L'Aquila is a city and comune in Central Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila. As of 2013, it has a population of 70,967 inhabitants. Laid out within medieval walls on a hill in the wide valley of the Aterno river, it is surrounded by the Apennine Mountains, with the Gran Sasso d'Italia to the north-east. L'Aquila sits upon a hillside in the middle of a narrow valley. A maze of narrow streets, lined with Baroque and Renaissance buildings and churches, open onto elegant piazzas. Home to the University of L'Aquila, it is a lively college town and, as such, has many cultural institutions: a repertory theatre, a symphony orchestra, a fine-arts academy, a state conservatory, a film institute. There are several ski resorts in the surrounding province. Close to the highest of the Apennine summits, L'Aquila is positioned at an elevation of 721 metres in the Valley of the Aterno-Pescara, situated between four mountain peaks above 2,000 metres; the mountains block the city off from warm humid air currents from the Mediterranean, give rise to a climate, cool in comparison to most of central Italy, dry.

It has been said that the city enjoys each year one cool one. L'Aquila is 100 kilometres east-northeast of Rome, with which it is connected by an autostrada through the mountains; the city's construction was begun by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, out of several existing villages, as a bulwark against the power of the papacy. The name of Aquila means "Eagle" in Italian. Construction was completed in 1254 under Conrad IV of Germany; the name was switched to Aquila degli Abruzzi in 1861, L'Aquila in 1939. After the death of Conrad, the city was destroyed by his brother Manfred in 1259, but soon rebuilt by Charles I of Anjou, its successor as king of Sicily; the walls were completed in 1316. It became the second city of the Kingdom of Naples, it was an autonomous city, ruled by a diarchy composed of the King's Captain. It fell under the lordship of Niccolò dell'Isola, appointed by the people as the People's Knight, but he was killed when he became a tyrant, it fell under Pietro "Lalle" Camponeschi, Count of Montorio, who became the third side of a new triarchy, with the Council and the King's Captain.

Camponeschi, Great Chancellor of the kingdom of Naples, became too powerful, was killed by order of Prince Louis of Taranto. His descendants fought with the Pretatti family for power for several generations, but never again attained the power of their ancestor; the last, the one true "lord" of L'Aquila, was Ludovico Franchi, who challenged the power of the pope by giving refuge to Alfonso I d'Este, former duke of Ferrara, the children of Giampaolo Baglioni, deposed lord of Perugia. In the end, the Aquilans had him deposed and imprisoned by the king of Naples; the power of L'Aquila was based on the close connection between the city and its mother-villages, which had established the city as a federation, each of them building a borough and considering it as a part of the mother-village. The Fountain of the 99 Spouts, was given its name to celebrate the ancient origin of the town; the City Council was composed of the Mayors of the villages, the city had no legal existence until King Charles II of Naples appointed a "Camerlengo", responsible for city tributes.

The Camerlengo took political power, as President of the City Council. From its beginnings the city constituted an important market for the surrounding countryside, which provided it with a regular supply of food: from the fertile valleys came the precious saffron. Within a few decades L'Aquila became a crossroads in communications between cities within and beyond the Kingdom, thanks to the so-called "via degli Abruzzi", which ran from Florence to Naples by way of Perugia, Rieti, L'Aquila, Isernia, Venafro and Capua. Negotiations for the succession of Edmund, son of Henry III of England, to the throne of the Kingdom of Sicily involved L'Aquila in the web of interests linking the Roman Curia to the English court. On December 23, 1256, Pope Alexander IV elevated the churches of Saints Massimo and Giorgio to the status of cathedrals as a reward to the citizens of L'Aquila for their opposition to King Manfred who, in July 1259, had the city razed to the ground in an attempt to destroy the negotiations.

On August 29, 1294, the hermit Pietro del Morrone was consecrated as pope Celestine V in the church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio, in commemoration of which the new pope decreed the annual religious rite of the Pardon, still observed today in the city on August 28 and 29: it is the immediate ancestor of the Jubilee Year. The pontificate of Celestine V gave a new impulse to building development, as can be seen from the city statutes. In 1311, King Robert of Anjou granted privileges which had a decisive influence on the development of trade; these privileges protected all activities related to sheep-farming, exempting them

Ray Loriga

Jorge Loriga Torrenova, better known as Ray Loriga, is a Spanish author and director. His first novel Lo Peor de todo, was published in 1992, was followed by Héroes in 1993. Caídos del Cielo - La pistola de mi hermano was the first of his novels to be published in English, he directed a film based on this book in 1997. In the same year, he worked together with Pedro Almodóvar and Jorge Guerricaechevarria to produce the screenplay for the film Carne trémula directed by Almodóvar; the screenplay was based on the 1986 novel of the same name by the British crime writer Ruth Rendell. His second novel to be published in English was Tokio ya no nos quiere. Loriga married Spanish-Danish singer-songwriter Christina Rosenvinge in 1989. In April 2017, Loriga was awarded the Alfaguara Prize for his novel Rendición, it is one of the most financially rewarding Spanish-language literary prizes. His most recent novel, Sábado, was published in February 2019. Lo peor de todo Héroes Caídos del Cielo - La pistola de mi hermano Tokio ya no nos quiere Trífero El hombre que inventó Manhattan Yo solo hablo de amor Za Za, emperador de Ibiza Rendición Sábado, domingo Días extraños Días aún más extraños Los oficiales El destino de Cordelia Carne trémula with Pedro Almodóvar and Jorge Guerricaechevarria, directed by Pedro Almodóvar La pistola de mi hermano El séptimo día Directed by Carlos Saura Ausentes Teresa, el cuerpo de Cristo La pistola de mi hermano Teresa, el cuerpo de Cristo Ray Loriga's Unofficial Page Ray Loriga on IMDb 2004 interview with the author


Lochinvar is a loch in the civil parish of Dalry in the historic county of Kirkcudbrightshire and Galloway Scotland. It is located in the Galloway Hills, around 3.5 miles north-east of St. John's Town of Dalry; the loch had an island on which stood Lochinvar Castle, seat of the Gordon family. In the 20th century the loch was dammed to form a reservoir, raising the water level and submerging the island with the ruins of the castle; the loch is used for trout fishing. The name Lochinvar is from Scots Gaelic Loch a' bharra meaning "Loch on the hilltop", it is stressed on the last syllable. The Gordon family arrived at Lochinvar from Berwickshire in 1297, they established a castle. Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar was one of the first to embark in the scheme for the establishment of colonies in North America, having on 8 November 1621 obtained a charter of what was called the barony of Galloway in Nova Scotia. In 1625 he published a tract on the subject entitled Encouragements for such as shall have intention to bee Vndertakers in the new plantation...

By mee Lochinvar... Edinburgh, 1625. Lochinvar was created a baronet in 1626. On 12 July 1626 he was appointed a member of the council of war for Scotland and a Commissioner for the Middle Shires, residing at Greenlaw, Crossmichael Parish, Kirkcudbrightshire, his second son, Robert Gordon of Gelston, joined with his father in the plantation of America in the grant of the barony of Galloway in Nova Scotia in 1621. His eldest son, Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar, 2nd baronet, was a supporter of Charles I and a notable Protestant, he was created Viscount of Kenmure by Charles at his Scottish coronation in 1633. "Young Lochinvar" is a key character in Walter Scott's epic poem Marmion. Although the tale is associated with the historical Sir William Gordon of Lochinvar, 15th-century laird of Lochinvar, there is no evidence for the events described in the poem. Kenmure Castle home of the Gordons of Lochinvar Lochinvar "Lochinvar", extract from Sir Walter Scott's Marmion