4 (New York City Subway service)
The 4 Lexington Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored forest green since it uses the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan; the 4 operates at all times. Daytime service operates between Woodlawn in the Bronx and Utica Avenue in Crown Heights, making local stops in the Bronx and express stops in Manhattan and Brooklyn. During rush hours in the peak direction, 4 trains skip 138th Street–Grand Concourse. Late night service makes local stops along its entire route; until 1983, rush hour 4 trains originated and terminated at Flatbush Avenue–Brooklyn College in Brooklyn. During the extension of the IRT Lexington Avenue Line north of 42nd Street–Grand Central Terminal, shuttle elevated trains served the IRT Jerome Avenue Line starting June 2, 1917. On April 15, 1918, shuttles were extended to Woodlawn. A second shuttle, using subway cars, from 149th Street–Grand Concourse to Grand Central started on July 17, 1918.
On August 1, 1918, the entire Jerome and Lexington Avenue Lines were completed and the connection to the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line at 42nd Street was removed. Trains began running between Bowling Green. On December 11, 1921, Lexington Avenue–Jerome Avenue subway trains began running north of 167th Street at all times, replacing elevated trains, which ran to Woodlawn during rush hours, but from on terminated at 167th Street during non-rush hours. Beginning on November 4, 1925, rush hour 4 trains were extended from Atlantic Avenue to Crown Heights–Utica Avenue. Two years on December 5, 1927, weekday evening service was extended to Utica Avenue; the following year, midday 4 service went to Utica Avenue. As of 1934, 4 trains ran from Woodlawn to Utica Avenue weekday rush and Saturday morning peak and afternoon, to Atlantic Avenue weekday midday, Saturday morning after the peak, late nights, to South Ferry evenings and Sundays. Trains ran express in Manhattan except late nights, in Brooklyn; this was the first time the 6 became the Pelham Shuttle between Pelham Bay Park and 125th Street–Lexington Avenue.
On August 20, 1938, Saturday morning after the peak service was extended to Utica Avenue. Beginning on May 10, 1946, all 4 trains were made express during late nights running on 12 minute headways as the 6 went back to Brooklyn Bridge during that time. 4 trains ran local from 12:30 to 5:30am. At this time 4 trains terminated at Atlantic Avenue. Beginning on December 16, 1946, trains were extended from Atlantic Avenue to New Lots Avenue during late nights, running express between Atlantic and Franklin Avenues; the New York City Board of Transportation, predecessor to the New York City Transit Authority, began to introduce replacements to older subway cars beginning with the R12 cars in 1948. With these cars, numbers were publicly designated to the former IRT lines. Lexington–Jerome trains were assigned the number 4. By 1964, all cars had the route numbers on them. During 1950, Saturday morning service was cut back to South Ferry. Starting on December 15, 1950, four 4 trains began operating during rush hours to Flatbush Avenue on the Nostrand Avenue Line.
On that day, weekday midday service was cut back from Atlantic Avenue to South Ferry. Additionally, on January 18, 1952, 4 service to Atlantic Avenue during weekday middays was restored. On March 19, 1954, late-night service in Brooklyn began making all stops, but resumed operating express between Atlantic Avenue and Franklin Avenue on June 29, 1956. On May 3, 1957, the weekday rush trains to Flatbush Avenue were discontinued, while at the same time evening and Sunday afternoon trains were extended to Utica Avenue, while Sunday morning trains were extended to Atlantic Avenue. Starting on March 1, 1960, late-night 4 trains resumed making all stops in Manhattan; this arrangement ended on October 1965, when the 4 went back express in Manhattan late nights. Beginning on April 8, 1960, nearly all AM rush hour 4 trains ran to Flatbush Avenue, PM rush hour 4 trains alternated between Flatbush and Utica Avenues. During weekday evenings and late nights 4 trains went to Flatbush Avenue, making all stops in Brooklyn.
