LB&SCR C class
The London and South Coast Railway C class was a type of 0-6-0 freight steam locomotive designed by William Stroudley. Four 0-6-0 locomotives were on order from Brighton works at the time that William Stroudley took over from John Chester Craven as Locomotive Superintendent in 1870, he cancelled this order and replaced it with another for two locomotives of his own design, Nos. 83 and 84 which appeared in December 1871. Eighteen further locomotives were constructed between March 1873 and November 1874, Nos. 77-82 by Brighton works and the remainder by Messrs. Kitson & Co; the class were powerful locomotives for their time and the design was "an archetype for heavy goods engines in Scotland as well as Southern England," but in other respects were Stroudley's least successful design, suffering from poor steaming. Within a decade of their introduction the class was being replaced by his C1 class 0-6-0 design of 1882–87, on the heaviest trains, they proved to be reliable locomotives and survived for nearly thirty years on secondary freight duties.
Members of the class were withdrawn between 1901 and 1904. Bradley, D. L.. Locomotives of the London Brighton and South Coast Railway: Part 1. Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Hamilton Ellis, Cuthbert; the London Brighton and South Coast Railway. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0269-X
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa
William Stroudley was an English railway engineer, was one of the most famous steam locomotive engineers of the nineteenth century, working principally for the London and South Coast Railway. He designed some of the most famous and longest-lived steam locomotives of his era, several of which have been preserved. Born at Sandford-on-Thames, William Stroudley began work in 1847 at the local paper mill and in the same year he was apprenticed to John Inshaw's engineering firm in Birmingham. Over the next seven years he gained a variety of engineering experience on stationary engines and steam barges. From 1854 he trained as a locomotive engineer at Swindon Works under Daniel Gooch of the Great Western Railway, but soon moved to the Great Northern Railway under Charles Sacré at their Peterborough workshops becoming running foreman at the motive power depot there. In 1861 he was appointed manager of Glasgow Railway Cowlairs Works. On 19 June 1865 he was appointed locomotive and carriage superintendent of the Highland Railway at Inverness.
He was unable to do any substantial work as the railway had little money at the time, only producing one locomotive. He was however able to re-organise and modernise the company's Lochgorm Works and reduced the operating costs for the railway's existing fleet. In 1870 he was appointed locomotive superintendent of the London and South Coast Railway at Brighton works following the enforced resignation of J. C. Craven; when he took office there were seventy-two different classes of locomotive in use and so there was an urgent need for standardisation to reduce operating costs. Stroudley was hampered at first by the difficult financial state of his new company, which had faced bankruptcy in 1866. However, during the 1870s and 1880s increased revenues from the growth of suburban traffic, enabled him to improve the performance and reliability of the locomotive stock by introducing a number of successful standard classes. Stroudley's first passenger locomotive design at Brighton was the two locomotives of the "Belgravia class", 2-4-0 in 1872.
They were similar to two 2-4-0 locomotives constructed at Cowlairs for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in the early 1860s when he was the works manager. They contained many features of his designs. In the same year he introduced the first of three important tank engine classes, which were produced in large numbers; the diminutive LB&SCR A1 Class 0-6-0 tanks were introduced in 1872 and a number were still in active use in the 1960s. The D1 class 0-4-2T were used for London suburban services of the LBSCR from 1873 until electrification and some survivors lasted until the late 1940s; the last survivor of the E1 class freight 0-6-0T introduced in 1874 was withdrawn in 1962. In 1874 Stroudley designed the G class of powerful 2-2-2'singles', the last of which survived until 1914. Less successful were his 0-6-0 freight locomotives of the C and C1 classes of 1871 and 1882 both of which were underpowered. Stroudley is best remembered for his 0-4-2 passenger classes; the first of these was a tender engine version of the D1 class, the D2 or "Lyons" class, introduced in 1876 and which proved to be successful.
A larger version for express passenger work, the "Richmond class", was introduced in 1877. However it is the enlarged B1 class express engines of 1882 for which he is best remembered, the last of which survived until 1933; the first member of this class is preserved at the National Railway Museum in York. Stroudley was responsible for the re-organisation and modernisation of Brighton railway works and the repair facilities at New Cross, he designed railway carriages and the steam engines for the LB&SCR cross-channel ferries which operated between Newhaven and Dieppe. He is remembered for inventing the re-railing ramps that are still known as "Stroudley's Patent Ramps" or "Rampes de Stroudley" in some parts of the world, he died of acute bronchitis on 20 December 1889 during his visit to the Paris Exhibition where he was exhibiting one of his locomotives. Stroudley was buried in the Extra Mural Cemetery, Brighton on 24 December 1889, he was succeeded at Brighton by R. J. Billinton. Ellis, C. Hamilton.
