Kennecott Utah Copper
Kennecott Utah Copper LLC, a division of Rio Tinto Group, is a mining and refining company. Its corporate headquarters are located in South Jordan, Utah, USA. Kennecott operates the Bingham Canyon Mine, one of the largest open-pit copper mines in the world in Bingham Canyon, Salt Lake County, Utah; the company was first formed in 1898 as the Boston Consolidated Mining Company. The current corporation was formed in 1989; the mine and associated smelter produce 1% of the world's copper. Utah Copper Company had its start when Enos Andrew Wall realized the potential of copper deposits in Bingham Canyon, 15 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah in 1887 and acquired claims to the land and started underground mining. In the mid-1890s, metallurgist Daniel C. Jackling and mining engineer Robert C. Gemmell liked the prospects. Both men recommended open-pit mining. In 1898, Samuel Newhouse and Thomas Weir formed the Boston Consolidated Mining Company. Jackling and Wall formed the Utah Copper Company on 4 June 1903, with Charles L. Tutt, Sr. Charles MacNeill, Spencer Penrose, Boies Penrose, Tal Penrose, Dr. R.
A. F. Penrose as investors. MacNeill was named president, Spencer "Speck" Penrose was named secretary-treasurer, Jackling was named general manager; the company started a pilot mill at Copperton. With financing from Guggenheim Exploration, the first digging began in 1906; the same year, the Kennecott Mines Company was formed in Alaska, named after explorer and naturalist Robert Kennicott. A smelter was started at Garfield by the American Smelting and Refining Company to refine the Bingham ore. In 1907, the Utah Copper mill in Magna started operation. Utah Copper and Boston Consolidated merged in 1910, in 1915, Kennecott acquired a 25% interest in the company. In 1915, to dilute the railroad's cost and find new ventures for the capital produced by the Alaskan mine, Kennecott Copper Corporation was incorporated out of the various financial interests involved. By this time, the Guggenheims were actively working copper mines in Chile and Utah. Upon Kennecott's creation, they merged their Braden Copper Co. property in Chile, as well as 25 percent of the Utah Copper Co. into Kennecott.
These moves gave Kennecott possession of Braden's El Teniente, the world's largest underground mine, in the Chilean Andes. The Bingham and Garfield Railway opened in 1911 to transport the ore, replacing the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad's line. In 1936, Kennecott acquired all the assets of the Utah Copper Company. During World War II, Bingham set new world records for copper mining and produced about 30% of the copper used by the Allies. Many women worked in the mines and smelters. On September 9, 1949 three company officers were killed in an airplane bombing known as the Albert Guay Affair in Quebec: the retiring president E. T. Stannard. J. Parker, a vice-president; the three men were passengers on a flight on which Guay had shipped a timed-explosive device in the luggage of his then-wife, killing her and all others on the plane. Charles Cox head of Carnegie-Illinois Steel, was hired shortly after to fill the executive vacuum. By 1961, Kennecott's copper mines included four large open pits in Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada.
As the mine in Utah expanded, it subsumed the land on which the City of Bingham Canyon was built, the city was disincorporated in 1971. In 1981, a worldwide fall in copper prices brought about the acquisition of Kennecott by Standard Oil of Ohio. Production was interrupted from 1985 to 1987. In the latter year, British Petroleum acquired SOHIO, Kennecott became part of BP Minerals America. In 1989 Rio Tinto Zinc purchased mining assets from BP. Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation was formed by Rio Tinto in 1989 as a new mining company under the laws of the State of Utah. Today, as the second-largest copper producer in the United States, Kennecott Utah Copper provides about 18-25 percent of the United States' copper needs. Kennecott’s Bingham Canyon Mine is one of the largest man-made excavations in the world, it is one of the top producing copper mines in the world with cumulative production at more than 19 million tons of copper. In 2011, Kennecott produced 237,000 tons of copper, along with 379,000 troy ounces of gold, 3.2 million troy ounces of silver, about 30 million pounds of molybdenum, about 1 million tons of sulfuric acid, a by-product of the smelting process.
Since Rio Tinto purchased Kennecott Utah Copper in 1989 it has invested about $2 billion in the modernization of KUC’s operations. Rio Tinto directly contributes to more than 14,000 indirect Utah jobs. Rio Tinto Group, one of the world's largest mining operations, comprises dual-listed companies Rio Tinto Limited and Rio Tinto PLC. Although each company trades separately, the two Rio Tintos operate as one business. KUC is considering alternatives. A massive rock slide at the mine in 2014 did not stop Rio’s plans to extend the mine’s life by another decade to 2029; the company says there’s still as much ore in the ground as miners have taken out of Bingham Canyon since it began production in 1906. The company proposes to expand the mine and reach an additional 700 million tons of ore resource by pushing back the south wall of the Bingham Canyon Mine 1,000 feet and deepening it 300 feet. Significant groundwater contamination exists in the aquifer downgradient of the Bingham Canyon mining operations.
Starting in the late 1980s, the State of Utah Natural Resource Damage Trustee has overseen the investigation of mining-influenced groundwater and the implementation of cleanup actions
Industrial engineering is an inter-disciplinary profession, concerned with the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations by developing and implementing integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment and materials. Industrial engineers use specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify and evaluate the results obtained from systems and processes. From these results, they are able to create new systems, processes or situations for the useful coordination of man and machines and improve the quality and productivity of systems, physical or social. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, management science, management engineering, financial engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.
Though its underlying concepts overlap with certain business-oriented disciplines, such as operations management, industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions. There is a general consensus among historians that the roots of the industrial engineering profession date back to the Industrial Revolution; the technologies that helped mechanize traditional manual operations in the textile industry including the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, most the steam engine generated economies of scale that made Mass production in centralized locations attractive for the first time. The concept of the production system had its genesis in the factories created by these innovations. Adam Smith's concepts of Division of Labour and the "Invisible Hand" of capitalism introduced in his treatise "The Wealth of Nations" motivated many of the technological innovators of the Industrial revolution to establish and implement factory systems.
The efforts of James Watt and Matthew Boulton led to the first integrated machine manufacturing facility in the world, including the implementation of concepts such as cost control systems to reduce waste and increase productivity and the institution of skills training for craftsmen. Charles Babbage became associated with Industrial engineering because of the concepts he introduced in his book "On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers" which he wrote as a result of his visits to factories in England and the United States in the early 1800s; the book includes subjects such as the time required to perform a specific task, the effects of subdividing tasks into smaller and less detailed elements, the advantages to be gained from repetitive tasks. Eli Whitney and Simeon North proved the feasibility of the notion of Interchangeable parts in the manufacture of muskets and pistols for the US Government. Under this system, individual parts were mass-produced to tolerances to enable their use in any finished product.
The result was a significant reduction in the need for skill from specialized workers, which led to the industrial environment to be studied later. Frederick Taylor is credited as being the father of the Industrial Engineering discipline, he earned a degree in mechanical engineering from Steven's University and earned several patents from his inventions. His books, Shop Management and The Principles of Scientific Management which were published in the early 1900s, were the beginning of Industrial Engineering. Improvements in work efficiency under his methods was based on improving work methods, developing of work standards, reduction in time required to carry out the work. With an abiding faith in the scientific method, Taylor's contribution to "Time Study" sought a high level of precision and predictability for manual tasks; the husband-and-wife team of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Gilbreth was the other cornerstone of the Industrial Engineering movement whose work is housed at Purdue University School of Industrial Engineering.
They categorized the elements of human motion into 18 basic elements called therbligs. This development permitted analysts to design jobs without knowledge of the time required to do a job; these developments were the beginning of a much broader field known as human ergonomics. In 1908, the first course on Industrial Engineering was offered as an elective at Pennsylvania State University, which became a separate program in 1909 through the efforts of Hugo Diemer; the first doctoral degree in industrial engineering was awarded in 1933 by Cornell University. In 1912 Henry Laurence Gantt developed the Gantt chart which outlines actions the organization along with their relationships; this chart opens form familiar to us today by Wallace Clark. With the development of assembly lines, the factory of Henry Ford accounted for a significant leap forward in the field. Ford reduced the assembly time of a car more than 700 hours to 1.5 hours. In addition, he was a pioneer of the economy of the capitalist welfare and the flag of providing financial incentives for employees to increase productivity.
Comprehensive quality management system developed in the forties was gaining momentum after World War II and was part of the recovery of Japan after the war. The American Institute of Industrial Engineering was formed in 1948; the early work by F. W. Taylor and the Gilbreths was documented in papers presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers as interest grew from improving machine performance to the per
C. Lemoine Blanchard was a businessman, a member of the Los Angeles City Council from 1959 until 1963 and a board member of the national YMCA. Blanchard was born on the son of Mr. and Mrs. Roscoe W. Blanchard, Sr.. He was brought to the San Fernando Valley when he was a year old, was educated locally and, after graduating from high school, he joined his father's North Hollywood firm, Blanchard Lumber Company, of which he became owner, he was a "lifelong supporter" of the East Valley YMCA and president of the North Hollywood Kiwanis and the Al Malaikah Shrine Temple. In 1967 he was named to the national board of the YMCA, he died August 1986, in North Hollywood. He was survived by Frances. Funeral services were held in the First Christian Church of North Hollywood. Blanchard was a member of the Los Angeles County Housing Authority for fifteen years until elected to the city council in 1959. See List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1959–63. In the 1950s, Los Angeles City Council District 2 covered Hollywood and a "sizable portion" of the San Fernando Valley west of Ventura Boulevard and extending north to Encino.
Blanchard ran for election there in 1959, he ousted incumbent Earle D. Baker in the final vote; the next year, the 2nd District was divested of its Hollywood area, instead attached to the 13th District. Blanchard was defeated for reelection in 1963 by challenger James B. Potter, Jr.: Mayor Sam Yorty supported Potter and opposed Blanchard. Blanchard was described as an "arch-foe" of Mayor Sam Yorty; some highlights of Blanchard's term on the City Council: Zoo, 1959. He voted in favor of a contract with a nonprofit organization called Friends of the Zoo to operate a "Los Angeles world zoo" for fifty years, at the end of which time the Friends would turn it over to the city. Monorail, 1962. Blanchard urged the city council to recognize "in principle" the concept of monorail to serve Los Angeles, he had just returned from a visit to Seattle, Washington, to inspect the Alweg Seattle Center Monorail system there. He suggested appointment of "an outstanding Los Angeles civic leader" to serve as a negotiator in the council's dealings with the Metropolitan Transit Authority.
Housing, 1962. He called on the council to oppose a state ballot proposition that would give the city Housing Authority permission to build homes for the aged and physically handicapped, he described it as "another scheme to establish state-financed public housing in California."Control, 1962. He proposed a plan to eliminate citizens commissions that had control over municipal departments, thereby increasing the power of the city council at the expense of the mayor, who appointed the commission members. Blanchard was the Republican candidate for the U. S. Congress in November 1960, he lost by a slight margin to fellow councilman James C. Corman, a Democrat, 48.9% to 51.1%. In an "anti-Yorty act," Blanchard was appointed to the Los Angeles Airport Commission by City Council President L. E. Timberlake. Who was acting mayor while Mayor Yorty was out of town on a European trip; the council confirmed the appointment by a 9-6 vote, leaving the mayor "furious" and promising to stop the appointment on his return.
The action, was ruled legal by City Attorney Roger Arnebergh. Access to the Los Angeles Times links may require the use of a library card
Baldwin Hills, Los Angeles
Baldwin Hills is a neighborhood within the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles California. It is home to Village Green, a National Historic Landmark. Baldwin Hills is bounded by La Cienega Boulevard to the west, Crenshaw Boulevard to the east, Stocker Street to the south and Rodeo Road to the north with Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard forming the northeast dividing line between Baldwin Hills and Crenshaw Manor, it is bordered on the west by Culver City and it shares the eastern border of Crenshaw Boulevard with Leimert Park. The namesake mountain range is part of the neighborhood. Baldwin Hills and other surrounding geography are named for the famous 19th century horse racing and land development pioneer, Elias J. "Lucky" Baldwin. Ran historic early 19th century eastern hills Rancho land grant. Sanchez Adobe de Rancho La Cienega o Paso de la Tijera; the adobe was once the center of the rancho. In the 1920s, an addition was built linking the structures and the building was converted into a larger clubhouse for the Sunset Golf Course.
Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes: original early 19th century western section Rancho land grant. The 1932 Los Angeles Olympics housed athletes at the Olympic Village in Baldwin Hills, it was the site of the first Olympic Village built, for the 1932 Los Angeles Summer Olympic Games. Built for male athletes only, the village consisted of several hundred buildings, including post and telegraph offices, an amphitheater, a hospital, a fire department, a bank. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the Olympic Village was demolished after the Summer Olympic Games. On December 14, 1963, a crack appeared in the Baldwin Hills Dam impounding the Baldwin Hills Reservoir. Within a few hours, water rushing through the crack eroded the earthen dam widening the crack until the dam failed catastrophically at 3:38 pm. Although the area had been evacuated after the crack had been discovered, several homes were destroyed, most of Baldwin Vista and the historic Village Green community were flooded.
The dam's failure was determined to be the result of subsidence, caused by overexploitation of the Inglewood Oil Field. The dam's failure prompted the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power to close and drain other small local reservoirs with similar designs, such as the Silver Lake Reservoir; the Baldwin Hills Dam was not rebuilt—instead, the empty reservoir was demolished, filled with earth and converted to Kenneth Hahn Regional Park. During the summer of 1985, a brush fire along La Brea Avenue spread up the canyon towards the homes along Don Carlos Drive in Baldwin Hills Estates. Many homes were destroyed despite the efforts of the Los Angeles Fire Department to suppress the flames; the fire destroyed 69 homes. Neighborhoods within Baldwin Hills include: Baldwin Hills Estates is locally known as "The Dons", because all but one street begins with the formal title of Los Angeles' original land holders; the oldest two streets in the Dons are Don Mariano Drive. Old maps show those streets with the names Maryann.
Susan B. Miller High School has called its student body The Dorsey Dons and Donnas after this neighborhood; the neighborhood is east of La Brea, southwest of Santo Tomas Drive, south of the Jim Gilliam Recreation Center and north of Stocker Street). It is sometimes called "the Black Beverly Hills"; the neighborhood is characterized by hillside houses with swimming pools, modern condominiums. Baldwin Vista is north of Coliseum Street and west of the major thoroughfare, La Brea Avenue, with smaller homes and a more secluded ambience. Village Green named Baldwin Hills Village and within Baldwin Vista, is a historic Mid-Century modern "garden city" developed by Walter H. Leimert multi-family residential, it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 2001. The units are now condominiums on spacious grounds, attracting seniors, young families, design professionals as residents. Baldwin Village: since 1990 the city has promoted use of the official name "Baldwin Village"; the southernmost portion of Baldwin Hills is outside the Los Angeles City limits.
Along with View Park-Windsor Hills and Ladera Heights, it resides in an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County. Stocker Street divides Baldwin Hills from the View Park neighborhood; the northeast face of the hills overlooks the Baldwin Hills Crenshaw Plaza shopping mall and Marlton Square's Kaiser Permanente medical office building. Baldwin Hills Scenic Overlook is located at 6300 Hetzler Road in Culver City, CA; the 8.5-acre park is open daily from 8 a.m. to sunset. The Visitor Center is open Thursday–Sunday from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. The park includes an amphitheater, drinking water, the Evan Frankel Discovery Center, gardening boxes, picnic tables, a permeable parking lot and walking paths with a central feature known as the Culver City Stairs; the Visitor Center has a comprehensive guide to the native plants of the area and history of Culver City. On a clear day the Overlook's platform offers exceptional views spanning the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Hollywood Sign to the north, downtown Los Angeles to the east.
Kenneth Hahn State Regional Park is located at 4100 South La Cienega Boulevard. It is a 401 acre recreation and sports area. Norman O Houston Park: is located at 4800 South La Brea Avenue. Jim Gilliam Park & Recreation Center is located at 4000 South La Brea Avenue, it is home to the Jim Gilliam Senior Citizen Center The Los Angeles Public Library operates the Baldwin Hills Branch Library. It is located at 2900 La Brea Avenue. Baldwin Hills is served by
Ameren Corporation is an American power company created December 31, 1997 by the merger of St. Louis, Missouri's Union Electric Company and the neighboring Central Illinois Public Service Company of Springfield, Illinois, it is now a holding company for several power companies and energy companies. The company is based in St. Louis, serving 2.4 million electric, 900,000 natural gas customers across 64,000 square miles. Ameren is the holding company for the following: Ameren Missouri Ameren Illinois Ameren Transmission CompanyThe Ameren Missouri subsidiary owns Bagnell Dam on the Osage River, which forms the Lake of the Ozarks. Ameren Missouri is responsible for managing water levels on the lake according to federal regulations. Prior to the formation of Ameren, the first major development in the history of its constituent parts occurred in 1929, when the Bagnell Dam was completed on the Osage River and generated 175 megawatts of hydroelectricity for Missouri's Union Electric Company; the dam created the Lake of the Ozarks with 1,400 miles of shoreline.
In 1931, Union Electric Light and Power sought additional generating sources and the company began buying power from the Keokuk, IA dam, 150 miles north of St. Louis. Union Electric bought the dam, providing 134 megawatts of hydroelectricity carried over a longer distance than had been achieved before. By the 1950s Union Electric owned gas operations in and around Alton and acquired other utilities to become the third largest distributor of natural gas in Missouri. In 1952, Ameren's second major constituent, the Central Illinois Public Service Company, became a major pooled energy power distributor with its future Ameren mate, Union Electric Company; the arrangement formed the Midwest Power Pool system. The CIPS Meredosia, Illinois Power Station became a key contributor to the pool, which included the Ameren subsidiary Illinois Power Company. In 1963 Union Electric completed construction of one of the largest pumped storage plants at that time, the then-350-megawatt Taum Sauk Plant, in Reynolds County, Missouri.
In 1984 Union Electric added nuclear energy to the mix, when the Callaway Nuclear Generating Station began providing 1,143 megawatts of power from Callaway County, Missouri. In 1995 shareholders of both CIPSCO Inc. and of its neighboring utility of twice its size, the S&P 500-listed Union Electric Company, approved the merger of the two companies, which were to be combined as Ameren Corporation. Both of those former utilities had traded publicly on the New York Stock Exchange, under ticker symbol CIP and UEP, respectively. At the time of the merger, Union Electric had assets of nearly US$600 million, but still carried nearly US$1.8 billion in long-term debt, although down from US$2.5 billion which it had accumulated by the 1980s. CIPSCO had assets of about US$210 million, but still carried nearly half of US$1 billion in long-term debt, which it had accumulated by the 1980s; the merger was completed on December 31, 1997, when the two public companies became one, as Ameren Corporation, which began to trade publicly on the New York Stock Exchange with the ticker symbol AEE.
Following the merger, Union Electric began doing business as AmerenUE, now known as Ameren Missouri. Today, with nine power plants Ameren Missouri serves 1.2 million power customers and 110,000 gas customers in Missouri, where more than half of its customers reside in the St. Louis metropolitan area, it served Iowa as well through the mid-1990s, served adjoining parts of Illinois until 2010. The former CIPSCO Inc. utility, Central Illinois Public Service Company, became Ameren's other operating company, doing business as AmerenCIPS. In 2000, Ameren formed AmerenEnergy Resources, it contained two further subsidiaries, AmerenEnergy Marketing, AmerenEnergy Generating. In 2002, Ameren Corporation announced a voluntary retirement program, offered to 1,000 of Ameren's 7,400 current employees, expecting to realize significant long-term savings. In 2003, Ameren acquired Peoria-based CILCORP, Inc. and its leading subsidiary, Central Illinois Light Company, from AES Corporation. CILCORP had traded on the NYSE with ticker symbol CER prior to its acquisition by AES, by the mid-1990s had become a member of the S&P Small Cap 600 index.
CILCO had been another pioneer utility in the region, which had paid a dividend since 1921. By 1996, it had grown to over US$150 million in assets, carried US$330 million in long-term debt. Following the 2003 Ameren acquisition, that utility became the subsidiary AmerenCILCO. At the end of 2003, Ameren's chairman and chief executive, Charles Mueller and was succeeded in both positions by Gary Rainwater, the company's president and chief operating officer the past two years. In 2004, Ameren acquired its third partner from the 1952 Midwest Power Pool system, Illinois Power Company; that utility had traded publicly on the NYSE under the ticker symbol IPC through the 1980s, paid dividends since 1947. As of the late 1980s, the company generated electricity and natural gas entirely from coal plants, with less than 1% fueled from oil and gas. By with about $360 million in assets, it carried long-term debt of over US$2 billion. In 1991, Illinois Power became the subsidiary of holding company Illinova Corp. which traded on the NYSE with ticker symbol ILN.
Illinova had grown to an S&P Midcap 400 stock by 1996, with over US$415 million in assets, had brought the IP utility's debt down to US$1.8 billion by then. In a merger completed February 1, 2000, Illinova Corp. became a wholly owned subsidiary of Dynegy Inc. in which Chevron Corporation took a
An accountant is a practitioner of accounting or accountancy, the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resource. In many jurisdictions, professional accounting bodies maintain standards of practice and evaluations for professionals. Accountants who have demonstrated competency through their professional associations' certification exams are certified to use titles such as Chartered Accountant, Chartered Certified Accountant or Certified Public Accountant; such professionals are granted certain responsibilities by statute, such as the ability to certify an organization's financial statements, may be held liable for professional misconduct. Non-qualified accountants may be employed by a qualified accountant, or may work independently without statutory privileges and obligations. Cahan & Sun used archival study to find out that accountants’ personal characteristics may exert a significant impact during the audit process and further influence audit fees and audit quality.
The Big Four auditors are the largest employers of accountants worldwide. However, most accountants are employed in commerce and the public sector. In the Commonwealth of Nations, which include the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong pre-1997, several other states recognised accounting qualifications are Chartered Certified Accountant, Chartered Accountant, Chartered Management Accountant and International Accountant. Other qualifications in particular countries include Certified Public Accountant, Chartered Professional Accountant, Certified Management Accountant, Certified Practising Accountant and members of the Institute of Public Accountants, Certified Public Practising Accountant; the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland received its Royal Charter in 1854 and is the world's first professional body of accountants. A Chartered Accountant must be a member of one of the following: the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland Chartered Accountants Ireland a recognised equivalent body from another Commonwealth country A Chartered Certified Accountant must be a member of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants.
A Chartered Management Accountant must be a member of the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. A Chartered Public Finance Accountant must be a member of the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy. An International Accountant is a member of the Association of International Accountants. An Incorporated Financial Accountant is a member of the Institute of Financial Accountants. A Certified Public Accountant may be a member of the Association of Certified Public Accountants or its equivalent in another country, is designated as such after passing the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination. A Public Accountant may be a member of the Institute of Public Accountants. Registered Qualified Accountant may be a member of Accountants Institute, based in SloveniaExcepting the Association of Certified Public Accountants, each of the above bodies admits members only after passing examinations and undergoing a period of relevant work experience. Once admitted, members are expected to comply with ethical guidelines and gain appropriate professional experience.
Chartered, Chartered Certified, Chartered Public Finance, International Accountants engaging in practice must gain a "practising certificate" by meeting further requirements such as purchasing adequate insurance and undergoing inspections. The ICAEW, ICAS, ICAI, ACCA and AAPA are five Recognised Supervisory Bodies in the UK. A member of one of them may become a Statutory Auditor in accordance with the Companies Act, providing they can demonstrate the necessary professional ability in that area and submit to regular inspection, it is illegal for any individual or firm, not a Statutory Auditor to perform a company audit. The ICAEW, ICAS, ICAI, ACCA, AIA and CIPFA are six recognised qualifying bodies statutory in the UK. A member of one of them may become a Statutory Auditor in accordance with the Companies Act, providing they are a member of one of the five Recognised Supervisory Bodies RSB mentioned above. All six RQBs are listed under EU mutual recognition directives to practise in 27 EU member states and individually entered into agreement with the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
Further restrictions apply to accountants. In addition to the bodies above, technical qualifications are offered by the Association of Accounting Technicians, ACCA and AIA, which are called AAT Technician, CAT and IAT. In Australia, there are three recognised local professional accounting bodies which all enjoy the same recognition and can be considered as "qualified accountant": the Institute of Public Accountants, CPA Australia and the Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand
Chavez Ravine is a shallow L-shaped canyon located in Los Angeles, United States in the Elysian Park neighborhood. It sits in a large promontory of hills north of downtown Los Angeles and was known in the 1860s as the "Stone Quarry Hills" which had other smaller ravines such as Sulphur Ravine, Cemetery Ravine, Solano Canyon and Reservoir Ravine, it is next to Dodger Stadium, a baseball venue that opened in 1962. The name Chavez Ravine can be used to mean either the actual ravine itself in a narrow sense or sometimes in a broader sense the entire promontory and surrounding ravines, is used to refer to the stadium. Dodger Stadium was constructed by knocking down the ridge which separated the nearby Sulfur and Cemetery Ravines and filling those two ravines in. Palo Verde Elementary School was buried in the process. Chavez Ravine was named for a Los Angeles councilman in the 19th century. Chavez purchased the land in the Elysian Park area, which grew to about 315 acres, in 1844. Nearby "Cemetery Ravine" was named after the first cemetery of Los Angeles.