As a result of the opening of the main portion of the Chrystie Street Connection along the Manhattan Bridge on November 26, 1967, the 4 train was color coded magenta under the first color scheme. The color coding of lines was introduced as a matter of having a universal system of signage and nomenclature. By 1972, the 4 began to skip 138th Street weekdays during rush hours in the peak direction which it continues to do. At that time, the 4 went to Atlantic Avenue at all times, but was extended to Utica Avenue rush hours running express in Brooklyn along Eastern Parkway. Select 4 trains ran to Flatbush Avenue rush hours as well running express between Atlantic and Franklin Avenues, late night service was still all stops in Brooklyn to Flatbush Avenue. On May 23, 1976, Sunday morning trains were extended to Utica Avenue, express in Brooklyn. Beginning on January 13, 1980, all 4 trains resumed operating local in Manhattan during late night hours to replace the 6, which again became the Pelham Shuttle between 125th Street and Pelham Bay Park.
This service cut affected 15,000 riders, was criticized by Manhattan Borough President Andrew Stein as no public hearing was held. While late night 6 service to Brooklyn Bridge was restored on October 3, 1999, the 4 continues to run local at those times. Starting
R (New York City Subway service)
The R Broadway Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow; the R operates at all times. Daytime service operates between 71st Avenue in Forest Hills, 95th Street in Bay Ridge, making local stops along its entire route. One northbound A. M. rush hour trip terminates at 96th Street/Second Avenue in the Upper East Side of Manhattan instead of 71st Avenue in Queens. Late night service operates between Whitehall Street -- South Ferry in 95th Street; the R was the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation's 2 service, running along the BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn traveling through the Montague Street Tunnel to Manhattan running local on the BMT Broadway Line. The 2 became the R in 1961; the R ran local along the BMT Astoria Line in Queens, terminating at Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard until it switched terminals with the N in 1987. After 1987, the R ran via the IND Queens Boulevard Line to Queens. A variant of the R, from Bay Ridge to Lower Manhattan via the BMT Nassau Street Line, ran from 1967 until 1987.
The current R service is the successor to the original Route 2 of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation. When 2 service began on January 15, 1916, it ran between Chambers Street on the BMT Nassau Street Line and 86th Street on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, using the Manhattan Bridge to cross the East River, running via Fourth Avenue local. Service on the BMT Broadway Line, which at the time ran only between Whitehall Street–South Ferry and Times Square–42nd Street, began two years on January 15, 1918. On July 10, 1919, service was extended to 57th Street–Seventh Avenue with the opening of that station; the Montague Street Tunnel and the 60th Street Tunnel both opened on August 1, 1920. At that time, the 2 service was rerouted from the Manhattan Bridge to the Montague Street Tunnel, running local from Queensboro Plaza in Queens to 86th Street–Fourth Avenue in Brooklyn; the Bay Ridge–95th Street station opened on October 31, 1925, became the service's new southern terminus. During this time, rush-hour specials to Chambers Street were sporadically added and removed becoming an addition to the line.
At one time, including during 1931, additional midday service operated local between 57th Street and Whitehall Street–South Ferry. The 2 used the Nassau Street Loop during rush hours, entering Manhattan via the Manhattan Bridge or Montague Street Tunnel and leaving via the other. On October 17, 1949, the platform edges on the BMT Astoria Line had been shaved back to accommodate the larger BMT trains, the BMT's Astoria Shuttle was replaced with service from the 2 Fourth Avenue Line operating from Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria, Queens to Bay Ridge–95th Street in Brooklyn at all times. On June 29, 1950, special rush hour trains began running between Bay Ridge–95th Street and Chambers Street via the south side of the Manhattan Bridge and/or the Montague Street Tunnel; the special rush hour trains were discontinued two years later. In the winter of 1960–1961, letter designations started to appear on the route with the introduction of the R27s, which featured it on roll signs; the route was labeled the RR "Fourth Avenue Local via Tunnel".
