The Lüshi Chunqiu known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei. In the evaluation of Michael Carson and Michael Loewe, The Lü shih ch'un ch'iu is unique among early works in that it is well organized and comprehensive, containing extensive passages on such subjects as music and agriculture, which are unknown elsewhere, it is one of the longest of the early texts, extending to something over 100,000 words. The Shiji biography of Lü Buwei has the earliest information about the Lüshi Chunqiu. Lü was a successful merchant from Handan; the king's son Zheng became the first emperor Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC. When Zhuangxiang died in 247 BC, Lü Buwei was made regent for the 13-year-old Zheng. In order to establish Qin as the intellectual center of China, Lü "recruited scholars, treating them generously so that his retainers came to number three thousand". In 239 BC, he, in the words of the Shiji...ordered that his retainers write down all that they had learned and assemble their theses into a work consisting of eight "Examinations," six "Discourses," and twelve "Almanacs," totaling more than 200,000 words.
According to Shiji, Lü exhibited the completed encyclopedic text at the city gate of Xianyang, capital of Qin, above it was a notice offering a thousand measures of gold to any traveling scholar who could add or subtract a single word. The Hanshu Yiwenzhi lists the Lüshi Chunqiu as belonging to the Zajia, within the Philosophers' domain, or Hundred Schools of Thought. Although this text is characterized as "syncretic," "eclectic", or "miscellaneous", it was a cohesive summary of contemporary philosophical thought, including Legalism, Confucianism and Daoism; the title uses chunqiu meaning "annals. The Lüshi Chunqiu text comprises 26 juan in 160 pian, is divided into three major parts; this part, copied as the Liji chapter Yueling, takes many passages from other texts without attribution. The Lan: Books 13–20 each have 8 sections corresponding to the 64 Hexagrams in the Yijing; this is the longest and most eclectic part, giving quotations from many early texts, some no longer extant. The Lun: Books 21–26 deal with rulership, excepting the final four sections about agriculture.
This part resembles the Lan in composition. Composition features, measure of completeness and/or possible corruption of the original Annals have been subjects of scholarly attention, it has been mentioned that the Almanacs have much higher measure of integrity and thematic organization than the other two parts of the text. The "Yu da" 諭大 chapter of the Examinations, for example, contains text identical to the "Wu da" 務大 chapter of the Discourses, though in the first case it is ascribed to "Jizi" 季子, in the second to Confucius. Liang Qichao: "This book, through the course of two thousand years, has had no deletions nor corruptions. Moreover, it has the excellent commentary of Gao You, it is the most perfect and read work among the ancient books."Liang's position, mildly criticized afterwards, was dictated by the lack of canonical status ascribed to the book. Admitting the difficulties of summarizing the Lüshi Chunqiu, John Knoblock and Jeffrey Riegel list 18 major points. Affirmation of self-cultivation and impartiality Rejection of hereditary ruler over the empire Stupidity as the cause of hereditary rule Need for government to honor the concerns of the people The central importance of learning and teachers Support and admiration for learning as the basis of rule Non-assertion on the part of the ruler Primary task for a ruler is to select his ministers Need for a ruler to trust the expertise of his advisers Need for a ruler to practice quiescence The attack on Qin practices Just warfare Respect for civil arts Emphasis on agriculture Facilitating trade and commerce Encouraging economy and conservation Lightening of taxes and duties Emphasis on filial piety and loyalty.
The Lüshi chunqiu is an invaluable compendium of civilization. In Kingdom, the annals were created by Lu himself, using his own coffers, he hired several intellects and other people to formulate these. After releasing it, he challenged other people to edit parts of it, in exchange of rewards. Footnotes Works citedCarson, Michael. "Lü shih ch'un ch'iu 呂氏春秋". In Loewe, Michael. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China. Pp. 324–30. ISBN 1-55729-043-1. Knoblock and Jeffrey Riegel. 2000. The Annals of Lü Buwei: A Complete Translation and Study. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3354-6 Sellmann, James D. 2002. Timing and Rulership in Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals. Albany: State University of New York Press. 呂氏春秋, complete text in Chinese Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋, ChinaKnowledge entry
The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from antiquity until the present time. Until the mid-19th century it was concerned with representational and Classical modes of production, after which time more modern and conceptual forms gained favor. Serving imperial, private and religious patronage, Western painting found audiences in the aristocracy and the middle class. From the Middle Ages through the Renaissance painters worked for the church and a wealthy aristocracy. Beginning with the Baroque era artists received private commissions from a more educated and prosperous middle class; the idea of "art for art's sake" began to find expression in the work of the Romantic painters like Francisco de Goya, John Constable, J. M. W. Turner. During the 19th century commercial galleries became established and continued to provide patronage in the 20th century. Western painting reached its zenith in Europe during the Renaissance, in conjunction with the refinement of drawing, use of perspective, ambitious architecture, stained glass and the period before and after the advent of the printing press.
