Raron is a municipality in the district of Raron in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Raron is first mentioned around 1101–1200 as Rarogni. In 1146 it was mentioned as Rarun. A settlement on the Heidnischbiel, a burial ground at Blatt and scattered finds in the surrounding vineyards indicate that there was a permanent settlement in the vicinity of Raron from the Neolithic to the La Tène period; the settlement seems to have been abandoned in the Roman era. During the Middle Ages, the hill west of the Heidnischbiel, was fortified. In the 12th century the Viztum of Raron was established and the Viztume tower house was added to the hill; the tower The families of Raron, Asperlin and de Chevron-Villette all held the office of Vizedominat of Raron as a fief from the Bishop of Sion. During the Raron affair of 1417, the tower was destroyed, it was purchased in 1538 by the municipality and served as city hall and a jail. At the beginning of the 21st Century it was owned. In addition, to the Viztume tower, the Meier tower was built in the 13th century.
The Meier tower was occupied by the Asperlin family. Raron held the title Raronia prudens. One bishop and several provincial governors came from Raron; the center of the local parish was, most originally St. German; the church of St. German existed since about the 9th centuries. By 1299, the church in Raron had become a parish church; this large parish comprised the four municipalities of the middle third of the Zenden of Raron. In 1554, Unterbäch and Bürchen separated in 1867 Ausserberg left as well; the entire Church of St. Romanus, except the tower, was destroyed in 1494 when the Bietschbach flooded; the tower of the church remained until 1938. The uninhabited Meier tower was converted into a gothic church by Ulrich Ruffiner in 1508–1514. In the early 16th century, this castle church was dedicated to St. Romanus to replace the earlier church; the restored castle church was abandoned in the 1970s and was replaced in 1974 a modern rock church, built at the foot of the hill. The big stone houses of Raron testify to the prosperity of the 18th centuries.
These historic houses include the Maxenhaus, the Zentriegenhaus, the Zmilacherhaus and houses of the von Roten family as well as the Kalbermatterhaus in Turtig and the tower house in Rotigoblatt. Traffic through Raron over the St. German pass to Visp contributed to the prosperity of the town. However, the construction of the valley road to the left side of the valley in the 19th century, deprived Raron of this source of revenue. Due to the containment of the Rhone and Bietschbach rivers, the draining of the swamps in 1865–1885 and the construction of the Lonza Entsumpfungs canal in 1920, the valley opened up for agriculture. Raron evolved in the second half of the 20th century into a modern industrial and small business town. Residential and commercial buildings spread out across the valley floor. In the 1940s a military airfield for the Swiss Air Force was built in the valley with an aircraft cavern, but it was abandoned in the army reform of 1994. Air Zermatt established a helicopter base in Raron in 1980.
The south portal of the Lötschberg Base Tunnel was opened to the east of the village in 2007. In 2000 more than 60% of the working population worked outside of the municipality in Visp and Steg. Raron is known for periodic Passion and Mysteries of the Rosary plays. Raron has an area, as of 2011, of 30.3 square kilometers. Of this area, 15.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 19.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 4.8% is settled and 60.7% is unproductive land. The municipality is the capital of the Westlich Raron district, it includes the hamlets of Turtig and Rarnerchumma. It is located on the right side of the Rhone valley at the entrance to the Bietsch valley and west of Visp. Tundra climates are characterized by sub-freezing mean annual temperatures, large annual temperature ranges, moderately low precipitation; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is ET. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Raron Gules, a Vine eradicated and fructed Or leaved Vert. Raron has a population of 1,930.
As of 2008, 12.4% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 2.5%. It has changed at a rate of 4.2% due to migration and at a rate of 3.5% due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Albanian is the second most common and French is the third. There are 1 person who speaks Romansh; as of 2008, the population was 50.9% male and 49.1% female. The population was made up of 804 Swiss men and 112 non-Swiss men. There were 799 Swiss women and 86 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 849 or about 50.8% were born in Raron and lived there in 2000. There were 468 or 28.0% who were born in the same canton, while 138 or 8.3% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 170 or 10.2% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 25% of the population, while adults make up 61.4% and seniors make up 13.6%. As of 2000, there were 643 people who were single and never married in the municipality.
