1976.
These predictions proved to be grievously in error. As that memo was being released, General Dũng was preparing a major offensive in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, which began on 10 March and led to the capture of Buôn Ma Thuột; the ARVN began a disorderly and costly retreat, hoping to redeploy its forces and hold the southern part of South Vietnam an enclave south of the 13th parallel. Supported by artillery and armor, the PAVN continued to march towards Saigon, capturing the major cities of northern South Vietnam at the end of March—Huế on the 25th and Đà Nẵng on the 28th. Along the way, disorderly South Vietnamese retreats and the flight of refugees—there were more than 300,000 in Đà Nẵng—damaged South Vietnamese prospects for a turnaround. After the loss of Đà Nẵng, those prospects had been dismissed as nonexistent by American CIA officers in Vietnam, who believed that nothing short of B-52 strikes against Hanoi could stop the North Vietnamese. By April 8, the North Vietnamese Politburo, which in March had recommended caution to Dũng, cabled him to demand "unremitting vigor in the attack all the way to the heart of Saigon."
On April 14, they renamed the campaign the "Hồ Chí Minh campaign", after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh, in hopes of wrapping it up before his birthday on May 19. Meanwhile, South Vietnam failed to garner any significant increase in military aid from the United States, snuffing out President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu’s hopes for renewed American support. On April 9, PAVN forces reached Xuân Lộc, the last line of defense before Saigon, where the ARVN 18th Division made a last stand and held the city through fierce fighting for 11 days; the PAVN overran Xuân Lộc on April 20 despite heavy losses, on April 21 President Thiệu resigned in a tearful televised announcement in which he denounced the United States for failing to come to the aid of the South. The North Vietnamese front line was now just 26 miles from downtown Saigon; the victory at Xuân Lộc, which had drawn many South Vietnamese troops away from the Mekong Delta area, opened the way for PAVN to encircle Saigon, they soon did so, moving 100,000 troops in position around the city by April 27.
With the ARVN having few defenders, the fate of the city was sealed. The ARVN III Corps commander, General Toàn, had organized five centers of resistance to defend the city; these fronts were so connected as to form an arc enveloping the entire area west and east of the capital. The Cu Chi front, to the northwest, was defended by the 25th Division. South Vietnamese defensive forces around Saigon totaled 60,000 troops. However, as the exodus made it into Saigon, along with them were many ARVN soldiers, which swelled the "men under arms" in the city to over 250,000; these units were battered and leaderless, which threw the city into further anarchy. The rapid PAVN advances of March and early April led to increased concern in Saigon that the city, peaceful throughout the war and wh
Republic of Vietnam Navy
The Republic of Vietnam Navy was the naval branch of the South Vietnamese military, the official armed forces of the former Republic of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. The early fleet consisted of boats from France. After 1955 and the transfer of the armed forces to Vietnamese control, the fleet was supplied from the United States. With assistance from the U. S. the VNN became the largest Southeast Asian navy, with 42,000 personnel, 672 amphibious ships and craft, 20 mine warfare vessels, 450 patrol craft, 56 service craft, 242 junks. The origins of the Viet Nam Navy began in 1952 with the French Navy. In 1954, in accordance with the Elysée Accords, the French handed control of the armed forces to the Vietnamese, but at the request of the Vietnamese government, continued to be in charge of the Navy until 20 August 1955. By this time the Navy numbered about 2,000 personnel, with 22 vessels; the Vietnamese received assistance in the development of the VNN from the United States Military Assistance Advisory Group.
In 1956, the North Vietnamese began infiltrating men and arms into the Republic of Vietnam's territory by sea. In response the VNN created the Coastal Junk Force of junks manned by Regional Irregular Forces and local fishermen recruited for the occasion, to patrol the waters around the Demilitarized Zone; the force came to be known as Coastal Groups, patrolled the entire 1,200-mile coastline. This force was under the control of the regional military zone commands rather than the Navy, was not incorporated into the VNN until 1965, by which time it numbered over 100 vessels. In the late 1950s the Vietnam Navy was being modernized and developed, receiving ships and training from the United States Navy. By 1961 the VNN had a force of 23 ships, the largest of which were LSMs, 197 boats, 5,000 men; this was insufficient to counter the growing threat of enemy infiltration and the years 1962-1964 were marked by a rapid expansion. The number of ships increased to 44 and number of personnel to 8,100; this process continued and by the end of 1967 the personnel strength of the VNN had increased to 16,300, with 65 ships, along with 232 vessels of the River Assault Group, 290 junks, 52 miscellaneous craft.
Throughout 1968 the VNN gave priority to the improvement and expansion of their training programs in anticipation of gaining increased responsibility in the war effort as well as additional assets from the US. By the end of 1968 plans for the turnover of the majority of the United States Navy assets in Vietnam had been formulated. In early 1969, President Richard M. Nixon formally adopted the policy of "Vietnamization"; the naval part, called ACTOV, involved the phased transfer to Vietnam of the U. S. river and coastal fleet, as well as operational command over various operations. In mid-1969, the VNN took sole responsibility for river assault operations when the U. S. Mobile Riverine Force stood down and transferred 64 riverine assault craft to the VNN. By the end of 1970, the U. S. Navy ceased all operations throughout South Vietnam, having transferred a total of 293 river patrol boats and 224 riverine assault craft to the VNN. During 1970 and 1971 the United States relinquished control of the coastal and high seas patrols to the VNN.
