SNCF TGV Duplex
The TGV Duplex is a French high-speed train of the TGV family, manufactured by Alstom, operated by the French national railway company SNCF. It is unique among TGV trains; the Duplex inaugurated the third generation of TGV trainsets. It was specially designed to increase capacity on high-speed lines with saturated traffic. With two seating levels and a seating capacity of 508 passengers, the Duplex increases the passenger capacity. While the TGV Duplex started as a small component of the TGV fleet, it has become one of the system's workhorses; the LGV Sud-Est from Paris to Lyon is the busiest high-speed line in France. After its opening in 1981 it reached capacity. Several options were available to increase capacity; the separation between trains was reduced to three minutes on some TGV lines, but the complex signalling systems, high-performance brakes required, limited this option. Another option is to widen the train but is not practicable due to loading gauge restrictions. Running two trainsets coupled together in multiple-unit configuration provides extra capacity, but required long station platforms.
Given length and width restrictions, the remaining option is to adopt a bi-level configuration, with seating on two levels, adding 45% more passenger capacity. TGV Duplex sets are run with a single deck Réseau set or another Duplex set; the Duplex feasibility study was completed in 1987. In 1988, a full-scale mockup was built to gauge customer reactions to the bi-level concept, traditionally associated with commuter and regional rail rather than with high-speed intercity trains. A TGV Sud-Est trailer was tested in revenue service with the inside furnished to simulate the lower floor of a bi-level arrangement, that year another TGV Sud-Est was modified to study the dynamic behavior of a train with a higher center of gravity. Discussions with GEC-Alsthom began soon after, in July 1990 the company won the contract to build the "TGV-2N", as it was known; the contract was finalized in early 1991. The first tests of a bi-level trainset were in November 1994. Soon after their first run, the first rake of eight trailers was tested at 290 km/h on the Sud-Est line.
The trainset was powered by TGV Réseau power cars at the time, as the Duplex power cars were not ready. The first Duplex power car was mated to the bi-level trailers on 21 June 1995; the most important innovation is the efficiency of the Duplex design. Comparing an original TGV Sud-Est and a Duplex trainset shows that the double-decker design has improvements in both power-to-weight ratio and weight-per-seat overhead: In this comparison, "power" refers to installed power, not all of, used when operating. Aluminium bodies: the strict requirement of a 17-tonne axle load limit made it imperative to cut down on weight, wherever possible. Extruded aluminum construction made possible a 20% reduction in structure weight. Improved styling and aerodynamics: the nose of the power units and the gap between trailers were improved such that a Duplex train at cruise speed of 300 km/h experiences only 4% more drag than a single-level TGV; the nose, the first significant departure from Cooper's original design, was styled by industrial designer Roger Tallon, as was the rest of the trainset.
Crashworthiness: crush zones and rigid passenger compartments protect safety in the event of a collision. The power units' frame is designed to take a 500 tonnes of force frontal load, features structural fuses to absorb impact energy. Active pantograph: the Faiveley CX used on the Duplex has a pneumatically actuated active control system. Two small gas cylinders in the wiper armature can tune the stiffness of the pantograph's upper stage, to optimize contact at any speed. All wheel disc brakes: earlier TGVs used disc brakes only on unpowered axles. Weight gains on the Duplex power units allowed the installation of disc brakes directly on the wheels of powered axles, instead of using the traditional tread brakes; this does not improve braking performance, but it leaves the wheel tread smooth and reduces rolling noise. Quiet roof fans: the cooling fans in TGV power units produce the most noticeable sound when the train is in a station; the fans, located in the roof of the unit, were redesigned to be quieter.
World's fastest train: in 2007 a short formation TGV Duplex was fitted with distributed traction as used in the future generation AGV setting a new speed record of 574.8 km/h. Known as Réseau Duplex, they take the serial number 600; this version came into existence when the carriages of nineteen TGV-Réseau sets were used to create the TGV POS sets. The Réseau powercars of these sets, with some aerodynamic adjustments, joined new Duplex sets, they were the first series of "inter-recoupled series" TGV to achieve a sustainable basis by SNCF. Instead of ordering brand new POS sets, the railways modified a pre-existing order for 19 Duplex as follows: 19 sets of 8 Duplex-carriages, identical to the original TGV Duplex, to be powered by the 38 surplus TGV Réseau powercars. 38 new tri-current powercars, based on the Duplex-version, making them suitable for use on the Deutsche Bahn's and Swiss Federal Railways' networks. These were joined to the nineteen sets of Réseau carriages, renovated by Christian Lacroix, becoming the series "4400" or TGV POS.
