LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0

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LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0
44949 Manchester Victoria.jpg
No. 44949 at Manchester Victoria in 1968.
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer William Stanier
Builder
Serial number AW: 1166–1265, 1280–1506
VF: 4565–4614, 4618–4667
Build date 1934–1951
Total produced 842
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte 4-6-0
 • UIC 2′C h2
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading dia. 3 ft 3 12 in (1.003 m)
Driver dia. 6 ft 0 in (1.829 m)
Length 63 ft 7 34 in (19.40 m) or 63 ft 11 34 in (19.50 m)
Loco weight 72.2 long tons (73.4 t; 80.9 short tons) to 75 long tons (76 t; 84 short tons)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 9 long tons (9.1 t; 10 short tons)
Water cap 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
27 34 or 28 12 sq ft (2.58 or 2.65 m2) or 28.5 sq ft (2.65 m2)
Boiler LMS type 3B
Boiler pressure 225 lbf/in2 (1.55 MPa) superheated
Heating surface:
 • Tubes and flues
1,426 to 1,479 sq ft (132.5 to 137.4 m2)
 • Firebox 156 or 171 sq ft (14.5 or 15.9 m2)
Superheater:
 • Heating area 228 to 365 sq ft (21.2 to 33.9 m2)
Cylinders Two, outside
Cylinder size 18 12 in × 28 in (470 mm × 711 mm)
Valve gear Most Walschaerts; some Caprotti; one outside Stephenson
Performance figures
Tractive effort 25,455 lbf (113.23 kN)
Career
Operators LMS, BR
Power class
  • LMS: 5P5F
  • BR: 5MT
Axle load class BR: Route Availability 7
Withdrawn 1961–1968
Disposition 18 preserved, remainder scrapped

The London Midland and Scottish Railway Class 5 4-6-0, almost universally known as the Black Five, is a class of steam locomotive. It was introduced by William Stanier in 1934 and 842 were built between then and 1951. Members of the class survived to the last day of steam on British Railways in 1968, and eighteen are preserved.

Origins[edit]

The Black Fives were a mixed traffic locomotive, a "do-anything go-anywhere" type, designed by Stanier, who had previously been with the GWR. In his early LMS days, he designed his Stanier Mogul 2-6-0 in which he experimented with the GWR school of thought on locomotive design. A number of details in this design he would never use again realising the superiority of details not used on the GWR. Stanier realised that there was a need for larger locomotives. These were to be the LMS version of the GWR Halls but not a copy, as the Hall was too wide to run most places in Britain. They shared similar cylinder arrangement (two outside), internal boiler design and size and 6 foot driving wheel diameters.

In their early days the locomotives were known as the "Black Staniers" from their black livery, in contrast to Stanier's other class of 4-6-0, the LMS Stanier Jubilee Class, which were painted crimson (and known until April 1935 as the "Red Staniers"). Later on, the nickname of the former became "Black Five", the number referring to the power classification. This was originally 5P5F, but from 1940 was shown on cabsides as the simple figure 5.[1]

Construction[edit]

There were a number of detail variations in the locomotives and they did not all remain in the same condition as built. Some locomotives built under British Railways administration were used as test beds for various design modifications with a view to incorporating the successful modifications in the Standard Classes of locomotives built from 1951 onwards. These modifications included outside Caprotti valve gear, roller bearings (both Timken and Skefco types) on the coupled and tender axles in varying combinations, and an experimental steel firebox. Other locomotives had modified draughting to "self clean" the smokebox (thereby reducing turn-around and disposal times and eliminating or mitigating one of the most unpopular jobs).

The domeless engines[edit]

45073 at Rose Grove shed, spring 1968. Although a domeless boiler, the casing over the top feed is often mistaken for a dome

Numbering started from 5000, with the first twenty being ordered from Crewe Works in April 1934, and a further fifty (5020–5069) ordered from the Vulcan Foundry in 1933.[2] The first of the Vulcan Foundry engines entered service in 1934, and the entire order of 50 was delivered before the first Crewe-built engine, no. 5000, was completed in February 1935.[3] The first 57 locomotives were built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and a low degree of superheat (14 elements in two rows), the boilers of the remaining 13 (5007–5019) were provided with a three-row version (21 elements)[4] having greater total surface area and giving less obstruction to gas flow.[3] The original 57 boilers were converted later to higher superheat (24 elements) and fitted with a dome. Further orders were placed with Crewe (5070–5074), Vulcan Foundry (5075–5124) and Armstrong Whitworth (5125–5224) for a total of 155 locomotives which were also built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and 21 element superheaters. All these boilers, including the early converted ones with a dome, were fitted indiscriminately to any of the first 225 engines, which could appear at various times with domed or domeless boilers.