Following the depth of discovery and the complexity of innovations of the Renaissance, the rich heritage of Western painting continued from the Baroque period to Contemporary art. The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic artists, spans all cultures; the oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, lions, mammoth, or humans hunting. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in France, Spain, China, Australia etc. There are many common themes throughout the different places. Various conjectures have been made as to the meaning these paintings had to the artists who made them. Prehistoric men may have painted animals to "catch" their soul or spirit in order to hunt them more or the paintings may represent an animistic vision and homage to surrounding nature, or they may be the result of a basic need of expression, innate to human beings, or they may be recordings of the life experiences of the artists and related stories from the members of their circle.
Ancient Egypt, a civilization with strong traditions of architecture and sculpture, had many mural paintings in temples and buildings, painted illustrations on papyrus manuscripts. Egyptian wall painting and decorative painting is graphic, sometimes more symbolic than realistic. Egyptian painting depicts figures in bold outline and flat silhouette, in which symmetry is a constant characteristic. Egyptian painting has close connection with its written language --. Painted symbols are found amongst the first forms of written language; the Egyptians painted on linen, remnants of which survive today. Ancient Egyptian paintings survived due to the dry climate; the ancient Egyptians created paintings to make the afterlife of the deceased a pleasant place. The themes included journey through the afterworld or their protective deities introducing the dead to the gods of the underworld; some examples of such paintings are paintings of the gods and goddesses Ra, Anubis, Nut and Isis. Some tomb paintings show activities that the deceased were involved in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity.
In the New Kingdom and the Book of the Dead was buried with the entombed person. It was considered important for an introduction to the afterlife. To the north of Egypt was the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete; the wall paintings found in the palace of Knossos are similar to those of the Egyptians but much more free in style. Around 1100 BC, tribes from the north of Greece conquered its art took a new direction; the culture of ancient Greece is noteworthy for its outstanding contributions to the visual arts. Painting on pottery of ancient Greece and ceramics gives a informative glimpse into the way society in ancient Greece functioned. Many fine examples of black-figure vase painting and red-figure vase painting still exist; some famous Greek painters who worked on wood panels and are mentioned in texts are Apelles and Parrhasius. Zeuxis was said to be the first to use sfumato. According to Pliny the Elder, the realism of his paintings was such that birds tried to eat the painted grapes.
Apelles is described as the greatest painter of antiquity, is noted for perfect technique in drawing, brilliant color, modeling. Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting. However, Roman painting does have important unique characteristics. Surviving Roman paintings include wall paintings and frescoes, many from villas in Campania, in Southern Italy at sites such as Pompeii and Herculaneum; such painting can be grouped into 4 main "styles" or periods and may contain the first examples of trompe-l'œil, pseudo-perspective, pure landscape. The only painted portraits surviving from the ancient world are a large number of coffin-portraits of bust form found in the Late Antique cemetery of Al-Fayum. Although these were neither of the best period nor the highest quality, they are impressive in themselves, g
William Cragh, was a medieval Welsh warrior and supporter of Rhys ap Maredudd, lord of the lands of Ystrad Tywi, in his rebellion against King Edward I of England. Captured in 1290 by the son of William de Briouze, the Cambro-Norman Lord of Gower, he was tried and found guilty of having killed thirteen men. Cragh was executed just outside Swansea within sight of de Briouze's Swansea Castle, twice, as the gallows collapsed during his first hanging. Lady Mary de Briouze decided for reasons unknown to intercede on Cragh's behalf, prayed to the deceased Bishop of Hereford, Thomas de Cantilupe, requesting him to ask God to bring Cragh back from the dead. Cragh began to show signs of life the day after his execution, over the subsequent few weeks made a full recovery, living for at least another eighteen years; the main primary source for Cragh's story is the record of the investigation into the canonisation of Thomas de Cantilupe, held in the Vatican Library. Cragh's resurrection was one of thirty-eight miracles presented to the papal commissioners who in 1307 were charged with examining the evidence for Cantilupe's saintliness.
