Baia County is one of the historic counties of Moldavia, Romania. The county seat was Fălticeni. In 1938, the county was disestablished and incorporated into the newly formed Ținutul Prut, but it was re-established in 1940 after the fall of Carol II's regime - only to be abolished 10 years by the Communist regime. Baia County was located in Moldavia; the territory that comprised Baia County is now included in the Suceava County, Iași County and Neamț County. In the interwar period, the county neighbored Câmpulung and Suceava counties to the north, Botoșani to the northeast, Iași to the east, Roman to the south, Neamț counties to the west. Administratively, Baia County was divided into three districts: Plasa Moldova, headquartered at Baia Plasa Pașcani, headquartered at Pașcani Plasa Siret, headquartered at LespeziSubsequently, Plasa Moldova district was divided into two new districts: Plasa Boroaia, headquartered at Boroaia Plasa Mălini, headquartered at Mălini According to the 1930 census data, the county population was 157,501 inhabitants, consisting of 91.8% Romanians, 4.8% Jews, 1.2% Romanies, 0.6% Germans, as well as other minorities.
As a mother tongue 93.5% spoke Romanian, 3.7% Yiddish, 0.7% Romany, 0.6% German, as well as other minorities. From a religious point of view, the population consisted of 92.9% Eastern Orthodox, 4.9% Jewish, 1.0% Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities. In 1930, the county's urban population was ethnically 76.6% Romanian, 19.7% Jewish, 1.3% German, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population had the following structure: 76.5% Eastern Orthodox, 20.3% Jewish, 2.4% Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities. Baia County on memoria.ro
Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. About two thirds of Bessarabia lies within modern-day Moldova, with the Ukrainian Budjak region covering the southern coastal region and part of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi Oblast covering a small area in the north. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, the ensuing Peace of Bucharest, the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal, along with some areas under direct Ottoman rule, were ceded to Imperial Russia; the acquisition was among the Empire's last territorial acquisitions in Europe. The newly acquired territories were organised as the Governorate of Bessarabia, adopting a name used for the southern plains, between the Dniester and the Danube rivers. Following the Crimean War, in 1856, the southern areas of Bessarabia were returned to Moldavian rule. In 1917, in the wake of the Russian Revolution, the area constituted itself as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, an autonomous republic part of a proposed federative Russian state.
Bolshevik agitation in late 1917 and early 1918 resulted in the intervention of the Romanian Army, ostensibly to pacify the region. Soon after, the parliamentary assembly declared independence, union with the Kingdom of Romania; the legality of these acts was however disputed, most prominently by the Soviet Union, which regarded the area as a territory occupied by Romania. In 1940, after securing the assent of Nazi Germany through the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union pressured Romania, under threat of war, into withdrawing from Bessarabia, allowing the Red Army to annex the region; the area was formally integrated into the Soviet Union: the core joined parts of the Moldavian ASSR to form the Moldavian SSR, while territories inhabited by Slavic majorities in the north and the south of Bessarabia were transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Axis-aligned Romania recaptured the region in 1941 with the success of Operation München during the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, but lost it in 1944 as the tide of war changed.
In 1947, the Soviet-Romanian border along the Prut was internationally recognised by the Paris Treaty that ended World War II. During the process of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Moldavian and Ukrainian SSRs proclaimed their independence in 1991, becoming the modern states of Moldova and Ukraine, while preserving the existing partition of Bessarabia. Following a short war in the early 1990s, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was proclaimed in the Transnistria, extending its authority over the municipality of Bender on the right bank of Dniester river. Part of the Gagauz-inhabited areas in the southern Bessarabia was organised in 1994 as an autonomous region within Moldova. According to the traditional explanation, the name Bessarabia derives from the Wallachian Basarab dynasty, who ruled over the southern part of the area in the 14th century; some scholars question this, claiming that: the name was an exonym applied by Western cartographers it was first used in local sources only in the late 17th century.
According to Dimitrie Cantemir, the name Bessarabia applied only to the part of the territory south of the Upper Trajanic Wall, i.e. an area only bigger than present-day Budjak. The region is bounded by the Dniester to the north and east, the Prut to the west and the lower River Danube and the Black Sea to the south, it has an area of 45,630 km2. The area is hilly plains with flat steppes, it is fertile, has lignite deposits and stone quarries. People living in the area grow sugar beet, wheat, tobacco, wine grapes and fruit, they raise sheep and cattle. The main industry in the region is agricultural processing; the region's main cities are Chișinău, Izmail and Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi called Cetatea Albă / Akkerman. Other towns of administrative or historical importance include: Khotyn and Kilia, Lipcani, Soroca, Bălți, Ungheni, Bender/Tighina and Cahul. In the late 14th century, the newly established Principality of Moldavia encompassed what became known as Bessarabia. Afterwards, this territory was directly or indirectly or wholly controlled by: the Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire, the USSR.