"William Stroudley". Twenty Locomotive Men. Shepperton, England: Ian Allan. Pp. 114–127. Cornwell, H. G. Campbell William Stroudley: craftsman of steam, Newton Abbot: David & Charles, ISBN 0-7153-4256-8 Biography
Brighton railway works
Brighton railway works was one of the earliest railway-owned locomotive repair works, founded in 1840 by the London and Brighton Railway in Brighton and thus pre-dating the more famous railway works at Crewe and Swindon. The works grew between 1841 and 1900 but efficient operation was always hampered by the restricted site, there were several plans to close it and move the facility elsewhere. Between 1852 and 1957 more than 1200 steam locomotives as well as prototype diesel electric and electric locomotives were constructed there, before the eventual closure of the facility in 1962. After use as a factory for constructing bubble cars, the facility was demolished and has since been redeveloped as part of the New England Quarter of Brighton; the earliest locomotive servicing facility at Brighton was a small engine shed to the north-west of the station, serving the Brighton – Shoreham line of the London and Brighton Railway in May 1840. The following year, with the completion of the London – Brighton main line, the railway opened a larger repair facility and motive power depot on the eastern side of the main line adjacent to the Brighton railway station.
However a new workshop at Horley, midway between London and Brighton opened in 1841, was planned to become the principal locomotive and carriage workshop of the new railway. Following his appointment as the Locomotive Superintendent of the successor company, the London Brighton and South Coast Railway in November 1847, John Chester Craven changed the plan of moving the works to Horley. Carriage construction began in 1848, having been carried out by contractors at New Cross. Craven set about enlarging and equipping Brighton works for new steam locomotive construction, which began in May 1852; however the situation of the works, close to the main line, on top of a cliff, in what would soon become a built-up area, always imposed restrictions on the space available for its efficient operation. During 1860 and 1861 Craven began the removal of a large chalk hill on the western side of the main line, dumped during the construction of the main line; the space created was used to accommodate a new much enlarged motive power depot in 1861, thereby permitting the closure of the existing facilities and their incorporation into the works proper.
By 1866 consideration was again being given to concentrating repairs at New Cross Gate railway station. In the 1870s William Stroudley considered moving the works to the site at Horley once again, but instead moved the carriage repair shed and paint shops to new sites on the western side of the main line, transferred the marine engineering work undertaken by the works to a new facility in Newhaven; this allowed for the further enlargement of the locomotive building and repair facilities, including the addition of an iron foundry in 1873, a new carriage painting and cleaning shop in 1878, a coppersmith's shop in 1881. This new construction solved the problem for a while, but did not address the underlying issue of the inadequate site so that by the end of the century the works was again suffering from serious difficulties affecting its efficient operation. From 1905 Brighton works was unable to keep pace with the locomotives requiring to be serviced, backlogs began to build up; as a result, the LB&SCR established concentrations of locomotives awaiting entry to the works or else scrapping at East Grinstead, Horsted Keynes and Horley.
An outside investigation in 1908, conducted by Robert Urie Works Manager of Nine Elms Works found 108 of the LB&SCR's 541 locomotives were awaiting or under repair, that a general overhaul at Brighton took 43 days, compared with 7.2% of the locomotives of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway under repair and 21 days taken by Ashford Works. By 1910 30 % of the locomotive stock was unusable due to inefficiencies at Brighton works. Lawson Billinton, the District Locomotive Superintendent at New Cross depot had sought to alleviate the situation by executing repairs and boiler changes, but this had little impact on the problem; the LB&SCR Locomotive and Wagon Superintendent D. E. Marsh received much of the blame for the problem, developing for some years, he was granted leave of absence due to sickness in 1910, followed by his resignation in July 1911. Billinton had been invited to take over on a temporary basis during Marsh's sickness, promptly set about re-organising the works and reducing the backlog by using emerging Time and motion study techniques.