This was in accordance with the Independent Subway System's lettering system, which gave double letters to local trains and single letters to express trains. On January 1, 1961, the RR's northern terminus was relocated to its current location at Forest Hills–71st Avenue, via the BMT 60th Street Tunnel Connection known as the "11th Street Cut", the IND Queens Boulevard Line. Night and weekend RR trains still terminated at 57th Street in Manhattan. PM rush hour Fourth Avenue–Nassau trains went back to the routing, used prior to 1959, in which trains ran from Broad Street to 95th Street via the Manhattan Bridge, the Fourth Avenue express tracks. On November 27, 1967, the day after the Chrystie Street Connection opened, the RR was moved back to Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard on the BMT Astoria Line. Replacing it on the Queens Boulevard Line was the new EE service, running weekdays only between Forest Hills–71st Avenue and Whitehall Street; the Nassau Street specials were through-routed from Bay Ridge–95th Street to 168th Street in Jamaica as RJ, along the route used today by the J and Z services.
Under the first color scheme, RR was colored green and RJ was red. In the original Chrystie Street routing plans, the TA planned to eliminate the RR service, maintain the RJ route as the main Bay Ridge to Jamaica line; the RJ designation was only used from November 1967 until July 1, 1968, when it was cut back to Chambers Street and renamed as additional RR rush-hour peak-direction service. Because track connections between the Nassau Street Loop and the south tracks of the Manhattan Bridge were severed as part of the construction of the Chrystie Street Connection, these trains could not run in a loop anymore. On August 30, 1976, the EE was discontinued, with the N being extended to Forest Hills on weekdays to replace it. In 1979, the MTA released a revised coloring scheme. Although BMT Nassau Street Line services were colored brown, the rush hour RR service that used the Nassau Street Line was colored yellow, using a diamond bullet; the RR service via Nassau Street was referred to as the "Chambers Street Special".
On May 6, 1985, the MTA eliminated double letters for local service.
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
W (New York City Subway service)
The W Broadway Local is a rapid transit service of the New York City Subway's B Division. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow; the W operates weekdays only except late nights between Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria and South Ferry/Whitehall Street in Lower Manhattan, making local stops along its entire route. The W is internally staffed and scheduled as part of the N. Introduced on July 22, 2001, the W ran at all times on the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue, it was truncated in 2004 to its current service pattern until June 25, 2010, when it was eliminated due to the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's financial crisis. The route was reinstated on November 7, 2016, using its original emblem and 2004–2010 routing, as part of the updated service pattern related to the opening of the Second Avenue Subway; the W was conceived as an extra Broadway Line local service running on the Astoria and Broadway lines to Whitehall Street in Manhattan.
This service was a variant of the N route, which in the 1970s and 1980s ran express on the Broadway Line between Forest Hills–71st Avenue in Queens and Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue in Brooklyn. At the time, some trains ran local on Broadway and only traveled between Forest Hills and Whitehall Street. However, reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge's subway tracks between 1986 and 2004 forced the N, which ran express on the Broadway Line and via the bridge, to run local via the Montague Street Tunnel; this service change precluded W local service from running as envisioned. The W bullet appeared on roll signs as a yellow diamond bullet, but on the R68s and R68As, round bullet signs were installed; the W appeared on the digital signs of the R44s and R46s with any route and destination combination that could be used for the Broadway Line. The W label was first used in 2001, when the two tracks on the Manhattan Bridge's northern side, which connected to the IND Sixth Avenue Line, were closed for repairs.
This required the suspension of Sixth Avenue B service south of 34th Street–Herald Square as it used those tracks to travel to and from Brooklyn. The W service replaced the B on the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn, ran on the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan and BMT Astoria Line in Queens, it replicated the route of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation's old 3 route named the T, that operated from 1916 until 1967, when the B replaced it. The W replicated the split in B service from 1986 to 1988, when the bridge's north tracks were first closed, although both halves of the route were labeled B. W service began on July 22, 2001, operating between Coney Island and Astoria-Ditmars Boulevard, Queens via the West End Local and Fourth Avenue Express in Brooklyn; the W ran express on the Astoria Line during rush hours in the peak direction until 9:30 PM, local at all other times. Evening service terminated at 57th Street–Seventh Avenue in Manhattan, while late night and weekend evening service operated as a shuttle within Brooklyn only, terminating at 36th Street during late nights and Atlantic Avenue–Pacific Street on weekends.
