The Løgting is the unicameral parliament of the Faroe Islands, an autonomous territory within the Danish Realm. The name means "Law Thing"—that is, a law assembly—and derives from Old Norse lǫgþing, a name given to ancient assemblies. A ting or þing has existed on the Faroe Islands for over a millennium and the Løgting was the highest authority on the islands in the Viking era. From 1274 to 1816 it functioned as a judicial body, whereas the modern Løgting established in 1852 is a parliamentary assembly, which gained legislative power when home rule was introduced in 1948; the Manx Tynwald and the Icelandic Alþing are the two other modern parliaments with ties back to the old Norse assemblies of Europe. Today, the Faroe Islands compromise one constituency, the number of MPs is fixed at 33; the first election with this new system was held on 19 January 2008, after the Election law was changed in late 2007, prior to which the membership of the Løgting varied from 27 to 32. The 7 constituencies had up to 5 supplementary seats.
That Election Act came into force in 1978, the eight general elections between 1978 and 2004 all resulted in 32 members. The Løgting is elected for a period of four years. Election of the Løgting can take place before the end of an election period if the Løgting agrees on dissolving itself; the Løgmaður issues a proclamation of the forthcoming election and appoints the day of election, which must take place, at the earliest, six weeks after the proclamation. The Faroese ting or assembly was a so-called alþing, with both legislative and judicial authority. During this time, there was no executive authority in the country; the Faroese society was a family society, where the families saw to it that the judgments and resolutions of the Løgting were put into practice. There is some evidence that the Faroes were colonized as early as 650; the first inhabitants, who were of Celtic descent, were driven out by Norse landnamsmen in about 825. Faroese society in the Viking Age and the Middle Ages resembled the other Nordic populations in many ways.
This was true when it came to legislation. The most important body of law was the Gulatingslógin, an ancient Norwegian agricultural law which originated in the Gulating legislative area in Vestlandet in Norway; this law was preserved through oral tradition, but it was written down about the year 1100. The Faroese ting is mentioned, for the first time in the Færeyinga saga, as "the assembly", where the chieftains Sigmundur Brestisson and Tróndur í Gøtu met. In 999, Sigmundur introduced Christianity at the ting, located on Tinganes, a peninsula, now the old part of Tórshavn, the capital of the Faroes. In the Viking Age it was a tradition to hold the ting at a neutral and thus uninhabited place, so nobody had an advantage of the location. In fact, there was no settlement at Tinganes to that time, but it was the most central place of the islands. However, the Faroese ting mentioned in this saga must have been a well introduced institution in the 10th century, for it was held each year and is not described as something new or unusual.
Considering this, it is possible that the Faroes were explored earlier than Iceland and had the same Norse rules. It is possible that the Faroese ting is older than that of Iceland, founded in 930; this early Faroese ting was described as the assembly of the "Faroes' best men" who were a free assembly of the wealthier farmers, the Faroes constituted a kind of republic with a population of about 4,000 people and 60,000 sheep. The president of the ting was the Løgsøgumaður; the Viking Age in the Faroes ended in 1035 when Tróndur í Gøtu died and Leivur Øssursson became liege lord under king Magnus I of Norway. Yet, the Faroes remained a kind of self-governing society for the next 150 years; the status of the Faroes changed under king Magnus VI of Norway, who introduced the Norwegian Landslog in 1274. By this time, The Faroese ting had become an assembly of representatives of the 6 local vártings, with only judicial authority; this was called lǫgþing in Old Norse, according to the High Courts of Norway.
Its president, the Løgmaður, was the presiding judge, was, from on, appointed by the king. Its members were called Løgrættumenn, appointed by the King's Provost on the Faroes. On June 24, 1298, the Faroes gained its first form of constitution, the Seyðabrævið: the earliest such document the islands know today. Around 1380, the Faroes, together with Norway, came under the Danish throne, but the islands preserved their special status as former Norwegian territory. Regardless of these developments, the Løgting preserved a certain influence on the legislature and the administration of the islands until the introduction of the absolute monarchy in 1660 under Frederick III. From that date the influence and authority of the Løgting had become again reduced, the institution was abolished in 1816. At the same time, the judicial authority of the Løgting was transferred to other courts, such as the newly inaugurated Court of the Faroes; when Denmark received a free, for that period democratic constitution in 1849, this signalled the end of the special status the Faroes had held within the kingdom of Denmark.