Since 1991, most of the territory forms the core of Moldova, with smaller parts in Ukraine. The territory of Bessarabia has been inhabited by people for thousands of years. Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished between the 6th and 3rd millennium BC. In Antiquity the region was inhabited by Thracians, as well as for shorter periods by Cimmerians, Scythians and Celts by tribes such as the Costoboci, Britogali and Bastarnae. In the 6th century BC
Bălți County (Romania)
Bălți County was a county in the Kingdom of Romania between 1925 and 1938, with the seat at Bălți. The county was located in the northern part of Bessarabia, its territory now belongs to the Republic of Moldova, covering the territory of Moldova's Bălți County, which existed between 1998-2003. The county neighboured the counties of Soroca to the east, Orhei to the south-east, Lăpușna, Iași to the south-west, Botoșani to the north-east, Hotin to the north; the county was administratively subdivided into three districts: Plasa Fălești, headquartered at Fălești Plasa Râșcani, headquartered at Râșcani Plasa Slobozia, headquartered at SloboziaLater, Bălți County was reorganized from the administrative point of view. The number of districts increased to six, by abolishing Plasa Slobozia and creating four new districts: Plasa Bălți, headquartered at Bălți Plasa Cornești, headquartered at Cornești Plasa Glodeni, headquartered at Glodeni Plasa Sângerei, headquartered at SângereiAt the census of Autumn 1941, the county had the following administrative organization: Municipality of Bălți Plasa Bălți, headquartered at Bălți Plasa Cornești, headquartered at Cornești Plasa Fălești, headquartered at Fălești Plasa Glodeni, headquartered at Glodeni Plasa Râșcani, headquartered at Râșcani According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 386,721, of which 70.1% were ethnic Romanians, 12.0% Russians, 8.2% Jews, 7.6% Ukrainians, as well as other minorities.
From the religious point of view 89.3% of the population was Eastern Orthodox, 8.3% Jewish, 0.8% Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities. In the year 1930, the county's urban population was 30,570, of which 46.5% were ethnic Jews, 29.0% Romanians, 17.7% Russians, 3.2% Poles, as well as other minorities. In the urban area the mother tongues were divided as follows: Yiddish, followed by Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, as well as other minorities. From a religious point of view, the urban population consisted of 47.1% Eastern Orthodox, 46.6% Jewish, 4.1% Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities. Census data of 1941 - during World War II - indicate the county's population was 407,930, of which 80.44% were ethnic Romanians, 14.38% Ukrainians, 3.11% Russians, 0.78% Poles, 0.72% Jews, as well as other minorities. After the 1938 Administrative and Constitutional Reform, this county merged with the counties of Bacău, Botoșani, Iași, Neamț, Roman and Vaslui to form Ținutul Prut; the area county of the county was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 and became part of the Moldavian SSR.
The area returned to Romanian administration following the Axis Powers' invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1941. A military administration was established and the region's Jewish population was either executed on the spot or deported to Transnistria, where further numbers were killed; as the Soviet Union's offensive pushed the Axis powers back, the area again was under Soviet control. On September 12, 1944, Romania signed the Moscow Armistice with the Allies; the Armistice, as well as the subsequent peace treaty of 1947, confirmed the Soviet-Romanian border as it was on January 1, 1941. The area of the county, along with the rest of the Moldavian SSR, became part of the independent country of Moldova. Bălți County on memoria.ro
Alba County is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, its capital city being Alba-Iulia with a population of 63,536. "Alba", meaning "white" in Latin and Romanian, is derived from the name of the city of Alba Iulia. In Hungarian, the county is known as Fehér megye, in German as Kreis Karlsburg. In October 31, 2011, it had a population of 327,224 and the population density was 52/km². Romanians - 89.9% Hungarians - 4.8% Romani - 4.7% Germans - 0.2% This county has a total area of 6,242 km², with mountains occupying about 59% of its surface. In the northwestern part there are the Apuseni Mountains, in the southern part there is the northeastern side of the Parâng group - Șureanu and Cindrel Mountains. In the east there is the Transylvanian Plateau with wide valleys; the three main elements are separated by the Mureș River valley. The main rivers are the Mureș River and its tributaries, the Târnava, the Sebeș and the Arieș. Sibiu County and Mureș County in the East. Bihor County and Arad County in the West.