However, many of the early frames were converted to accept sloping throatplate boilers, as listed below. This modification was carried out to provide a stock of spare boilers for the early engines, which would minimise the time spent in works by engines awaiting a fresh boiler. All locomotives from no. 5225 were fitted when new with the sloping throatplate boiler. All extra boilers made had the sloping throatplate arrangement, and only one example of a later engine having been fitted with a straight throatplate boiler is known - no. 45433. Several different patterns of boiler were used on the locomotives, running into double figures. The throatplate design was the most significant, but there were also different numbers of superheater flues, firegrate arrangement, stay material, dome and water feed arrangements, washout plug placement, etc. in various combinations.

The following locomotives were built with straight throatplate boilers, but were later fitted with a sloping throatplate boiler (date in brackets). Conversion was done by relocating the frame stretcher immediately in front of the firebox. Some of them reverted to straight throatplate at a later date, and these are also shown where known. Those marked with an asterisk were fitted with a boiler which had the top feed on the front ring on the date shown. In the case of no. 45087 it had previously been converted. The first conversion was carried out on no. 5022, and the last known was on no. 45163, which has been preserved.

5002 (12/37), 45007 (1/60), 45008 (1/60*), 45011 (1/49*+), 5020 (2/37), 5022 (10/36) reverted (10/58), 5023 (2/38) reverted (3/53), 5026 (2/37) reverted (1/59), 5027 (12/36), 5040 (11/36), 5045 (11/54), 5047 (1/37), 45049 (7/54) reverted (8/59), 5054 (1/37), 5057 (11/37), 5058 (11/37), 5059 (7/45), 45066 (4/60), 45082 (12/56*), 45087 (9/55) (12/60*), 5097 (1/37), 5108 (6/45), 45109 (5/48), 5142 (12/37), 45151 (3/51), 45163 (5/61), 45169 (7/55), 45197 (5/60)

+ The subsequent history of 45011 is not clear. Official records have gone missing and have not been relocated. There is a photograph in existence dated April 1963, showing 45011 ex-works with a straight throatplate boiler and simple top feed, i.e. without the dome-like shape.[citation needed]

NB: The official records were not always updated after around 1960/61, although some were. For example, in the case of no. 45082, it was fitted with a brand new boiler at the end of 1956, one of the last batch of four boilers that were manufactured for this class. Since it survived in service for a further nine and a half years, there is no doubt that 45082 will have had at least one further boiler lift and indeed a photograph exists of it at Hellifield with a given date of May 1962 showing it with an older boiler with the dome and feed both on the tapered ring. Unfortunately it is not clear from the photo whether it is a straight or sloping throatplate boiler.

The pre-war domed engines[edit]

A further 227 were ordered from Armstrong-Whitworth in 1936, the largest single locomotive order ever given by a British railway to an outside contractor. Crewe built a further 20, which had higher degree superheat boilers, with 28 elements, unlike the AW boilers, which had 24 elements.

5471, built at Crewe in 1938, would be the last built for five years. During the early stages of the Second World War, the priority was for heavy freight engines, and the closely related 8Fs were produced in large numbers.

Wartime and postwar domed engines[edit]

In 1943 construction was restarted, with Derby Works building its first. Construction continued up to no. 5499. As the numbering block from 5500 was allocated to the Patriot Class, a further batch of 200 locomotives were numbered from 4800 to 4999, followed by a batch from 4658 to 4799. By this time the LMS had been nationalised, and British Railways added 40000 to all numbers. Eventually the 842 examples would number 44658–45499.

Ivatt engines and experimental modifications[edit]

From early 1947, engines were built with the top feed on the front ring of the boiler (from no. 4998), and Nos 44758-767 had a longer wheelbase (27 ft 6in rather than 27 ft 2in, with the change in the coupled wheelbase from 7 ft + 8 ft to 7 ft + 8 ft 3in); this was necessary in order to accommodate the Timken roller-bearing housings without fouling the ashpan.[5] In 1948, George Ivatt introduced more modifications to bearings and valve gear; other experimental Ivatt features included the use of steel rather than copper fireboxes on certain engines, and the fitting of double blastpipes & chimneys in some instances. 44738-57 were built with Caprotti valve gear. The last two, nos. 44686 and 44687 built at Horwich in 1951, were fitted with a new arrangement of Caprotti valve gear, which was later used on some of the BR standard Class fives, and the BR class 8 4-6-2.