This was enacted without consulting the Faroese population. At that time many of them wished to see the Løgting reinstated, one reason being that they were not satisfied with the situation that the highest Danish government official, called the Amtmaður, was the sole advisory authority on the Faroes on matters of Faroese legi
The naval Battle of Chilcheollyang took place on the night of 28 August 1597. It resulted in the destruction of nearly the entire Korean fleet. Won Gyun set sail for Busan on 17 August with some 200 ships; the Korean fleet arrived near Busan on 20 August in 1597. As the day was about to end, they met a force of 500 to 1,000 Japanese ships arrayed against them. Won Gyun ordered a general attack on the enemy armada, but the Japanese fell back, letting the Koreans pursue. After a few back and forth exchanges, with one chasing the other, one retreating, the Japanese turned around one last time, destroying 30 ships and scattering the Korean fleet. Won's men docked at Gadeok and ran ashore to find water where they were ambushed by 3,000 enemy troops under Shimazu Yoshihiro, they lost several vessels. From Gadeok, Won retreated north and west into the strait between Geoje and the island of Chilchon, Chilchonnyang. Won Gyun retired to his flagship and refused to see anyone; the entire fleet sat in the strait for an entire week.
The Japanese commanders convened on 22 August to plan a joint assault on the Koreans. Shimazu Yoshihiro ferried 2,000 of his men to Geoje, where he arrayed them on the northwest coast, overlooking the Korean fleet below. On the night of 28 August, a Japanese fleet of 500 ships attacked. By dawn, nearly all the Korean ships had been destroyed. Won Gyun could not keep up with his men, he sat down under a pine tree. It is assumed. Yi Eokgi died during the battle and drowned himself. Prior to the destruction on 28 August, Bae Seol shifted 12 ships to an inlet farther down the strait and managed to escape. Bae Seol set fire to the camps at Hansando, he sailed west with the remaining 12 ships, all, left of the Korean navy
Maximilian Morlock was a German footballer active in the 1950s and early 1960s. In his time with the West German national team, he scored 21 goals, his position was that of an inside right forward. In his youth he learned to play football at Eintracht Nürnberg. In 1940 he became a member of the famous 1. FC Nürnberg, debuting in the first team on 30 November 1941; until 1964 he appeared more than 900 times in the first team of the so-called Club and scored about 700 goals. In 1948 and 1961 he led the team in 1962 to the German Cup. 38 years old he appeared 21 times in the founding season of the German Bundesliga. He was top scorer of the Oberliga Süd in 1950–51 and 1951–52, his first cap for the national team was in 1950. He was a member of the West German team that won their first World Cup in 1954. In the final match against Hungary Morlock scored West Germany's first goal to start the comeback after going 2–0 down, he received his last cap in a friendly game against Egypt in December 1958. As a player, Morlock's strengths were a sound technique coupled with fighting spirit.