The hanged man himself gave evidence to the commission. Cantilupe was formally canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320. William Cragh was born in about 1262 in the Welsh parish of Llanrhidian, Gower, to Rhys ap Gwilym and his wife Swanith. Between 1282 and 1283 King Edward I of England waged a military campaign in Wales that concluded with his annexation of that country. One of Edward's allies, Rhys ap Maredudd, found the post-war settlement unsatisfactory and launched a rebellion against the king in 1287. Edward's vastly superior forces soon crushed the uprising, but Rhys ap Maredudd remained at liberty until his capture and execution in 1292. Cragh took part in the rebellion on the Welsh side, he was apprehended in 1290 by the son of William de Briouze, the Lord of Gower, defending his father's lands against incursions by the rebels still at large. Cragh was one of 14 prisoners captured by de Briouze, he was taken to Swansea Castle, where he was held in the dungeons awaiting trial, accused of killing 13 men.
The law in Wales at that time permitted condemned men to atone for their crimes by making a payment to their victims. Cragh's friends and family rallied round to offer 100 cows to de Briouze for his release, but the offer was refused; the substantial scale of the proposed compensation indicates that Cragh was an important man, although some witnesses described him as a thief rather than a rebel. Historian Jussi Hanska has suggested that de Briouze's refusal to accept the offer strengthens the case for Cragh being a rebel, as there is no other convincing reason to explain why he should have opted to "decline good income just to hang a thief". Cragh pleaded innocence of the charges against him, but he was found guilty and sentenced to be hanged. Cragh was hanged on a hill about a quarter of a mile outside Swansea, in sight of de Briouze's Swansea Castle, on Monday 27 November 1290, he was executed along with Trahaern ap Hywel. Although the latter was dealt with by the town executioner, Cragh was hanged by one of his own relatives, Ythel Fachan, forced into that service by de Briouze.
Trahaern ap Hywel was a large and powerful man who struggled a great deal as he was hauled up from the ground by his neck, causing the crossbeam of the gallows to break. Although the executioner, John of Baggeham, considered both men to be dead when they fell to the ground they were hanged again, "as an insult to their kin", because it was the usual custom that hanged men could not be removed from the gallows without the lord's permission; the execution took place early in the morning, the two men were left swinging from the gallows. John of Baggeham reported that he cut down Cragh's body at about 4:00 pm and sent it into the town at the request of William de Briouze's wife, Lady Mary, it is unclear what became of Trahaern ap Hywel. The younger William de Briouze visited the house in Swansea to which Cragh's corpse had been taken that evening, what he saw convinced him Cragh was dead. Describing the scene some years he recalled that:His face was black and in parts bloody or stained with blood.
His eyes had come out of their sockets and hung outside the eyelids and the sockets were filled with blood. His mouth and throat and the parts around them, his nostrils, were filled with blood, so that it was impossible in the natural course of things for him to breathe... his tongue hung out of his mouth, the length of a man's finger, it was black and swollen and as thick with the blood sticking to it that it seemed the size of a man's two fists together. Witnesses reported that Cragh had voided his bowels and bladder while hanging from the gallows, considered at that time to be a sign of death. Historian Robert Bartlett has commented that "one of the largest uncertainties in the whole story of the death and resurrection of William Cragh is why Lady Mary interceded for him", but intercede she did. John of Baggeham, when questioned about her motivation 18 years after the event, could only reply that "Lady Mary had sought the body of this William, he did not know why". Before the execution she had asked her husband to spare the two condemned men.
On hearing that Trahaern ap Hywel was dead, believing Cragh was still alive, she once again asked that he be handed over to her, but de Briouze delayed until he was convinced that Cragh was dead. "he granted him to the said lady, such as he was, ord
Laredo is a city in and the county seat of Webb County, United States, on the north bank of the Rio Grande in South Texas, across from Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. Laredo has the distinction of flying seven flags. Founded in 1755, Laredo grew from a village to the capital of the brief Republic of the Rio Grande to the largest inland port on the Mexico–United States border. Laredo's economy is based on international trade with Mexico. Many major transportation companies have a facility in Laredo; the city is on the southern end of I-35 which makes it close to the manufacturers in northern Mexico. It has one railway bridge. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 236,091, making it the tenth-most populous city in the state of Texas and third-most populated on the Mexico–United States border, after San Diego, El Paso, Texas, its metropolitan area is the 178th-largest in the U. S. and includes all of Webb County, with a population of 250,304. Laredo is part of the cross-border Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with an estimated population of 636,516.
Because Laredo is 95.6% Hispanic and Latino, it is one of the least ethnically diverse cities in the United States. When economic and social diversity are considered, Laredo is the 19th-least diverse of the 313 largest cities in the nation. Texas A&M International University and Laredo College are in Laredo. Laredo International Airport is within the Laredo city limits, while the Quetzalcoatl International Airport is nearby in Nuevo Laredo on the Mexican side; the biggest festival, Washington's Birthday Celebration, is held during the part of January and the majority of February, attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists. The European colonial settlement of Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was founded in 1755 by Don Tomás Sánchez Barrera while the area was part of the Nuevo Santander region in the Spanish colony of New Spain. Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was named after Laredo, Spain and in honor of Saint Augustine of Hippo. In 1840, Laredo was the capital of the independent Republic of the Rio Grande, set up in opposition to Antonio López de Santa Anna.
In 1846 during the Mexican–American War, the town was occupied by the Texas Rangers. After the war, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ceded the land to the United States. A referendum was taken in the town, which voted to petition the American military government in charge of the area to return the town to Mexico; when this petition was rejected, many, in the area for generations, moved across the river into Mexican territory, where they founded Nuevo Laredo. Many others original land grantees on the north side of the Rio Grande River remained, becoming Texans in the process. In 1849, the United States Army set up Fort McIntosh. Laredo was rechartered as a city in 1852. Laredo is one of the oldest crossing points along the Mexico–United States border, the nation's largest inland port of entry. In 2005, Laredo celebrated the 250th anniversary of its founding; the origin of name of the original Spanish town of Laredo is unclear. Some scholars say the name stems from Glaretum which means "sandy, rocky place".
Others state Laredo stems from a Basque word meaning "beautiful pastures". Laredo might stem from the Latin Larida which means gull. In 1946, the Plaza Theater opened in downtown Laredo, but it closed in 1999, when the municipal government purchased the property from United Artists. In 2001, the Laredo City Council authorized a feasibility study to determine what use the old theater might yet have. In 2003, a consultant recommended converting the Plaza into a multi-purpose performing arts center, with dance recitals, live theater, occasional films. In 2006, the city received an economic development grant for renovation of the Plaza. By 2008, renovations were made to the theater blade design. In 2011, a public-private partnership was attempted by two Laredo businessmen, Danny Lopez, Jr. and Victor Trevino, Jr. but that initiative never materialized. In 2018, the city council authorized the solicitation of private entities and non-profit organizations to operate the theater; the council is seeking input from architects for the concept and design of renovations to the structure.
In 1954, Laredo faced a devastating Rio Grande flood, when the water reached 61.35 feet, more than 10 feet higher than in the previous 1932 flood, which had caused great damage. According to Laredo historian Jerry D. Thompson of Texas A&M International University, the 1954 flood was "the largest in ninety-one years and the second largest according to archeological records in the last three hundred years." Many were left homeless for a time because of the calamity. Former Webb County administrative Judge Mercurio Martinez, Jr. recalls his father surveyed the depth of the water and advised residents to evacuate. Several downtown businesses had to remove their merchandise inventory or risk losing it to the rising waters; the flood caused the relocation of the Holding Institute. The international bridge was destroyed when it was struck by the floating railroad bridge, hit by the debris of another bridge in Eagle Pass up the river. Photos of the flood by Teofilo Esquivel, Sr. are on the wall of a Danny's Restaurant on McPherson Avenue in Laredo.
Reverend Dr John Fraser was an Australian ethnologist, school headmaster and author of many scholarly works. He is known for his revised and expanded version of Lancelot Threlkeld's 1834 work, An Australian Grammar, with the new title An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie being an account of their language and customs / by L. E. Threlkeld. In this, Fraser created new divisions and terminology for some Aboriginal groups in New South Wales. Fraser was educated at the University of Edinburgh, he settled at Maitland, New South Wales. In 1861 he was appointed rector of the Presbyterian Maitland High School, before going on to establish his own school, known as Sauchie House. There he remained as headmaster for about 20 years. Apart from being an advocate of Christian missions, Fraser was an ethnologist and linguist, with a particular interest in Australian Aboriginal languages, his book, The Aborigines of New South Wales, won the 1882 Royal Society of New South Wales Prize, he wrote numerous scholarly articles and books.
The work which won him most recognition was his much expanded and authoritative edition of L. E. Threlkeld's grammar of An Australian Grammar. Fraser's revised edition, containing much original material based on his own research, was published in 1892 as An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie being an account of their language and customs / by L. E. Threlkeld. In the preface, Fraser writes: "...but we have now come to know that this dialect was the same as that spoken by the sub-tribes occupying the land where Sydney now stands, that they all formed part of one great tribe, the Kuriggai". The book included a "Map of New South Wales as occupied by the native tribes", accompanied by descriptions and names decided upon by Fraser after "ten years' thought and inquiry on the location of our native tribes". In the text accompanying his map, Fraser writes: His major work was not without its critics. Historian Niel Gunson wrote in 1974 that the work was "hampered by his peculiar theories of racial and linguistic origin".
Anthropologist and ethnologist Norman Tindale wrote that there was such a He goes on to list the Bangarang. H. Mathews, A. W. Howitt and John Mathew as promulgators of the "nations" concept. Tindale refers to Kuringgai as an "arbitrary term...applied by Fraser", the Awabakal being the central tribe of the several to which Fraser applied the group term. The contents of Threlkeld's work are as follows: Introductory remarks Part 1: Pronunciation and Orthography Part 2: The parts of speech Part 3: Vocabulary and illustrations The contents of Fraser's edition are as follows: Frontispiece: Map of New South Wales as occupied by the native tribes The illustrations Introduction Part 1. An Australian grammar: comprehending the principles and natural rules of the language, as spoken by the aborigines, in the vicinity of Hunter's River, Lake Macquarie, &c. New South Wales / L. E. Threlkeld A key to the structure of the aboriginal language: being an analysis of the particles used as affixes, to form the various modifications of the verbs.
New South wales / L. E. Threlkeld Part 2; the gospel by St. Luke translated into the language of the Awabakal / L. E. Threlkeld Part 3. An Awabakal-English lexicon to the gospel according to Saint Luke / L. E. Threlkeld Part 4. Appendix A. A short grammar and vocabulary of the dialect spoken by the Minyung people of the north-east coast of New South Wales / H. Livingstone B. Grammar of the language spoken by the Narrinyeri tribe in S. Australia / G. Taplin C. Grammar of the language spoken by the aborigines of Western Australia D. Grammar and vocabulary of the aboriginal dialect called the Wirradhuri E. Prayers in the Awabakal dialect F. Gurre Kamilaroi'Kamilaroi sayings' G. Specimens of a dialect of the aborigines of New South Wales: being the first attempt to form their speech into a written language. Fraser died in the New Hebrides in May 1904. Trove list of works
Aquaculture in Vanuatu exists on a small scale, both commercially and privately. Several aquacultural efforts have been made in the country, including attempts to raise Pacific oyster, Malaysian prawn, tilapia. Experiments with Kappaphycus alvarezii and three species of giant clam were carried out by the Fisheries Department in 1999; the official Fisheries Department records state that $1165 US of cultured coral was exported from the country in 2000, with 275 pieces in total. The cultivation of Macrobrachium lar in taro terraces is practiced for subsistence purposes, Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been identified by the Vanuatu government as a high-priority species. There is little private-sector aquaculture in Vanuatu; the Fisheries Department operates a small hatchery for trochus shell, producing juveniles which are used in experiments to study the impact and potential of reef re-seeding as a means of enhancement the wild trochus fishery. Similar experimental work on green snail is carried out.
In mid-1999 the Fisheries Department carried out some spawning trials of three specieis of giant clams. In the same year the Department brought seaweed from Fiji for some experimental culture. On September 1, 2008, Vanuatu became the first Pacific Island country to have an aquaculture development plan and an Aquaculture and Fisheries Association. Fishing in Vanuatu