No. 4767, built at Crewe and delivered in December 1947, had outside Stephenson valve gear: instead of eccentrics, double return cranks were used to drive the eccentric rods, and a launch-type expansion link was used. This one cost £13,278, which was about £600 more than those built at the same time with Walschaerts' valve gear. The aim of the experiment was to find out if a valve gear having variable lead (as opposed to the constant lead of the Walschaerts' motion) would affect performance. On trial, it proved to have no advantage, although in normal service it did gain a reputation as a good performer on banks.[6][7][8][9][10]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 13 October 1939, locomotive No. 5025 of the class was hauling an express passenger train from Euston to Stranraer (pilot to engine 6130) when it was in collision with locomotive LNWR Class G1 9169 which was attaching a van to the rear of an Inverness train at Bletchley, Buckinghamshire, severely damaging it. Five people were killed and more than 30 were injured.[11]
  • In 1941, locomotive No. 5425 was severely damaged in a Luftwaffe air raid. It was subsequently repaired at Crewe Works.[12]
  • On 1 January 1946, the Lichfield rail crash, in which locomotive No. 5495 was hauling a freight train that was derailed at Lichfield Trent Valley station, Staffordshire due to faulty points. The train collided with a passenger train, killing twenty people and injuring 21.[13]
  • On 23 January 1955, locomotive No. 45274 was hauling an express passenger train that was derailed due to excessive speed on a curve, in the Sutton Coldfield rail crash. Nineteen people were killed and 64 were injured.[14]
  • On 16 January 1951, a locomotive of the class was hauling a passenger train that collided with a light engine that was standing foul of the line at Preston due to a signalman's error. Both trains were derailed; thirteen people were injured.[15]
  • On 2 October 2015, locomotive No. 45231 was working a private charter train for West Coast Railways through Doncaster when it was noticed that its TPWS (Train Protection and Warning System) had been isolated by the footplate crew. Isolation of the TPWS had been a factor in the Wootton Bassett SPAD incident in March of the same year. As a result, WCRC were suspended from operating on the national network by the ORR. [16]

Construction details[edit]

Names[edit]

Only five Black Fives received names during their mainline working lives, a small percentage of the total produced,[17] although seven more have been named in preservation (see below). All of those named in mainline service were named after Scottish regiments. Locomotive 5155 carried the name The Queen's Edinburgh for only two years during the Second World War. Some sources have noted that no photographic confirmation of this naming is extant,[18] although this is neither unique to the class, nor unexpected given restrictions on photography during wartime. The evidence for the naming of the locomotive is set out in full in various sources.[19]

Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 names[20]
LMS No. BR No. Name Date named Name removed
5154 45154 Lanarkshire Yeomanry 1937 1966 (withdrawal from service)
5155 45155 The Queen's Edinburgh 1942 1944 (remained in service until 1964)
5156 45156 Ayrshire Yeomanry 1936 1968 (withdrawal from service)
5157 45157 The Glasgow Highlander 1936 1962 (withdrawal from service)
5158 45158 Glasgow Yeomanry 1936 1964 (withdrawal from service)

Withdrawal[edit]

45401 was the first Black Five to be withdrawn from stock in 1961 following a collision at Warrington, although the boiler was re-used and actually lasted to the end of steam on BR. The remainder of the class were withdrawn between 1962 and 1968. Some members of the class survived to the last day of steam on BR in August 1968.