As a linkman he felt at home best between defense and attack, but he was dangerous in front of the goal. Max Morlock died from cancer in 1994, aged 69. In 1961 he was voted German Footballer of the Year by the Association of German Sports Journalists. In 1995, less than a year after his death, the square in front of the Frankenstadion, home of the 1. FC Nürnberg, was renamed Max-Morlock-Platz in his honour; the stadium's postal address is Max-Morlock-Platz 1. In 2006, a majority of fans voted in favour of renaming the Frankenstadion itself into "Max-Morlock-Stadion", but the city of Nuremberg won a sponsorship deal with a local bank, which included renaming the stadium EasyCredit-Stadion after one of that bank's financial products, his name was used as the stadium's name in July 2017. Max Morlock at fussballdaten.de
David Bradbury is an Australian film maker who began his career in 1972 as an ABC radio journalist, has since produced 21 documentary films, including many that tackle difficult political issues and highlight the plight of the disadvantaged. Bradbury has won many international film festival prizes, received five Australian Film Industry awards, two Academy Award nominations, he graduated from the Australian National University with a degree in political science. Bradbury's first film was a portrait of Australian news cameraman Neil Davis in Vietnam; the film received an Academy Award nomination and won first prize at the Sydney and Melbourne Film Festivals, the Grierson award at the American Film Festival and was screened worldwide. Another of Bradbury's films, Public Enemy Number One, followed the life of controversial Australian journalist Wilfred Burchett, the first western journalist into Hiroshima after the bomb was dropped; the film won the Golden Gate Award for Best Documentary, the Christopher Statuette, Best Documentary at the Sydney Film Festival, an AFI award, but was never shown on Australian TV.
Blowin' In The Wind is about the joint military training facility at Shoalwater Bay near Rockhampton. This film follows on from Shoalwater: Up for Grabs which David worked on with Midnight Oil lead singer Peter Garrett. Blowin' In The Wind looks at some of the health issues surrounding the Shoalwater Bay training facility and the effects of depleted uranium in theatres of war. A Hard Rain is Bradbury’s 2007 documentary feature film that looks at the global nuclear industry from the mining of uranium through to nuclear power, to the radioactive waste and nuclear weapons, it examines the issue of. Bradbury's other films include: 1984: Nicaragua No Pasaran 1985: Chile Hasta Cuando 1987: South of the Border 1988: State of Shock 1993: Nazi Supergrass 1997: Loggerheads 1997: Jabiluka 2007: Survival School 2009: My Asian Heart 2012: On Borrowed Time Best Documentary Film at the 2006 Byron Bay International Film Festival for the movie Blowin' In The Wind. Honorary Mention at the 2011 Byron Bay International Film Festival Best Byron Film at the 2012 Byron Bay International Film Festival for the movie On Borrowed Time.
The seventh USS Niagara was an auxiliary ship of the United States Navy during World War II. Niagara laid down on 14 November 1928 as the steel-hulled civilian yacht Hi-Esmaro by the Bath Iron Works, launched on 7 June 1929, delivered on 20 August, she was purchased by the Navy on 16 October 1940 from Mrs. Hiram Edward Manville of New York City. Converted to a coastal minelayer at the New York Navy Yard, designated CMc-2 on 31 October 1940, the ship was renamed Niagara, on 12 November 1940, reclassified as a patrol gunboat, PG-52 on 15 November 1940, she commissioned at New York on 20 January 1941, Lt. Edwin W. Herron in command. Niagara got underway from New York on 4 February 1941 to tend units of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 2 operating between Miami and Key West and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, she departed Key West on 20 March 1941 for repairs at New York and operations at the Naval Torpedo Station, Rhode Island during the summer. Niagara stood out from New York on 30 August 1941 en route to Hawaii, via Guantanamo Bay, the Panama Canal, San Diego, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 9 October to patrol on the Hawaiian Sea Frontier.
On 29 November she departed as a unit of the escort of a convoy bound to the Fiji Islands. She was at sea with the convoy; the gunboat returned to that port on 15 December, serving as tender to units of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron 1 until 1 April 1942. She escorted a convoy to San Diego en route Coco Solo, Panama Canal Zone, where she tended torpedo boats and helped to guard the approaches to the Panama Canal. During overhaul in the New York Navy Yard in the summer, she fitted out to serve at Newport, Rhode Island, as a school ship for a training squadron of motor torpedo boats, she headed for the Southwest Pacific on 27 November via the Society Islands. En route, on 13 January 1943 Niagara was reclassified as the Navy's first motor torpedo boat tender and redesignated AGP–1. Niagara arrived at Nouméa, New Caledonia on 17 January 1943 and began tending Motor Torpedo Boat Division 23, Squadron 8, she sailed with the division on the 27th and reached her base at Tulagi, Solomon Islands on 17 February.