Their livery is identical to that of other Duplex units. Called "duplex", these 19 units, number
Petit-Croix is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in northeastern France. Communes of the Territoire de Belfort department INSEE
Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries. Since January 2016, the name Burgundy has referred to a specific part of the French administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre; the first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, who were incorporated in the Roman Empire as Gallo-Romans. During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps, they founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.
The region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté meaning free county. Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries; the first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux; the Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy.
The Abbey of Vezelay a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Cluny was totally destroyed during the French Revolution. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold; the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province; however the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s; the modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy. The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne.
Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces: Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, southern half of Yonne. This corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy. However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, but it makes up the Franche-Comté region. A small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais: now the department of Nièvre; the northern half of Yonne is a territory, not part of Burgundy, was a frontier between Champagne, Île-de-France, Orléanais, being part of each of these provinces at different times in history. The climate of this region is oceanic, with a continental influence; the regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas, it is well known for both its red and white wines made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc.
The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, Beaujolais, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Tournus cathedral, Brancion, the castles of Cormatin and Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, the Pézanin Arboretum, Vézelay Abbey. Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot; these industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town. Lecomte, Bernard.
Burgundy, What a Story!. ISBN 978-2-902650-02-6. Davies, Norman. "Ch.3: Burgundia: Five, Six or Seven Kingdoms (c. 411-1
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and sovereign, federated state, formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heilbronn, Pforzheim and Ulm; the sobriquet Ländle is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, parts of Swabia. In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.
The Holy Roman Empire was established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this rural area to the United States for economic reasons. After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. Baden-Württemberg became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate and Bavaria, Switzerland.
Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream through the state past Tübingen, Heilbronn and Mannheim. The Rhine forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border; the Black Forest, the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance with Switzerland and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being defined, it shares the foothills of the Alps with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land. The Danube River has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts and nine independent cities, both grouped into the four Administrative Districts of Freiburg, Stuttgart, Tübingen.
Map Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district: The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany, who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament. From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag; the Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. Although Baden-Württemberg has few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a low unemployment rate historically.
A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, SAP SE and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen. In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources and still rural in many areas, the region is industrialised. In 2003, there were 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500; the latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 e
High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks. While there is no single standard that applies worldwide, new lines in excess of 250 kilometres per hour and existing lines in excess of 200 kilometres per hour are considered to be high-speed, with some extending the definition to include lower speeds in areas for which these speeds still represent significant improvements; the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, the first such system, began operations in Japan in 1964 and was known as the bullet train. High-speed trains operate on standard gauge tracks of continuously welded rail on grade-separated right-of-way that incorporates a large turning radius in its design. Many countries have developed high-speed rail to connect major cities, including Austria, China, France, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Uzbekistan. Only in Europe does HSR cross international borders.
China had 29,000 kilometres of HSR as of December 2018, accounting for two-thirds of the world's total. Multiple definitions for high-speed rail are in use worldwide; the European Union Directive 96/48/EC, Annex 1 defines high-speed rail in terms of: Infrastructure: track built specially for high-speed travel or specially upgraded for high-speed travel. Minimum Speed Limit: Minimum speed of 250 km/h on lines specially built for high speed and of about 200 km/h on existing lines which have been specially upgraded; this must apply to at least one section of the line. Rolling stock must be able to reach a speed of at least 200 km/h to be considered high speed. Operating conditions: Rolling stock must be designed alongside its infrastructure for complete compatibility and quality of service; the International Union of Railways identifies three categories of high-speed rail: Category I – New tracks specially constructed for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 250 km/h. Category II – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h.