Cluj County in the North. Hunedoara County in the South-West; the predominant industries in the county are: Food industry. Textile industry. Wood industry. Mechanical components. Paper and packaging materials industry. Chemical industry; the mineral resources exploited in Alba county are metals and construction materials: marble, etc. The main tourist attractions in the county are: The city of Alba Iulia; the Apuseni Mountains. Scărișoara Karst Complex. Maidens' Fair on the Găina Mountain. "The Hill With Snails" west of Vidra. Barren Detunata and Shaggy Detunata The Câlnic Castle and the Castle of Gârbova; the Towns and Churches of Sebeș and Aiud. The Ocna Mureș Resort; the Țara Moților ethnographical area. Situated in the Apuseni Mountains, Țara Moților is a region with strong Romanian traditions. Rosia Montana Mining Cultural Landscape - Mining began 2000 years ago on Mt. Kirnik, with well-preserved Roman galleries. A Canadian company attempted an open-pit mine, but abandoned the project around 2007. Roșia Montană is a famous locality among mineral collectors for fine native gold specimens.
The Alba County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 33 counselors, with the following party composition: Alba County has 4 municipalities, 7 towns and 67 communes. Municipalities Aiud Alba Iulia - county seat. After the administrative unification law in 1925, the name of the county changed to Alba County and the territory was reorganized, it was bordered on the west by Hunedoara County, to the north by Turda County, to the east by the counties of Sibiu and Târnava-Mică. Its territory included the central part of the current Alba County; the county consisted of seven districts: Plasa Abrud Plasa Aiud Plasa Ighiu Plasa Ocna Mureș Plasa Sebeș Plasa Teiuș Plasa Vințu de Jos Subsequently, Plasa Ighiu was abolished and two other districts were established, leaving these: Plasa Abrud Plasa Aiud Plasa Alba Iulia Plasa Ocna Mureș Plasa Sebeș Plasa Teiuș Plasa Vințu de Jos Plasa Zlatna There were four towns: Alba-Iulia, Abrud and Sebeș. According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 212,749, of which 81.5% were Romanians, 11.3% Hungarians, 3.6% Germans, 1.8% Romanies, 1.4% Jews, as well as other minorities.
In the religious aspect, the population consisted of 50.1% Eastern Orthodox, 31.6% Greek Catholics, 7.5% Reformed, 3.4% Roman Catholics, 3.3% Evangelical, 1.2% Unitarians, other minorities. In 1930, the urban population of the county was 33,365, of which 58.8% were Romanians, 23.0% Hungarians, 8.2% Germans, 6.2% Jews, 1.6% Romanies, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population was made up of 38.3% Eastern Orthodox, 21.4% Greek Catholic, 14.7% Reformed, 7.2% Evangelical, 6.5% Jewish, as well as other minorities. After the 1938 Administrative and Constitutional Reform, this county merged with the counties of Ciuc, Sibiu, Târnava Mare, Târnava Micǎ to form Ținutul Mureș; the county was re-established in 1940, but dissolved again in 1950. It was re-established in 1968 in its current borders. Notable natives include: Ion Agârbiceanu Lucian Blaga Avram Iancu Alba County on memoria.ro
Bihor County is a county of Romania, in Crișana. Its capital city is Oradea; the origin of the name Bihor is uncertain, except that it takes its name from an ancient fortress in the current commune of Biharia. It came from vihor, the Serbian word for "whirlwind", or Slavic biela hora, meaning "white mountain." Another theory is that Biharea is of Daco-Thracian etymology meaning two possessions of land in the Duchy of Menumorut. Another theory is that the name comes from the Romanian term for aurochs; the animal once inhabited the lands of northwestern Romania. Under this controversial theory, the name changed from buar to Bihar and Bihor. In 2002, Bihor had a population of 600,246 and the population density was 79.56/km². 48.6% of its population lives in urban areas, lower than the Romanian average. Romanians - 67.38% Hungarians - 25.96% Roma - 5.01% Slovaks - 1.22% Germans - 0.19%On 31 October 2011, Bihor had a population of 575,398 and the population density was 72/km2.< Romanians – 66.96% Hungarians – 25.27% Roma – 6.33% Slovaks – 1.1% Germans – 0.13% 99.4% of the county's population are Christian and of these: Romanian Orthodox – 59.7% Reformed – 18.1%.
In the East side of the County there are the Apuseni Mountains with heights up to 1,800 m. The heights decrease westwards, passing through the hills an ending in the Romanian Western Plain – the eastern side of the Pannonian plain; the county is the Criș hydrographic basine with the rivers Crișul Repede, Crișul Negru and Barcău the main rivers. Sălaj County, Cluj County and Alba County in the East. Hungary in the West – Hajdú-Bihar County. Satu Mare County in the North. Arad County in the South. Prior to World War I, the territory of the county belonged to Austria-Hungary and was contained in the Bihar County of the Kingdom of Hungary; the territory of Bihor County was transferred to Romania from Hungary as successor state to Austria-Hungary in 1920 under the Treaty of Trianon. After the administrative unification law in 1925, the name of the county remained as it was, but the territory was reorganized. In 1938, King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed.