The U. S. naval command transferred four Coast Guard cutters, a destroyer escort radar picket ship, an LST, various harbor control, mine craft, support vessels. By August 1972, the VNN took responsibility for the entire coastal patrol effort when it took over the last 16 U. S. coastal radar installations. In addition to ships and vessels, the U. S. transferred support bases. The first change of command occurred in November 1969 at Mỹ Tho, the last in April 1972 at Nhà Bè, Bình Thủy, Cam Ranh Bay, Đà Nẵng. By 1973, the Vietnam Navy numbered over 1,400 ships and vessels. In 1973 and 1974, as a result of the Paris Peace Accords, the United States drastically cut its financial support for the Vietnamese armed forces; the VNN was compelled to reduce its overall operations by half, its river combat and patrol activities by 70%. To conserve supplies, over 600 river and harbor craft and 22 ships were laid up. On 19 January 1974, four VNN ships fought a battle with four ships of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy over ownership of the Paracel Islands, 200 nautical miles due east of Đà Nẵng.
The VNN ship Nhựt Tảo was sunk, Lý Thường Kiệt was damaged, both Trần Khánh Dư and Trần Bình Trọng suffered light damage. The Chinese occupied the islands. In the spring of 1975, North Vietnamese forces occupied all of northern and central South Vietnam, Saigon fell on 30 April 1975; however Captain Kiem Do had secretly planned and carried out the evacuation of a flotilla of thirty-five Vietnam Navy and other vessels, with 30,000 sailors, their families, other civilians on board, joined the U. S. Seventh Fleet when it sailed for Subic Bay, Philippines. Most of the Vietnamese ships were taken into the Philippine Navy, though the LSM Lam Giang, fuel barge HQ-474, gunboat Kéo Ngựa were scuttled after reaching the open sea and transferring their cargo of refugees and their crews to other ships. VNN Fleet Command was directly responsible to the VNN Chief of Naval Operations for the readiness of ships and craft; the Fleet Commander assigned and scheduled ships to operate in the Coastal Zones, Riverine Areas, the Rung Sat Specia
South Vietnamese Regional Force
During the Vietnam War, the South Vietnamese Regional Forces were Army of the Republic of Vietnam militia. Recruited locally, they fell into two broad groups - Regional Forces and the more local-level Popular Forces. In 1964, the Regional Forces were integrated into the Army of the Republic of Vietnam and placed under the command of the Joint General Staff. Fielded as village-level or province-level defence forces, these units were militia-men while working part or full-time. Given the worse equipment available, they served as a front-line force against armed attacks but were marginalised and demoralised during the American-intervention, as ARVN Regular Forces were relegated to guarding duty. Following Vietnamization these units once again came back to prominence as they became better trained and tasked with carrying out wider area operations despite lacking artillery and air support, they would serve as front-line provincial defence units while Regular Forces were deployed against conventional People's Army of Vietnam forces, grew to number 250,000 by 1974.
The concept of Regional and Popular Forces is in-line with countering the Local Force and Main Force structure of the Viet Cong as they lacked firepower support, while the ARVN Regular Forces fought the PAVN. Local militia came to play a effective role in the war, as the style of small-unit warfare was better suited for guerrilla conflicts with most more familiar with the region and terrain. Despite being poorly paid, these forces were much more capable at detecting infiltration and holding civilian areas. Accounting for an estimated 2-5% of war budget, they were thought to have accounted for 30% of casualties inflicted upon VC/NVA throughout the entire war. Part of this derives in these units being more capable of engaging in small-unit, highly-mobile tactics which proved difficult for slow-moving equipment-heavy units. During the early 1960s the Regional Forces manned the country-wide outpost system and defended critical points, such as bridges and ferries. There were half of them in the Mekong Delta region.
Regional Forces played a key role in regional security in the early phase of the war, while RF/PF members were marginalised and side-lined during the American-intervention as Regular Force Army of the Republic of Vietnam Units were relegated to guarding bases and areas, badly affecting morale and purpose. When U. S. forces began to withdraw from South Vietnam during 1969 and the ARVN began the task of fighting the communist main force units, Regional Forces took on a new importance. For the first time, they were deployed outside their home areas and were sometimes attached to ARVN units. By 1973 the Regional Forces had grown to 1,810 companies, some of which were consolidated into battalions. Charged with local defense under provincial government control, they were too armed and equipped, marginally trained, lacked the unit cohesion to withstand attack by regular People's Army of Vietnam units supported by tanks and artillery. Most forces were subdued, retreated or were destroyed during the Easter Offensive
Republic of Vietnam Marine Division
The Republic of Vietnam Marine Division was part of the armed forces of South Vietnam. It was established by Ngo Dinh Diem in 1954 when he was Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, which became the Republic of Vietnam in 1955; the longest-serving commander was Lieutenant General Le Nguyen Khang. In 1969, the VNMC had a strength of 9,300, 15,000 by 1973. and 20,000 by 1975. The Marine Division trace their origins to French-trained Commandos Marine divisions recruited and placed under the command of the French Navy but incorporated in 1960. From 1970 onwards, the South Vietnamese marines and Airborne Division grew supplanting the independent, Central Highlands based Vietnamese Rangers as the most popular elite units for volunteers. Along with the Airborne the Marine Division formed the General Reserve with the strategic transformation under Vietnamization, with elite and highly-mobile units meant to be deployed in People's Army of Vietnam attacking points and incursions. By the level of training had improved and U.
S. General Creighton Abrams who oversaw Vietnamization stated that South Vietnam's Airborne and Marines had no comparable units to match it in the PAVN; this division had earned a total of 9 U. S. presidential citations, with the 2nd Battalion "Crazy Buffaloes" earning two. The Vietnamese Marine Corps had its origins during French rule of Indochina; the 1949 Franco-Vietnamese Agreement stated that the Vietnamese Armed Forces were to include naval forces whose organization and training would be provided by the French Navy. In March 1952, the Navy of Vietnam was established. In 1953, the French and Vietnamese governments agreed to increase the size of Vietnamese National Army, so an increase in the size of the Vietnamese Navy was deemed necessary; as they debated whether the Army or Navy would control the river flotillas, French Vice Admiral Philippe Auboyneau proposed for the first time the organisation of a Vietnamese Marine Corps. When the French withdrew from Vietnam in 1954, the Vietnamese Marine Corps was a component of the Vietnamese Navy.
The Marine Corps consisted of a headquarters, four river companies, one battalion landing force. On October 13, 1954, Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem signed a government decree formally creating within the naval establishment a section of infantry of brigade strength to be designated as the Marine Corps. One of the most notable battles during the early phase of the war was the Battle of Binh Gia, which witnessed for the first time several helicopter transports downed by AA and ground-fire with the 4th Marine Battalion suffering 60% casualties. A few months with the onset of U. S intervention, the 1st and 3rd Battalion participated against a now Soviet and Chinese supplied 9th Viet Cong Division, were tasked with the Battle of Ba Gia. Upon capturing the hamlet the 9th Division sprung an ambush, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. Following the departure of U. S. Marine forces, the South Vietnamese marines were assigned responsibility in defending the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone; the most significant urban-battle in the war was experienced by the South Vietnamese marines during the Easter Offensive.
A massive armored pushed across the DMZ and nearly destroyed this unit alongside I Corps in the city of Quảng Trị. Two months this South Vietnamese marines spearheaded the re-taking of Quảng Trị, with 3,658 KIA in the process; this would be the single longest, bloody battle in the entire war. Prior to the signing of the Paris Peace Accords, the Marine Division attempted to retake the Cửa Việt Base abandoned by U. S. Marines in 1969 in the Battle of Cửa Việt; the PAVN units deployed the experimental 9M14 Malyutka man-portable guided anti-tanks, with the division losing 26 M48 Pattons in the counter-attack. Learning from the Easter Offensive failure, PAVN tanks rolled across not only across the DMZ, but well-disguised series of armoured attacks across the Central Highlands were launched during the Hue–Da Nang Campaign encircling and destroying most of the I Corps that many Marine Division battalions was assigned to. Remnants of the division, drastically short on supplies, held out and made a final stand near Saigon during the Battle of Xuân Lộc before succumbing to defeat.
Divisional Units Headquarters Battalion Amphibious Support Battalion Signal Battalion Engineer Battalion Medical Battalion Anti-tank Company Military Police Company Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol Company147th Marine Brigade 1st Marine Battalion - "Wild Birds" 4th Marine Battalion - "Killer Sharks" 7th Marine Battalion - "Grey Tigers" 1st Marine Artillery Battalion - "Lightning Fire258th Marine Brigade 2nd Marine Battalion - "Crazy Buffaloes" 5th Marine Battalion - "Black Dragons" 8th Marine Battalion - "Sea Eagles" 2nd Marine Artillery Battalion - "Divine Arrows"369th Marine Brigade 3rd Marine Battalion - "Sea Wolves" 6th Marine Battalion - "Divine Hawks" 9th Marine Battalion - "Ferocious Tigers" 3rd Marine Artillery Battalion - "Divine Crossbows"A 4th brigade, the 468th, was added to the VNMC in December, 1974. 14th Marine Battalion 16th Marine Battalion 18th Marine Battalion 4th Marine Artillery Battalion - "Tan Lap" Major Lê Quang Mỹ Lt. Colonel Lê Quang Trọng Major Phạm Văn Liễu Vice Captain Bùi Phó Chí Major Lê Như Hùng Major Le Nguyen Khang Lt. Colonel Nguyễn Bá Liên Colonel Le Nguyen Khang Colonel Bùi Thế Lân Generally, the VNMC weapons and personal equipments were (if not