After September 11, 2001, all Broadway Line service in Lower Manhattan was suspended due to extensive damage caused by the Collapse of the World Trade Center. As a result, the entire N route was suspended, W trains ran at all times between Ditmars Boulevard and Coney Island, it made. During late nights, it ran in two sections: between Ditmars Boulevard and 34th Street, skipping 49th Street in the northbound direction, in Brooklyn between 36th Street and Coney Island. Normal service on both routes resumed on October 28, 2001; the Astoria express service was discontinued on January 15, 2002. Because it was unpopular among Astoria residents. Around that time, evening service was extended from 57th Street to Astoria. On September 8, 2002, W service was extended to Astoria during late nights and weekends, running local via the Fourth Avenue and Broadway Lines and Montague Street Tunnel; this was because ongoing reconstruction of the Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue terminal left the W as the only train serving it.
This change gave the West End Line late-night service to Manhattan for the first time. When the Manhattan Bridge's north tracks were restored to service on February 22, 2004, the W was curtailed to its current service pattern, running weekdays only from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. as an local service between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard and Whitehall Street–South Ferry, Lower Manhattan. The Brooklyn portion was replaced by the D, extended over the north side of the bridge and down the West End Line. W service between Manhattan and Queens remained, because of increasing ridership on the BMT Astoria Line; the first three W trains of the day entered service at 86th Street in Gravesend and the last three trains of the night continued in service to Kings Highway. These trips ran local in Brooklyn via the Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Fourth Avenue and BMT Sea Beach lines. On July 27, 2008, the W was extended to run until 11:00 p.m in response to growth in the subway system's ridership. On March 24, 2010, the MTA announced the elimination of the W due to financial shortfalls.
In its place, on weekdays, the N train ran local north of Canal Street while the Q tra
N (New York City Subway service)
The N Broadway Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow; the N operates at all times between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria and Stillwell Avenue in Coney Island, Brooklyn. The N uses the BMT Astoria Line in Queens, the south side of the Manhattan Bridge, BMT Fourth Avenue Line and BMT Sea Beach Line in Brooklyn. North of 57th Street, limited rush hour service operates via the Second Avenue Subway to and from 96th Street on the Upper East Side, instead of Queens. During the daytime on weekdays, the N runs express between 34th Street–Herald Square in Manhattan and 36th Street in Brooklyn and local elsewhere. Local service in Manhattan is provided by the W, internally staffed and scheduled as part of the N. Weekend daytime service is the same as weekday service, except that it operates local in Manhattan between 34th and Canal Streets. During late nights, the N makes local stops along its entire route and uses the Montague Street Tunnel to travel between Manhattan and Brooklyn.
The N was the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation's 4 service, running along the BMT Sea Beach Line to the Manhattan Bridge. The 4 used the BMT Nassau Street Line in Lower Manhattan from 1915 to 1917, after which it ran express on the BMT Broadway Line; the 4 became the N in 1961. The N ran local in Queens along the IND Queens Boulevard Line to Forest Hills–71st Avenue from 1976 until 1987, when it switched terminals with the R. From 1986 to 2004, reconstruction on the Manhattan Bridge forced the N to run local on the Broadway Line via the Montague Street Tunnel; the route, now the N was BMT service 4, known as the Sea Beach Line or Sea Beach Express. On June 22, 1915, the current BMT Sea Beach Line opened, replacing a street level "el" that branched off of the Fifth Avenue El with the former BMT West End Line, it used the south tracks of the Manhattan Bridge, which at that time connected to the BMT Nassau Street Line. On September 4, 1917, the first part of the BMT Broadway Line and the north side tracks of the Manhattan Bridge opened.