There were 904 married individuals, 77 widows or widowers and 48 individuals who are divorced. As of 2000, there were 636 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.6 persons per household. There w
The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland, lying between the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps. It covers about 30% of the Swiss surface area, is flat but hilly; the average height is between 400 metres and 700 metres AMSL. It is by far the most densely populated region of Switzerland, the center of economy and important transportation. In the north and northwest, the Swiss Plateau is delimited geographically and geologically by the Jura Mountains. In the south, there is no clear border with the Alps; the rising of the terrain to altitudes above 1500 metres AMSL, abrupt in certain places, is taken as a criterion for delimitation. The regions of the higher Swiss Plateau the hills of the canton of Fribourg, the Napf region, the Töss region, the Toggenburg, parts of the Appenzell region are considered to form the Swiss Alpine foreland in a narrow sense. However, if a division into the three main regions Jura Mountains, Swiss Plateau and Alps is considered, the Alpine foreland belongs to the Swiss Plateau.
In the southwest, the Swiss Plateau is confined by Lake Geneva, in the northeast, by Lake Constance and the Rhine. Geologically, the Swiss Plateau is part of a larger basin that extends beyond the border of Switzerland. At its southwestern end, in France, the plateau, in the Genevois, ends at Chambéry where Jura and Alps meet. At the other side of the Lake Constance, the plateau continues in the Austrian Pre-Alps. Within Switzerland, the Swiss Plateau has a length of about 300 kilometres, its width increases from the west to the east: In the Geneva region, it is about 30 kilometres, at Bern about 50 kilometres and in eastern Switzerland about 70 kilometres. Many cantons of Switzerland include a part in the Swiss Plateau. Situated within the Swiss Plateau are the cantons of Zurich and Geneva; the geological layers of the Swiss Plateau are well known. The base level is crystalline basement which outcrops in the central crystalline Alps as well as in the Black Forest and the Vosges mountain range but forms a deep geosyncline in the Swiss Plateau and in the Jura.
Around 2500 – 3000 metres below the surface, but deeper near the Alps, the drillings have hit the crystalline basement. It is covered by unfolded strata of Mesozoic sediments, its depth decreases from about 2.5 km in the west to 0.8 km in the east. These layers, like the ones of the Jura Mountains, were deposited in a shallow sea, the Tethys Ocean. Above the Mesozoic layers, is the Molasse, consisting of conglomerate, sandstone and shale; the uppermost layer consists of gravel and glacial sediments that have been transported by the glaciers of the ice ages. Geologically the most important layer of the Swiss Plateau is the thick molasse sequence that accumulated at the border of the Alps due to the rapid erosion of the concurrently uplifted mountains; the thickness of the molasse increases from west to east. The former alpine rivers built huge fans of sediment at the foot of the mountains; the most important examples are the Hörnli fan. The eroded material has been sorted by grain size; the coarse material was predominantly deposited near the Alps.
In the middle of the plateau, there are finer sandstones and near the Jura and marl. During the Tertiary orogenic uplift, around 60 – 40 millions years ago, the area of today's Swiss Plateau was a Karst plateau somewhat inclined to the south. Through processes of rising and lowering that were brought by the folding of the Alps, the area was twice flooded by a sea; the corresponding sediments are distinguished as sea molasse and freshwater molasse though the latter consists rather of fluvial and eolian sediments. Lower sea molasse: The limestone plateau subsided and a shallow sea invaded, spreading east to the Carpathian Mountains; the sediments consisted of fine-grained sands and marl. There were no conglomerate fans since the proper Alpine folding began only at the end of that period. Lower freshwater molasse: The sea receded because of uplift, but because of a worldwide lowering of the mean sea level; the initiation of the Alpine orogeny and subsequent folding and uplift resulted in rapid erosion accompanied by deposition of the first conglomerate fans.