In ensuing months, she tended the motor torpedo boats running security patrols off Guadalcanal. On 7 April the Japanese raided the Guadalcanal-Tulagi area with 177 planes, of which about 25 were shot down. Two bombs sank the New Zealand corvette HMNZS Moa. Niagara, in the thick of the fight, was north of the harbor, moored to the west bank of the Maliali River, heading downstream with minesweeper Rail tied up outboard well aft. Nine enemy planes came up none of them over 150 feet above the water. Niagara and Rail took them all under fire; the first plane aflame, crashed into trees about 1,000 yards astern of Niagara. The next two planes escaped, but the fourth lost altitude in a stream of white smoke to explode behind the hills to the north; the following two raiders passed within 150 yards and attempted to strafe the ship, but their firing was erratic and they wobbled uncertainly as they passed through Niagara's heavy fire before crashing into the woods off her port quarter The next two planes sheared up and to the right when taken under fire.
One trailed light brown smoke. The other crashed in the hills on her starboard quarter. On 22 May Niagara, with Motor Torpedo Boat Division 23, departed Tulagi headed towards New Guinea; the following morning a high-flying Japanese twin-engined monoplane attacked with four bombs. The ship made a tight starboard turn at maximum speed until the bombs were released swung ship hard to port. Three near-misses to starboard and one to port damaged Niagara's sound gear and the training mechanism of one 3 inch gun and knocked out steering control temporarily. Half an hour when steering control had been regained, six more highflying twin-engine planes dropped a pattern of over a dozen bombs. One hit directly on Niagara's forecastle and several were damaging near-misses. Water rushing through a 14-inch hole 6 feet below her waterline flooded two storerooms, a passageway, her engine room. All power and lighting failed, her main engines stopped. Fire below decks forward was out of control, Niagara listed to port.
Her main engine and steering control were restored 7 minutes after the attack. But her increasing list and imminent danger of explosion of her gasoline storage tanks necessitated the order to "abandon ship." PT–146 and PT–147 came alongside her stern to take off some of Niagara's crew. Others went over her side into boats to be picked up by other motor torpedo boats. Niagara was ablaze from bow to bridge. Flames were spreading aft, ammunition was exploding on deck. Yet, despite her damage, not one of Niagara's 136 officers and men was killed or wounded. PT–147 launched a torpedo which struck Niagara in the gasoline tanks, she exploded with a sheet of flame 300 feet high, went down in less than a minute. The motor torpedo boats landed her crew at Tulagi early the next morning. Niagara received one battle star for World War II service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entries can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Niagara at NavSource Naval History
Chinese BASIC is the name given to several Chinese-localized versions of the BASIC programming language in the early 1980s. At least two versions of Chinese BASIC were modified Applesoft BASIC that accepted Chinese commands and variables, they were built into some Taiwan-made Apple II clones. One of these was shipped with the best-selling Multitech Microprofessor II. Another version was shipped with MiTAC's Little Intelligent Computer. In addition to Apple II clones, Multitech developed a Zilog Z80-based port of the Chinese BASIC for its own line of high-end computers. In a typical Chinese BASIC environment and English commands are interchangeable, it may accept Chinese and Latin alphabet variables. For example, you may use PRINT A in line 50, 印 A in line 200 and? A in line 250, they all do the same thing—to print out the value of A on screen. This program calculates the sum of log + log + log +... + log. The Chinese characters used as variables are the 24 radicals of the Cangjie method, one of the earliest QWERTY keyboard-compatible Chinese input methods.
The author of the example program may have been Chu Bong-Foo, the inventor of the Cangjie method and one of the founding fathers of modern Chinese computing. The significant length of an Applesoft BASIC variable name is restricted to two bytes. Therefore, the variables THISNUMBER and THATNUMBER are treated as the same. In Multitech's Chinese BASIC, a variable can be 3 bytes long. Non-English-based programming languages A page of the Chinese BASIC manual RoboMind: educational programming language in Chinese