Trains ran from 14th Street–Union Square to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue, now using the bridge's northern tracks. On January 15, 1918, service was extended to Times Square–42nd Street. On May 2, 1957, service was extended north via the express tracks to 57th Street–Seventh Avenue. In 1959, trains began stopping at DeKalb Avenue during midday hours, they bypassed DeKalb Avenue at all times except late nights. Beginning on January 1, 1961, trains bypassed DeKalb Avenue during rush hours only. In addition, on weekday evenings, late nights, all day Sundays, they ran local on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line; the N designation began to appear when R27 subway cars were moved to the service in April 1961. The NX designation was used for a rush hour peak-direction "super-express" service along the express tracks of the Sea Beach Line, beginning at Brighton Beach on the BMT Brighton Line, running through Coney Island, following the N route to 57th Street–Seventh Avenue; this short-lived service ended April 12, 1968 due to low ridership.
Starting on Monday, April 15, 1968, the five NX trips instead ran as N trips. On August 30, 1976, weekday N service was extended north over the BMT 60th Street Tunnel Connection to Forest Hills–71st Avenue to replace the discontinued EE. While many N trains ran the full route from Coney Island to 71st Avenue, via the Manhattan Bridge and Broadway Express, some trains ran local during the rush hours only between Whitehall Street–South Ferry in Lower Manhattan and Forest Hills–71st Avenue, the former EE route. On August 27, 1977, N service was cut back during late nights, only operating between 36th Street and Coney Island. Reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge between 1986 and 2004 disrupted N service rerouting it via the Montague Street Tunnel. On April 26, 1986, the north side tracks were closed and services that ran on them were moved to the south side, running via the BMT Broadway Line; because of the large amount of train traffic now running on those tracks, rush hour and midday N service was rerouted via the Montague Street Tunnel, making local stops in Manhattan and Brooklyn, though evening and weekend trains continued to use the bridge and express tracks in Brooklyn.
The M, rerouted from the BMT Brighton Line to the BMT West End Line, replaced the N as the weekday express on the Fourth Avenue Line. On May 24, 1987, the N swapped northern terminals with the R; the N was switched to Astoria -- Ditmars Boulevard. This was done to give the R direct access to Jamaica Yard; this change was intended to improve the appearance and reliability of service on the R, since all trains on the Astoria and Broadway Lines were part of the graffiti-free program. When the north side of the Manhattan Bridge reopened and the south side was closed on December 11, 1988, the N began running local in Manhattan and via the Montague Tunnel at all times. Trains continued to run express in Brooklyn between Pacific Street and 59th Street/Fourth Avenue evenings and weekends; the Transit Authority and politicians pressured the New York State Department of Transportation to resume N train service on the bridge's south side on September 30, 1990, despite warnings from engineers
C (New York City Subway service)
The C Eighth Avenue Local is a 19-mile-long rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is blue; the C operates at all times except late nights between 168th Street in Washington Heights and Euclid Avenue in East New York, making local stops along its entire route. During late night hours, the A train, which runs express along the entire C route during daytime hours, makes all stops. Most C service ran only during rush hours, along the IND Concourse Line to Bedford Park Boulevard in the Bronx and along the IND Rockaway Line to Rockaway Park–Beach 116th Street in Queens; the C was at one point the only route to serve the Bronx, Manhattan and Queens all in a single trip. Outside of rush hour, local service in Manhattan was provided by the AA renamed K, which ran between 168th Street and Chambers Street/World Trade Center. In 1988, the K and C were consolidated into one service, during the 1990s, the C's routing was altered to create the current uniform service pattern.
Today, the C has a daily ridership of 250,000. The AA and CC services were the predecessors to the current C service. A and AA service began on September 10, 1932 with the opening of the first line of the Independent Subway System, the Eighth Avenue Line; the IND used single letters to refer to double letters for local services. The A ran express and the AA ran local from 168th Street to Chambers Street/World Trade Center, known at the time as Hudson Terminal; the AA ran at all times, it was extended to 207th Street during nights and on Sundays when the A did not run. On February 1, 1933, the AA was extended to the newly-opened Jay Street–Borough Hall station when the A did not run, continuing to terminate at Chambers Street when the A did run; the C and CC services began operation on July 1933 when the IND Concourse Line opened. The CC provided local service between Bedford Park Boulevard and Hudson Terminal during rush hours, was extended to 205th Street during non-rush hours, it replaced the AA as Eighth Avenue Local.