10 ținuturi were created to be ruled by rezidenți regali - appointed directly by the King - instead of the prefects. Bihor County became part of Ținutul Crișuri. In 1940, part of the county was transferred back to Hungary with the rest of Northern Transylvania under the Second Vienna Award. Beginning in 1944, Romanian forces with Soviet assistance recaptured the ceded territory and reintegrated it into Romania. Romanian jurisdiction over the entire county per the Treaty of Trianon was reaffirmed in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947; the county was disestablished by the communist government of Romania in 1950, re-established in 1968 when Romania restored the county administrative system. Bihor is one of the wealthiest counties in Romania, with a GDP per capita well above the national average; the economy has been driven by a number of construction projects. Bihor has the lowest unemployment rate in Romania and among the lowest in Europe, with only 2.4% unemployment, compared to Romania's average of 5.1%.
The predominant industries in the county are: Textile industry. Food and beverages industry. Mechanical components industry. Metallurgy. In the west side of the county there are mines for extracting bauxite. Crude oil is extracted; the main tourist attractions in the county are: The city of Oradea. The Apuseni Mountains: The Stâna de Vale Resort and the Iada valley; the Caves around on the Sighiștel River Valley. The Bear's Cave. Băile Felix Resort; the coat of arms of Bihor County was adopted in 1998, is a quarterly shield featuring a castle, five wheat stalks with a ribbon, a scroll with the text of Deșteaptă-te, române!, covered with a fess featuring three fish. It was subject to redesign in 2013 after it was discovered by a local teacher that the text on the scroll was erroneously written in Greek, rather than Cyrillic or the Latin alphabet; the county has no significant history with Greece. The Bihor County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 35 counselors, with the following party composition: Bihor County has four municipalities, six towns and 91 communes.
Municipalities Beiuș Marghita Oradea – capital city.
Iași County is a county of Romania, in Moldavia, with the administrative seat at Iași. It is the most populous county in Romania, after the Municipality of Bucharest; this county has a total area of 5,476 km². It lies on a plain between the Prut River. Two other rivers run through the county: the Bahlui River and the Jijia River. Republic of Moldova to the east - Ungheni District. Neamț County to the west. Botoșani County and Suceava County to the northwest. Vaslui County to the south; as of 20 October 2011 census, Iași County had a population of 772,348. On the other hand, according to the 2012 data provided by the County Population Register Service, the total registered population of the county is as high as 873,662 people. Romanians - 97.61% Romani - 1.55% Lipovans - 0.39% Others - 0.3%The population of Iași County today is nearly double what it was sixty years ago. The Iași County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 37 counselors, with the following party composition: This county is predominantly agricultural, due to its topography.
Industry is concentrated in the cities. The principal industries are: Software Pharmaceuticals Automotive Metallurgy and heavy-equipment manufacturing Electronics & Electrotechnics Textiles Food production City of Iași is the most important city in Moldavia and one of the most important social and business centres in Romania, it has the oldest University in the country, until the formation of the United Principalities, it was the capital of Moldavia. Some of the tourist destinations in the county: City of Iași and its environs. Iași County has 2 municipalities, 3 towns, 93 communes Municipalities Iași - population: 290,422 Pașcani - population: 33,745 Towns Hârlău Podu Iloaiei Târgu Frumos The county was located in the northeastern part of Greater Romania, in the northeast of the region of Moldavia. Today, most of the territory of the former county is part of the current Iași County. In the eastern part of the county, the county included a part of the left bank of the Prut River, now in the territory of the Republic of Moldova.
It was bordered to the north by the counties of Botoșani and Bălți, to the east by Lăpușna County, to the south by the counties of Fălciu and Vaslui, to the west by the counties of Roman and Baia. In 1938, the county was divided into six districts: Plasa Bahlui, headquartered at Podu Iloaiei Plasa Cârligătura, headquartered at Târgu Frumos Plasa Codru, headquartered at Buciumii Plasa Copou, headquartered at Iași Plasa Turia, headquartered at Șipotele Plasa Ungheni, headquartered at Ungheni-Târg, now the city of Ungheni in the Republic of MoldovaIasi County included two urban localities: Iaşi and urban commune Târgu Frumos, located at the western border of the county. According to the 1930 census data, the county population was 275,796 inhabitants, 81.6% Romanians, 14.6% Jews, 0.6% Russians, 0.5% Hungarians, 0.4% Germans, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the population was 82.0% Eastern Orthodox, 14.9% Jewish, 2.3% Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities. In 1930, the county's urban population was 107,804 inhabitants, 102,872 in Iaşi and 4,932 in Târgu Frumos, comprising 60.8% Romanians, 33.6% Jews, 0.9% Germans, 0.9% Russians, as well as other minorities.
In the urban area, languages were Romanian, followed by Yiddish, German, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population was composed of Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities. Iași County - A brief history at agerpres.ro Iasi - the county of centuries-old trees
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio