Lyman Frank Baum was an American author chiefly famous for his children's books The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and its sequels. He wrote 14 novels in the Oz series, plus 41 other novels, 83 short stories, over 200 poems, at least 42 scripts, he made numerous attempts to bring his works to the nascent medium of film. His works anticipated such century-later commonplaces as television, augmented reality, laptop computers, wireless telephones, women in high-risk and action-heavy occupations, the ubiquity of advertising on clothing. Baum was born in New York in 1856 into a devout Methodist family, he had Scots-Irish and English ancestry. He was the seventh of nine children of Cynthia Ann and Benjamin Ward Baum, only five of whom survived into adulthood. "Lyman" was the name of his father's brother, but he always disliked it and preferred his middle name "Frank". His father succeeded in many businesses, including barrel-making, oil drilling in Pennsylvania, real estate. Baum grew up on his parents' expansive estate called Rose Lawn, which he fondly recalled as a sort of paradise.
Rose Lawn was located in New York. Frank was a dreamy child, tutored at home with his siblings. From the age of 12, he spent two miserable years at Peekskill Military Academy but, after being disciplined for daydreaming, he had a psychogenic heart attack and was allowed to return home. Baum started writing early in life prompted by his father buying him a cheap printing press, he had always been close to his younger brother Henry Clay Baum, who helped in the production of The Rose Lawn Home Journal. The brothers published several issues of the journal, including advertisements from local businesses, which they would give to family and friends for free. By the age of 17, Baum established a second amateur journal called The Stamp Collector, printed an 11-page pamphlet called Baum's Complete Stamp Dealers' Directory, started a stamp dealership with friends. At 20, Baum took on the national craze of breeding fancy poultry, he specialized in raising the Hamburg. In March 1880, he established a monthly trade journal, The Poultry Record, in 1886, when Baum was 30 years old, his first book was published: The Book of the Hamburgs: A Brief Treatise upon the Mating and Management of the Different Varieties of Hamburgs.
Baum had a flair for being the spotlight of fun in the household, including during times of financial difficulties. His selling of fireworks made the Fourth of July memorable, his skyrockets, Roman candles, fireworks filled the sky, while many people around the neighborhood would gather in front of the house to watch the displays. Christmas was more festive. Baum dressed as Santa Claus for the family, his father would place the Christmas tree behind a curtain in the front parlor so that Baum could talk to everyone while he decorated the tree without people managing to see him. He maintained this tradition all his life. Baum embarked on his lifetime infatuation—and wavering financial success—with the theater. A local theatrical company duped him into replenishing their stock of costumes on the promise of leading roles coming his way. Disillusioned, Baum left the theater — temporarily — and went to work as a clerk in his brother-in-law's dry goods company in Syracuse; this experience may have influenced his story "The Suicide of Kiaros", first published in the literary journal The White Elephant.
A fellow clerk one day was found locked in a store room dead from suicide. Baum could never stay away long from the stage, he performed in plays under the stage names of Louis F. George Brooks. In 1880, his father built him a theater in Richburg, New York, Baum set about writing plays and gathering a company to act in them; the Maid of Arran proved a modest success, a melodrama with songs based on William Black's novel A Princess of Thule. Baum wrote the play and composed songs for it, acted in the leading role, his aunt Katharine Gray played his character's aunt. She was the founder of Syracuse Oratory School, Baum advertised his services in her catalog to teach theater, including stage business, play writing, translating and operettas. On November 9, 1882, Baum married Maud Gage, a daughter of Matilda Joslyn Gage, a famous women's suffrage and feminist activist. While Baum was touring with The Maid of Arran, the theater in Richburg caught fire during a production of Baum's titled parlor drama Matches, destroying the theater as well as the only known copies of many of Baum's scripts, including Matches, as well as costumes.
In July 1888, Baum and his wife moved to Aberdeen, Dakota Territory where he opened a store called "Baum's Bazaar". His habit of giving out wares on credit led to the eventual bankrupting of the store, so Baum turned to editing the local newspaper The Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer where he wrote the column Our Landlady. Following the death of Sitting Bull at the hands of Indian agency police, Baum urged the wholesale extermination of all America's native peoples in a column that he wrote on December 20, 1890. On January 3, 1891 he returned to the subject in an editorial response to the Wounded Knee Massacre: The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries, we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamab
The Yorkshire Coast is a world-famous stretch of coastline that runs from the Tees estuary to the Humber estuary on the east coast of England. The coastline between the two estuaries was made up of the East and North Ridings of Yorkshire. Since the 1974 county boundary shake-up, this now comprises Redcar & Cleveland, North Yorkshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire; the North York Moors National Park extends up to the coastline and traverses 26 miles of the coast between Boulby and Cloughton, taking in the historic fishing villages of Staithes, Runswick Bay and Robin Hood's Bay. The section of coastline south of Bridlington to Spurn Head is known as the Holderness coast from the area of East Yorkshire that the coastline adjoins; the cliffs at Boulby are the highest on the east coast of England rising to 660 feet above the sea level. On 15 January 2016, Natural England announced the creation of a coastal path between Filey Brigg and Newport Transporter Bridge; this will link up with paths all around the coastline of England to become the England Coast Path.
The section from Filey to Saltburn is in use as part of the Cleveland Way. The following is a list of settlements on the Yorkshire coast from north to south; the italicised places are notable coastal points. The Yorkshire coast is home to three of thirty-two nationally designated Heritage Coasts in England and Wales; the Heritage Coasts are so designated for their exceptional or good scenic quality. The three sections on the Yorkshire coastline are. Part of the designation is the provision of a coastal footpath along the length of the Heritage Coast; the northernmost Heritage Coast has a footpath alongside its entire length. The North Yorkshire and Cleveland Heritage Coast designation does not include the coastal section around Whitby as it has been built on and developed; as can be seen from the geological map, the Yorkshire Coast is composed of shales, oolites, mudstone, sandstones and chalk. Boulder clay is the section alongside the North Sea in the East Riding of Yorkshire and has been the most prone to coastal erosion.
The Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast by Thomas Sheppard lists 30 settlements that were lost by the time his book was published in 1912. Kilnsea Parish Church was destroyed by coastal erosion in 1830, it had been noted that the sea was eating away at the coastline before the last burial in 1823. In 1824, services in the church were stopped and 6 years the church and many of the dwellings around it had been lost. Erosion rates are now averaging 11 feet per year on the sections between Hornsea and Mappleton and from Withernsea to the south. Many towns along the coast have installed defences to stop the sea claiming the land, but in some areas, the sea is taking the land and oftentimes is depositing it further down on Spurn Head. Both Withernsea and Whitby have used Norwegian rocks as sea defences; the Shoreline Management Plan 2, which covers the coastline from the Tyne to Flamborough Head admits that whilst towns such as Filey and Whitby should be protected, other settlements such as Robin Hood's Bay will see properties lost to coastal erosion.
Robin Hood's Bay had concrete sea walls installed alongside its shoreline in 1973, but a report issued in 2014 stated that the structure was coming to the end of its design life. This stretch of coastline is famous for the collapse of the Holbeck Hall Hotel near to Scarborough in 1993. After a prolonged rainfall, water had seeped into the earth which destabilised the ground underneath the hotel causing a landslide. Television cameras managed to capture the building falling onto the shoreline below. Part of the coastal geological make-up in North Yorkshire is Whitby Jet. Jet is a hard Lignite mineraloid, wood from Monkey Puzzle and Chilean Pine trees laid down 185 million years ago in the Jurassic era. Jet is found on the beaches in the area and its popularity during the 19th century was down to Queen Victoria who wore Jet jewelry as part of her mourning dress for Prince Albert. A 7,000-year old petrified forest stretches along the coastline south from Hartlepool and along Redcar Beach, it was first discovered in 1871 when wild boar deer antlers were found in the sand.
Storms in March 2018 revealed the extent of the ancient forest with petrified tree stumps being exposed to the open air on Redcar Beach when a combination of the storm and low tides removed all the sand from the beach. The coastline in Yorkshire is home to some of the world's best Jurassic and Cretaceous geology which has given it the nickname of the Dinosaur Coast. Fossils can be found on the beaches at Whitby and Runswick Bay with Britain's oldest dinosaur bone being found on Whitby beach in 2015; the bone after detailed analysis was found to be 176 million years old. Spurn is a peninsula, it is 3.5 miles long and in places. It is continually being eroded by the sea and becomes a dumping ground for sand and rocks washed down from further up the coast, it was reported in early 2016, that the Associated British Ports control tower on the point is being re-located across the Humber Estuary to Grimsby due to progressive deterioration of the point. The coastline of Yorkshire has played host to some diverse industries.
From north to south.
Annie Chidzira Muluzi is the former First Lady of Malawi and wife of Bakili Muluzi. As first lady she was the founder of the Freedom Foundation Trust, she resides in the United States. She has two children from her marriage with Bakili Muluzi, namely Austin Atupele Muluzi and Esmie Atweni Muluzi Malisita; the couple lived in a polygamous marriage arrangement as practiced by Islamic custom and Muluzi was married to Patricia Shanil Muluzi from 1989. On 15 March 1999, Muluzi announced the separation from her after 30 years of marriage, he re-married Patricia Shanil Muluzi in a formal ceremony to mark her new position as the official first lady. Up until their separation in March 1999, Muluzi lived with Anne in the State House in Blantyre. Muluzi's second wife, Patricia Muluzi, resided at another of Muluzi's official residences in the former colonial capital of Zomba. Mulizi's first born daughter, Esme Atweni Muluzi Malisita, died after lightning struck her on December 12, 2016, she was pronounced dead in Mwaiwathu Private Hospital