The C ran express, from 205th Street to Bergen Street in Brooklyn during rush hours. Beginning August 19, 1933, C service was cut back from Bergen Street, but started operating during non-rush hours. At the same time, CC service was cut back from 205th Street during non-rush hours. On January 1, 1936, C service was extended to Jay Street–Borough Hall. On April 9, 1936, C service was extended to Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets. After July 1, 1937, a few C trains continued to run to Bergen Street southbound in the AM rush hour and northbound in the PM rush hour. On the same date, weekend C service was discontinued, CC service was extended to 205th Street to compensate. On December 15, 1940, the IND Sixth Avenue Line opened. Two new services, the BB and D, began running; these lines ran on the Eighth Avenue Line in upper Manhattan, switching to the Sixth Avenue Line in Midtown. The BB ran local to 168th Street during rush hours; the D joined the C as the peak direction Concourse Express. CC trains now ran between Hudson Terminal and Bedford Park during rush hours and on Saturdays and during other times, the D made local stops in the Bronx, replacing CC service.
On the same date, limited morning rush hour service began between 205th Street and Utica Avenue, making local stops on the IND Fulton Street Line. AA service was reinstated during this time, but only during off-peak hours when the BB and CC did not operate; the CC would provide Eighth Avenue Line local service during rush hours, with the AA replacing it during off-peak hours unchanged until 1988. Beginning October 10, 1944, C trains no longer ran on Saturdays. On October 24, 1949, C express. Additional D service was added to offset this loss; the CC, which only ran during rush hours, began terminating at Broadway–Lafayette Street Mondays to Fridays, on Saturdays CC service continued to operate to Hudson Terminal. On December 29, 1951, Saturday CC service was discontinued. Weekday CC service returned to its previous terminal at Hudson Terminal on October 30, 1954. On August 30, 1976, the CC train replaced the E train as the rush-hour local along the IND Fulton Street Line and IND Rockaway Line, running from Rockaway Park–Beach 116th Street in Queens through Brooklyn and Manhattan to Bedford Park Boulevard in the Bronx, making it the only service to run through all four boroughs served by the subway.
The Rockaway Park Shuttle HH was renamed CC. This shuttle ran between Broad Channel and Rockaway Park except late nights. With this, all daytime service to/from Rockaway Park was named CC. Late nights, the shuttle ran between Euclid Avenue, Rockaway Park and Far Rockaway-Mott Avenue via Hammels Wye, was labeled A. On August 28, 1977, late night AA service was eliminated. On May 6, 1985, the IND practice of using double letters to indicate local service was discontinued; the AA was renamed the K and rush hour CC service was renamed C. The off-peak Rockaway Park Shuttle is renamed H; this change was not reflected in schedules until May 24, 1987. On December 10, 1988, the K designation was discontinued and merged into the C, which now ran at all times except late nights; the C ran from Bedford Park Boulevard to Rockaway Park during rush hours, 145th Street to Euclid Avenue during middays, from 145th Street to World Trade Center during evenings and weekends. The A now ran express in Brooklyn during middays, the B was extended to 168th Street during middays and early evenings.