Chavez Ravine was named for the first recorded land owner. He was moved to Los Angeles in the early 1830s, he became a local leader. In 1844, Chavez purchased 83 acres of the narrow valley northwest of the city. There are no records of what Chavez did on his land, but during the 1850s and 1880s there were smallpox epidemics; the land was rugged which prevented much development of the area. However the area did provide an important watershed and part was used by the Los Angeles Water Company for a canal bringing water from what is now Griffith Park and storing it in a reservoir in Reservoir Ravine; some of Chavez Canyon and the surrounding hills became Elysian Park in 1886. That same year, two brick manufacturers moved into Chavez Ravine and began blasting operations in the hillsides. By the early 1900s, in the hills above and around the ravine, a semi-rural Mexican-American community had grown up. Three distinct neighborhoods formed: Bishop, La Loma and Palo Verde on the ridges between the neighboring ravines.
In 1913 a progressive lawyer named Marshall Stimson subsidized the movement of around 250 Mexican-Americans to these communities from the floodplain of the nearby Los Angeles River. There was a local grocery store, a local church, Palo Verde Elementary. There was a nearby brick factory which caused local problems from the dust released. In 1926 the residents of Chavez Ravine organized to shut the company down. On August 20, 1926, the Los Angeles City Council unanimously adopted an ordinance prohibiting the blasting and zoned the area around Chavez Ravine for residential use. Chavez Ravine was made up of the three Mexican-American communities of La Loma, Palo Verde, Bishop. In the 1940s, the area was a poor, though cohesive, Mexican-American community. Many families lived there because of housing discrimination in other parts of Los Angeles. With the population of Los Angeles expanding, Chavez Ravine was viewed as a prime, underutilized location; the city began to label the area as "blighted" and thus ripe for redevelopment.
Through a vote, the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles, with the assistance of federal funds from the Housing Act of 1949, was designated the task to construct public housing, in large part to address the severe post-World War II housing shortage. Prominent architects Richard Neutra and Robert Alexander developed a plan for "Elysian Park Heights." The city had relocated many of the residents of Chavez Ravine when the entire project came to a halt. Fear of communism was sweeping the United States and loud voices in Los Angeles cried that the housing project smacked of socialism; the land for Dodger Stadium was purchased from some local owners/inhabitants in the early 1950s by the City of Los Angeles, using eminent domain, with funds from the Federal Housing Act of 1949. The city had planned to develop the Elysian Park Heights public housing project, to include two dozen 13-story buildings and more than 160 two-story townhouses, in addition to newly-rebuilt playgrounds and schools. Los Angeles-based author Mike Davis, in his controversial polemical, history of the city, City of Quartz, discussed the process of convincing Chavez Ravine homeowners to sell.
Davis asserted that with nearly all of the original Spanish-speaking homeowners unwilling to do so, "developers", representing the city and its public housing authority, resorted to offering immediate cash payments, distributed through their Spanish-speaking agents. Once the first sales had been completed, it is said that remaining homeowners were offered lesser amounts of money to create a sense of community panic that people would not receive fair compensation, or that they would be left as one of the few holdouts; some residents continued to resist, despite the pressure being placed upon them by the "developers," resulting in the Battle of Chavez Ravine, an unsuccessful ten-year struggle by a small number of remaining residents of Chavez Ravine to maintain control of their property, after the substantial majority of the area had been transferred to public ownership. Before construction of the Elysian Park Heights project could begin, the local political climate changed when Norris Poulson was elected mayor of Los Angeles in 1953.
Poulson opposed the provision of public housing, claiming that it was "un-American", support for projects like Elysian Park Heights faded. Following protracted negotiations, the City of L