The LB&SCR directors recognised that part of the problem at Brighton was that the works was overwhelmed with work. In 1910 they purchased land at Lancing for a new carriage and wagon works, opened in 1912; this allowed Stroudley's carriage shed to be used as an overflow'stock shed' by the locomotive works and the motive power depot. Locomotives repaired at Brighton were sometimes taken to Lancing for their final painting. Once confirmed in his post as Locomotive Superintendent in 1913 Billinton presented proposals to the LB&SCR board to close Brighton works and concentrate all locomotive building and repair at a new facility adjacent to the carriage works at Lancing; however the advent of the First World War in 1914 put an end to this plan. Locomotive building was curtailed at Brighton after 1916 and the works became involved in munitions production. After the war there was again a substantial backlog of repairs and new construction did not resume until late 1920. Following the grouping of the LB&SCR and other railways in southern England to form the Southern Railway, in 1923, much of the new locomotive construction for the new railway was transferred to the more
A switcher or shunter is a small railroad locomotive intended not for moving trains over long distances but rather for assembling trains ready for a road locomotive to take over, disassembling a train, brought in, moving railroad cars around – a process known as switching or shunting. They do this in classification yards. Switchers may make short transfer runs and be the only motive power on branch lines and switching and terminal railroads; the term can be used to describe the workers operating these engines or engaged in directing shunting operations. The typical switcher is optimised for its job, being low-powered but with a high starting tractive effort for getting heavy cars rolling quickly. Switchers are geared to produce high torque but are restricted to low top speeds and have small diameter driving wheels. Switchers are rail analogs to tugboats. US switchers tend to be larger, with bogies to allow them to be used on tight radiuses. European shunters tend to be smaller and more have fixed axles.
They often maintained coupling rods for longer than other locomotive types, although bogie types have long been used where heavy loads are involved, such as at steelworks. Switching is hard work, used switch engines wear out from the abuse of constant hard contacts with cars and frequent starting and stopping.. Some types have been remarkably long-lived. Diesel switchers tend to have a high cab and lower and/or narrower hoods containing the diesel engines, for all round visibility. Slugs are used because they allow greater tractive effort to be applied. Nearly all slugs used for switching are of cabless variety. Good visibility in both directions is critical, because a switcher may be running in either direction; some earlier diesel switchers used cow-calf configurations of two powered units in order to provide greater power. The vast majority of modern switchers are diesels, but countries with near-total electrification, like Switzerland, use electric switchers. Prior to the introduction of diesel-electric locomotives, electric shunting locomotives were used to an extent in Great Britain where heavy trains needed to be started on steep gradients.
The steeply-graded Quayside Branch in Newcastle upon Tyne was electrified by the North Eastern Railway in 1905, two steeplecab locomotives were built to handle all traffic on the line. One of these, No. 1, resides at Locomotion in Shildon. On the opposite side of the Tyne, the electrified lines owned by the Harton Coal Company in South Shields for the movement of coal and colliery waste to shipping facilities on the river was one of the more extensive industrial networks. A number of the early German locomotives built for use on these lines have been preserved. Electric locomotives were extensively employed for moving the coke cars at cokeworks, obtaining power from a side wire, as third rail or overhead line electrification would have been impractical; these specialised locomotives were tall steeple-cab types not seen anywhere else, operated on a short length of track between the ovens and the quenching tower. Despite their ubiquity few have survived into preservation as there is little scope of operating them due to their unique means of obtaining power, slow speed and the fact they exceed the loading gauge of most railway lines.
One example built by Greenwood and Batley in Armley, Leeds is preserved at the Middleton Railway, not far from where it was built. Small industrial shunters are sometimes of the battery-electric type. An early battery-electric shunting locomotive is shown here; the Tyne and Wear Metro has three battery electric shunters built by Hunslet, which are used to haul engineering trains when the overhead supply is switched off. New Zealand Railways imported and manufactured locally battery-electric shunters in the 1920s: the EB class and the E class Flywheel energy storage was used experimentally by Sentinel; the "GE three-power boxcab locomotive" was a type of switcher developed in the USA in the 1920s. It was a diesel-electric locomotive which could alternatively run on batteries or from a third rail or overhead supply, it was a type of electro-diesel locomotive. Steam shunter/switchers are now of historical interest. Steam switchers were either tank locomotives or had special tenders, with narrow coal bunkers and/or sloped tender decks to increase rearward visibility.