On October 23, 1992, rush hour C service was cut back from Rockaway
Nevins Street (IRT Eastern Parkway Line)
Nevins Street is an express station on the IRT Eastern Parkway Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of Nevins Street, Flatbush Avenue, Fulton Street in Downtown Brooklyn, it is served by the 2 and 4 trains at all times, the 3 train all times except late nights, the 5 train on weekdays only; the IRT Brooklyn/Eastern Parkway Line was contracted in 1904 as a two-track line under Fulton Street expanding to three tracks under Flatbush Avenue, to end at the Long Island Rail Road terminal under Atlantic Avenue. The Board of Rapid Transit Railroad Commissioners halted work in April 1905 for redesign. By that date, the tunnels had been dug out and steelwork had been installed. Work resumed in October 1905 with two additional tracks added, making four under Fulton Street and five under Flatbush Avenue; the additional trackways were added outside the trackways set in place. Under the 1905 redesign, numerous provisions were made for connections to future routes. In the area around the Nevins Street station, constructed as a local station on a three track subway, a new lower level was added underpinning the structure, built.
The lower level had one trackway and platform in the station, with two connections on each side, all built at great cost under existing work, but none of it was used. In the 1950s, a derailment occurred on the curve north of the station; this derailment prompted the installation of grade timer signals. In 1981, the MTA listed the station among the 69 most deteriorated stations in the subway system; the station has two island platforms, situated between the express and local tracks in each direction. A fifth track once existed between the two express tracks; the fifth track was removed in 1956. Original plans called for this to be a local station on a three-track line, but before it opened the two outer local tracks were added. Fare control is with a crossunder via part of an unused lower level platform. Next to this platform is a single unused trackway under the southbound local track; the underpass between the main platforms is the only portion of the lower level, used. Because the station was designed as a local station with side platforms, it is too close to street level for a mezzanine over the tracks.
The stairs up lead to two separate fare control mezzanines located over the platforms only, with stairs up to the street. The only way between platforms inside the station is the underpass. In the station is a "Nevins St." mosaic. The mezzanine walls feature a mosaic frieze by Anton von Dalen, installed in 1997 and entitled Work & Nature; the mosaic is 14 inches by 83 feet along both walls of the mezzanine. The work is in the tones of soft blue and ochre, like the original platform mosaics, it features stenciled silhouettes in black of a woman operating a sewing machine, a mother taking care of a child, a man planting a tree, an architect reading a blueprint, a female executive addressing a meeting, famous musician Furry Lewis. All of these characters symbolize, according to the artist, "pride and beauty surrounding all work"; the station has two exits to each side of Flatbush Avenue east of Nevins Street. The northeastern side's entrances lead to the northbound platform while the southwestern side's entrances lead to the southbound platform.
This unused trackway was part of several plans for connecting the line to other proposed lines. At its north end, this trackway splits from the southbound local track just south of Hoyt Street, starts heading downgrade; the track was never laid. At the curve in the subway from Fulton Street to Flatbush Avenue, the trackway curves under the southbound local track, is joined by another unused trackway heading north along Flatbush Avenue for a proposed Manhattan Bridge connection. After the lower Nevins Street platform, a trackway splits to the east for a subway under Lafayette Avenue. Just beyond this split, at Lafayette Avenue, the trackway was cut by the IND when the IND was built from 1929 to 1937. On the other side, it rises again to merge with the southbound local track in the midst of the complicated switch layout just north of Atlantic Avenue – Barclays Center. Between this merge and Atlantic Avenue is another unused trackway, splitting from the local track towards a subway under Fourth Avenue.
This trackway and another trackway end at the same level, under Fourth Avenue, just west of the Pacific Street station on the current BMT Fourth Avenue Line and a few feet higher. On the northbound side, the connection provided by the lower level trackway would have been along the northbound local track; the trackway on this side begins by curving from Fourth Avenue under the line. The place it used to rise is covered, as the trackway beyond that point is now used for the northbound local track; the ramp was covered in July 1963, was made into a level trackway. This ramp was supposed to be northbound trackway of the proposed IRT Fourth Avenue Subway; the northbound local and express tracks were rearranged by November 1963. Before Nevins Street, there is a bellmouth for the proposed Lafayette Avenue subway that merges into the northbound local track. After Nevins Street, at the curve, there is a short section of wall with no columns, that could be opened up; this was a proposed connection to the Manhattan Bridge.
Just north of Atlantic Avenue – Barclays Center is another unused trackway, merging