Upper sea molasse: For a second time, a shallow sea invaded. The formation of the conglomerate fans of the Napf and of the Hörnli began. Upper freshwater molasse: The sea receded as the formation and of the Napf and Hörnli fans continued. At the end of this period, the thickness reached about 1500 meters. In the following time the western part of the plateau was again risen, so that in this area, the sediments of the upper sweetwater molasse and the upper sea molasse have been eroded. A characteristic of the sea molasses are fossil snails and shark teeth, whereas in th
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
Lötschberg Base Tunnel
The Lötschberg Base Tunnel is a 34.57-kilometre railway base tunnel on the BLS AG's Lötschberg line cutting through the Bernese Alps of Switzerland some 400 m below the existing Lötschberg Tunnel. It runs between Frutigen and Raron, was built as one of the two centerpieces of the NRLA project. Breakthrough was in April 2005 and construction ended in 2006; the opening ceremony was in June 2007 Full scale operation began in December 2007, the link is saturated because a single-track section reduces its capacity. Built to ease lorry traffic on Swiss roads, the LBT allows an increased number of lorries and trailers to be loaded onto trains in Germany, pass through Switzerland on rail and be unloaded in Italy, it cuts down travel time for German tourists going to Swiss ski resorts and puts the Valais into commuting distance to Bern by reducing travel time by 50%. The total cost was SFr 4.3 billion. This and the Gotthard Base Tunnel are the two centerpieces of the Swiss NRLA project. Track construction in the LBT was completed in July 2006.
Extensive testing took place, including more than 1,000 test runs, which focused among other things on the use of the ETCS Level 2 system. For the second half of 2007, only regular freight used the LBT, plus some international and InterCity passenger trains. Since February 2008, the LBT has been used for normal InterCity routes. Travel time between Visp and Spiez is about 28 minutes. Due to the soaring costs of the overall NRLA project, funds were diverted from the Lötschberg tunnel to the Gotthard Base Tunnel; the complete LBT will consist of two single track bores side by side from portal to portal, connected about every 300 m with cross cuts, enabling the other tunnel to be used for escape. From South to North a third of the tunnel is double track, a third is single track with the second bore in place but not equipped, a third is only a single track tunnel with the parallel exploration adit providing the emergency egress; the construction was divided into 3 phases with only phase 1 completed to date: Phase 1: construction of about 75% of the length of the West tube and the complete East tube of the main tunnel, the Engstlige tunnel, the two bridges across the Rhône, the branch bore from Steg.
Tracks are laid in the Eastern tubes of the LBT and Engstlige tunnels, for some 12 km in the western tube of LBT, starting from the South. Phase 2: laying of tracks in the bored but not equipped part of the western tube of LBT, in the western tube of Engstlige tunnel. Phase 3: construction of the remaining 8 km of the western tube, laying tracks on the Steg branch, connection of this branch to the main line Brig-Lausanne, but towards Lausanne. Phases 2 and 3 may be done together. Completing the LBT is estimated to cost 1 billion Swiss francs; the project includes two parallel bridges over the river Rhône in canton Valais, the 2.6 km Engstlige tunnel. A planning contract for phases 2 and 3 was awarded in 2016. About 110 trains per day use the LBT, 66 have to use the old mountain tunnel because the single track section limits the capacity of the base tunnel. Of the 110, 30 are passenger and 80 are freight, including both intermodal freight transport and long-distance heavy freight trains. Heavy freight trains up to a maximum weight of 4,000 tons and a maximum length of 1,500 metres have to use the LBT, as they cannot use the existing mountain track.
The 21 km of single track without passing loops complicate operations, trains are scheduled by batches in each direction separated by long intervals. Regular freight trains: 100 km/h Qualified freight trains: 160 km/h Passenger trains: 200 km/h Tilting passenger trains: 250 km/h The warmth of the water flowing out of the tunnel is used to heat the Tropenhaus Frutigen, a tropical greenhouse producing exotic fruit, sturgeon meat and caviar. Lötschberg Lötschberg Tunnel Simplon Tunnel NRLA List of longest tunnels List of tunnels by location Official project site Official site of the "ARGE Bahntechnik Lötschberg" the general contractor for the railway technology Alptransit Portal of the Swiss Federal Archives Site with a movie documentation about the engineering and the works MSNBC report on the tunnel breakthrough, 28 April 2005 Rail Technology in the Lötschberg Base Tunnel Image Gallery on a contractors site
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva, it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva. Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants; the metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations, it lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics; the Romans built a military camp, which they called Lousanna, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where Vidy and Ouchy are situated.