Headlights, where carried, were mounted on both ends. Most were either side-tank or saddle-tank types, however in the usual departure from its neighbours' practice, the Great Western Railway used pannier tanks for shunting and branch line work, a practice which the Western Region of BR perpetuated until steam traction was phased out, with several examples joining a 9F as banking engines to assist locomotives on the notoriously arduous ascent of the Lickey Incline, replacing the LMS "Jinties" which had carried out the task alongside "Big Emma"; as diesel shunters began to appear in ever-increasing numbers, attempts were made by companies such as Sentinel to adapt the vertical boilers from their steam powered road vehicles for use in shunting locomotives, in order to compete with the newcomers. Although these were found to be equal in power and efficiency to most of the early diesel designs, their development came too late to have any real impact. Outwardly, they bear more resemblance to diesels than steam l
Steam locomotives of British Railways
The steam locomotives of British Railways were used by British Railways over the period 1948–1968. The vast majority of these were inherited from its four constituent companies, the "Big Four". In addition, BR built 2,537 steam locomotives in the period 1948–1960, 1,538 to pre-nationalisation designs and 999 to its own standard designs; these locomotives had short working lives, some as little as five years, because of the decision to end the use of steam traction by 1968, against a design life of over 30 years and a theoretical final withdrawal date of between 1990 and 2000. British Railways was created on 1 January 1948 principally by the merger of the "Big Four" grouped railway companies: the Great Western Railway, the London and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway, it inherited a wide legacy of locomotives and rolling stock, much of which needed replacing due to the ravages of World War II. A wide variety of locomotives was acquired from the four major constituent companies.
These had standardised their own designs. See: Locomotives of the Great Western Railway List of GWR locomotives as of 31 December 1947 Locomotives of the Southern Railway List of Southern Railway locomotives as of 31 December 1947 Locomotives of the London and Scottish Railway List of LMS locomotives as of 31 December 1947 Locomotives of the London and North Eastern Railway List of LNER locomotives as of 31 December 1947In addition, a handful of locomotives were inherited from minor constituents; the 1948 Locomotive Exchange Trials compared locomotives from each company against each other. After using letter prefixes, a numbering scheme was decided on in March 1948. Ex-GWR locomotives retained their numbers and it was decided to add 30000 to the Southern numbers, 40000 to the LMS numbers and 60000 to the LNER numbers. There were some exceptions though. BR adopted a modified version of the LMS classification system, itself based on the Midland Railway's system; each locomotive class was given a number 0–9 that signified its power, 0 for the least powerful and 9 for the most, with a suffix of F or P, indicating freight and passenger roles respectively.
Freight power ranged from 0–9, passenger from 0–8. Many locomotives were used for both roles, in which case they were given two class numbers, the P-rating first e.g. 3P4F or 6P5F. A slight change from the LMS system saw those where the freight classification equalled the passenger classification reclassified as xMT, MT standing for mixed traffic, e.g. for the LMS Black Five locomotives, LMS 5P5F became BR 5MT. Mixed traffic locomotives had power in the range of classes 2–6. In addition to the inherited and new-build locomotives, B. R. purchased 620 locomotives of three types from the War Department. These had been in use on railways in Great Britain and elsewhere in Europe during the Second World War. For two of these types, BR was adding to two classes it had. BR had inherited 556 ex-LMS Stanier Class 8F 2-8-0s, added 39 in 1949 and an additional three in 1957, bringing the class total to 666. Additionally, it had acquired 200 ex-LNER Class O7 2-8-0s of the WD Austerity 2-8-0 type, to which it added another 533 examples.
The ex-LNER locomotives were renumbered from the ex-LNER 6xxxx series into the BR series as 90000-90100,90422-90520. The third type, of which it had no other examples, were the 25 of the WD Austerity 2-10-0s. Of the eight WD ex-LMS Fowler Class 3F 0-6-0Ts exported to France, the five survivors were repatriated in 1948, resumed their original numbers in the sequence of LMS Fowler Class 3F locomotives; the ex-WD Hunslet Austerity 0-6-0STs were ex-LNER Class J94 locomotives and are included in the total of LNER locomotives inherited. The newly nationalised network continued to be run as four different concerns, pursued the policy of building of well-established designs; some of these were quite old, one class being a pre-Grouping design. Great Western management was opposed to nationalisation and built many pannier tanks, resulting in a surplus of them. 452 locomotives were built to ex-GWR designs. The SR designs built by BR included 50 Bulleid Pacifics. Many of these were rebuilt in an un-streamlined form.
BR completed and steamed one of the experimental SR Leader class, but did not take it into stock, cancelled the remaining orders in various states of completeness. 640 locomotives were built to LMS designs. They were built at various BR works, not just at the ex-LMS works at Crewe and Horwich. Many of the BR standard designs were based on the LMS designs. BR built 396 locomotives to LNER designs; the J72 Class was a North Eastern Railway design, dating from 1898. From 1951, BR started to build steam locomotives to its own standard designs, which were based on LMS practice but incorporating ideas and modifications from the other constituent companies and America, their design was overseen by Robert Riddles. Characteristic features were high running plates, two cylinders and streamlined cabs. Although more were ordered, 999 BR "Standards" were constructed: the last, 92220 Evening Star, was built in 1960. Most never were withdrawn in working order. Riddles put his case for continuing to build steam locomotives in his presidential address to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in November 1950.
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new