Category III – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h, but with some sections having a lower allowable speed. A third definition of high-speed and high-speed rail requires simultaneous fulfilment of the following two conditions: Maximum achievable running speed in excess of 200 km/h, or 250 km/h for high-speed, Average running speed across the corridor in excess of 150 km/h, or 200 km/h for high-speed; the UIC prefers to use "definitions" because they consider that there is no single standard definition of high-speed rail, nor standard usage of the terms. They make use of the European EC Directive 96/48, stating that high speed is a combination of all the elements which constitute the system: infrastructure, rolling stock and operating conditions; the International Union of Railways states that high-speed rail is a set of unique features, not a train travelling above a particular speed. Many conventionally hauled trains are able to reach 200 km/h in commercial service but are not considered to be high-speed trains.
These include the French SNCF Intercités and German DB IC. The criterion of 200 kilometres per hour is selected for several reasons. Standard signaling equipment is limited to speeds below 200 km/h with the traditional limits of 79 mph in the US, 160 km/h in Germany and 125 mph in Britain. Above those speeds positive train control or the European Train Control System becomes necessary or mandatory. National domestic standards may vary from the international ones. Only one HSR line has been permanently closed after being put into commercial service, the KTX Incheon International Airport to Seoul Line, due to a mix of issues, including poor ridership and track sharing. Railways were the first form of rapid land transportation and had an effective monopoly on long distance passenger traffic until the development of the motor car and airliners in the early-mid 20th century. Speed had always been an important factor for railroads and they tried to achieve higher speeds and decrease journey times. Rail transportation in the late 19th Century was not much slower than non-high-speed trains today and many railroads operated fast express trains which averaged speeds of around 100 km/h.
High-speed rail development began in Germany in 1899 when the Prussian state railway joined with ten electrical and engineering firms and electrified 72 km of military owned railway between Marienfelde and Zossen. The line used three-phase current at 45 Hz; the Van der Zypen & Charlier company of Deutz, Cologne built two railcars, one fitted with electrical equipment from Siemens-Halske, the second with equipment from Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft, that were tested on the Marienfelde–Zossen line during 1902 and 1903. On 23 October 1903, the S&H-equipped railcar achieved a speed of 206.7 km/h and on 27 October the AEG-equipped railcar achieved 210.2 km
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
SNCF TGV Sud-Est
The SNCF TGV Sud-Est or TGV-PSE is a French high speed TGV train built by Alstom and operated by SNCF, the French national railway company. It is a semi-permanently coupled electric multiple unit and was built for operation between Paris and the south-east of France; the TGV Sud-Est fleet was built between 1978 and 1988 and operated the first TGV service from Paris to Lyon in 1981. There are 107 passenger sets operating, of which nine are tri-current and the rest bi-current. There are seven bi-current half-sets - TGV La Poste - without seats which carry mail for La Poste between Paris and Avignon; these are painted in a distinct yellow livery. Each set is made up of two power cars and eight carriages, including a powered bogie in each of the carriages adjacent to the power cars, they are 2.904 m wide. They weigh 385 tonnes with a power output of 6,450 kW under 25 kV; when the trains were delivered they wore a distinctive orange and white livery. The last set to wear this livery was repainted in the silver livery similar to the TGV Atlantique sets in 2001.
From 2012 trains will be repainted in the new SNCF Carmillon livery. The sets were built to run at 270 km/h but most were upgraded to 300 km/h during their mid-life refurbishment in preparation for the opening of the LGV Méditerranée; the few sets which still have a maximum speed of 270 km/h operate on routes which have a comparatively short distance on the lignes à grande vitesse, such as those to Switzerland via Dijon. SNCF did not consider it financially worthwhile to upgrade their speed for a marginal reduction in journey time. In March 2012, set 951 was taken to London to advertise the Euro Carex project. In February 2013 the TGV Lyria sets; these were replaced by TGV POS sets. The TGV sets were used on services between Paris, Lyon and other cities in the south-east of France. In 2013 there were still 55 TGV Sud-Est sets used on services to south-eastern France and cross-country services. Today around 40 sets operate on services from Paris to the north of France, to Lille, Calais and Boulogne.
Four of the TGV Sud-Est cars are preserved No. 53 at Mulhouse. No. 57 at the former La Chapelle depot as part of the "Grand Train" exhibition 40. No. 61 by the Bischheim technicenter and intended for the Cité du train, Mulhouse No. 112 at the Railway Museum in Ambérieu-en-Bugey. List of high speed trains Spec Sheet