By the 2nd century AD, it was known in 280 as lacu Lausonio. By 400, it was civitas Lausanna, in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna. After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site, easier to defend; the city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Bishop of Lausanne. It came under Bern from 1536 to 1798, a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely. Official persecution ended in 1787. During the Napoleonic Wars, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, under which it joined the Swiss Federation. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated to Lausanne, settling in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Waste Land. Ernest Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people — such as historian Edward Gibbon and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron — have "sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby"; the city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. Demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, followed by protest against the G8 meetings in 2003; the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges.
Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the Alps. In addition to its southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, covered since the 19th century; the former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre following the course of the present Rue Centrale, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate; the name Flon is used for the metro station located in the gorge. The municipality includes the villages of Vidy, Ouchy, Chailly, La Sallaz, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc and Chalet-à-Gobet as well as the exclave of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of la Côte. Lausanne has an area, as of 2009, of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers.
Of this area, 6.64 km2 or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 or 44.6% is settled, 0.05 km2 or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.0% is unproductive land. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation i
Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern or Berne is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura and the canton of Solothurn to the north. To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais. East of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau; the canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,031,126. As of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners; the cantonal capital the "federal city" of Switzerland, is Bern. Other major cities are Biel/Bienne. Bern joined the Old Swiss Confederation in 1353. Between 1803 and 1814 it was one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation; the earliest traces of a human presence in the area of the modern Canton is found in three caves in the Simmental region. These caves were used at various times during the last ice age; the first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf.
During the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level. Important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental. During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, the Toteisbecken and along rivers. Several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann. In the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, came from one of these villages. Simple copper objects were in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann.
Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development. Settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas; the area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled. Archeological finds include scattered items along mountain passes, a fortified hilltop settlements at Spiezberg, Cholis Grind by Saanen and at Pintel by Wimmis, along with cemeteries at Thun-Allmendingen and Hilterfingen. Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the Early Iron Age changes in climate forced the Hallstatt culture to abandon settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus and hills. With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the cultural influence of the Mediterranean region grew in the area. Evidence of this trade include a hydria, discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time; the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods.
In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by several burials. Several grave mounds combined to become a necropolis, such as at Grossaffoltern, Bannwil, Langenthal and Bützberg. Most of the knowledge about the Hallstatt culture in the Canton comes from graves; the only discovered settlement is around Blanche Church in La Neuveville. The grave goods show that iron was forged into swords, spearheads and wagon accessories. Gold, collected from river sand, was made into diadems and pendants. Thin bronze arm and neck plates with geometric designs were buried in the graves at Allenlüften in Mühleberg, at Ins and at Bützberg; the jewelry, buried included bracelets and rings which were made of jet and lignite coal. At Münchringen, the grave pottery was both shaped by hand or thrown on a potter's wheel, was painted with multi-colored ornamentation; the transition to the Late Iron Age of the La Tène culture is indicated by a sudden change of style in the metalworking and ceramic industries.
Numerous graves, along with the two oppida at Bern-Engehalbinsel and Jensberg by Studen, mark the population centers during the late Iron Age. Gold coins along with bronze coins first start to appear during this era. A sword with Greek characters that said Korisios was found at the Port site. At the oppidum at Bern-Engehalbinsel, there were studios for glass and ceramic production, iron working achieved a high level of skill, along with craftsmen who worked in wood and goldsmithing. There was a nearby place of worship in the Bremgarten wood, cemeteries at Münsingen and Bern-Engehalbinsel. After the Roman era victory at Battle of Bibracte in 58 BCE, the Helvetii were forced to return to their homes as foederati of the Romans. Under increasing Roman influence, the local economy and trade flourished; the main settlements lay on the Central Plateau. The existing roads were expanded the Aventicum-Vindonissa and the Petinesca-Augusta Raurica roads. A fourth alpine pass, the Rawil pass, was added to the traditional three.