Table of withdrawals
Year Quantity in
service at
start of year
Quantity
withdrawn
Locomotive numbers
1961 842 1 45401.
1962 841 21 45030/36/85/96/98,
45119/25/51/52/57/59/65/69/74/79/65/66/55/52/53/58.
1963 820 29 44706/40/44/47/50/55,
44855,
44969,
45010/22/23/49/87/99,
45100/23/66/75/89/99,
45244/51,
45315/17/20/58/67,
45457/85.
1964 791 67 44660/76,
44701/19/38/42/45/46/48/49/51/52/54/56/83–85/89/93,
44801/49,
44922/23/57/61/67/68/76/94/96,
45007/08/32/35/66/88,
45103/21/22/36/44/53/55/58/70/72/73/83,
45356/61/66/84,
45400/13/56/59/62/65/58/70/76/79/82/84/87/96/97.
1965 724 97 44673/86,
44702/16/21/39/41/53/57/63/64/69/89/99,
44823/27,
44901/04/21/24/31/3/55/59/70/73/75/78–80,
45002/09/11/20/26/37/68/74/77/78/81/90/93,
45102/08/13/17/42/43/46/48/63/71/78/80/84/92/94,
45229/30/37/45/7/72/86/91/93,
45300/01/06/13/14/27/34/35/37/51/54/60/62/78–80/87/89/98,
45414/16/29/39/43/60/71/86/91/98/99.
1966 627 171 44668/70/87/88/92/98,
44700/03/04/05/07/10/12/14/18/20/23/24/26/29/31/43/60/62/79/82/8688/91/97/98,
44808/10/11/13/20/39/41/47/50/69/80/81,
44908/19/25/35/41/45/51–54/56/60/66/72/74/77/84/87/92/95/99,
45004/12/16/18/29/33/44/45/47/51/53/58/63/82/84/91/97,
45105/12/15/18/27–29/37/38/40/54/60–62/64/68/76/77/81/82/85/95,
45205/07/10/13/14/16–18/20/23/24/33/35/38/48/49/52/89,
45309/11/22/25/29/32/33/38/44/48/57/64/65/70/72/85/93/96/99,
454403/08/10/18/19/22/27/30/32–34/38/42/51/61/63/64/67/69/72–75/77/78/80/83/89/90/92.
1967 456 305 44658/59/61/62/66/67/69/71/74/75/77–82/84/85/89/91/93–97/99,
44717/22/25/27/30/32–34/36/37/59/65–68/70–76/78/90/92/94–96,
44805/12/14/17/19/21/22/24–26/28/30–35/37/40/43/44/52–54/56–63/65–67/70/72/73/75/76/79/82/93/86/87/92/93/95/96/98,
44900/02/05/07/09/11–18/20/27/28/30/33/34/36–38/43/44/46/48/58/62/64/81–83/85/86/88–91/93/97/98,
45000/03/06/14/15/19/21/24/28/31/39–43/48/50/52/56/57/59–62/64/67/69–72/75/79/80/83/89/92/94,
45106/07/09/11/16/20/24/26/30/32/35/39/41/45/47/67/86/88/91/93/96–98,
45204/08/11/15/19/21/22/25/26/28/32/34/36/39/40–43/46/47/50/56/59/61/63/64/67/70/71/73–78/80/81/83/85/88/92/95/97–99,
45302–04/07/08/19/21/23/24/26/28/31/36/39–41/43/46/47/49/52/59/63/68/69/71/73/74/77/83,
45402/04–06/09/12/15/17/23/25/28/31/37/40/41/46/48–50/54/55/66/81/94/95.
1968 151 151 44663–65/72/83–90
44708/09/11/13/15/28/35/58/61/77/80/81
44800/02–04/06/07/09/15/16/18/29/36/38/42/45/46/48/51/55/64/68/71/74/77/78/84/88–91/94/97/99
44903/06/10/26/29/32/40/42/47/49/50/63/65/71
45001/05/13/17/25/27/34/38/46/54/55/65/73/76/95/96
45101/04/10/14/31/33/34/49/50/56/87/90
45200–03/06/09/12/27/31/53–55/58/60/62/68/69/79/82/84/87/90/94/96
45305/10/12/16/18/30/42/45/50/53/75/76/81/82/86/88/90–92/94/95/97
45407/11/20/21/24/26/35/36/44/45/47/93.

Preservation[edit]

Eighteen black 5's have been preserved with twelve of them being purchased directly from BR for preservation (these being: 44767, 44806, 44871, 44932, 45000, 45025, 45110, 45212, 45231, 45305, 45407 & 45428), the remaining six being rescued from Barry Scrapyard (these being: 44901, 45163, 45293, 45337, 45379 & 45491). One of each of the builders batch has survived into preservation: 7 LMS built engines & 11 by outside contractors. Of the eighteen to be preserved fourteen have operated in preservation, the class members that haven't yet run being: 44901, 45163, 45293 & 45491. Twelve black fives have also been operated on the mainline in preservation: 44767, 44871, 44932, 45000, 45025, 45110, 45212, 45231, 45305, 45337, 45407 & 45428.

Of these 44871, 45212, 45231 & 45407 have mainline certificates. 45212 went out on Fri 3 March 2017 for its light and loaded test runs, 44871 returned to the mainline following an overhaul at Ian Riley's new workshop in August 2017, 45305 was a regular mainline runner but is currently out of service undergoing boiler repairs and will return to mainline service once running again, 45428 has just returned to service following an overhaul and is to be re-certified for mainline use between Grosmont and Whitby with occasional visits to Battersby and 44806 is to be mainline certified for use between Grosmont, Whitby & Battersby following her next overhaul.

Note: Some locos may usually have a nameplate but marked names indicate that the loco isn't presently wearing them & Loco numbers in bold mean their current number.

Preserved locos[edit]

Number Name† Builder Boiler Type Built Withdrawn Home Location Status Livery Mainline Certified Image Notes
LMS BR
4767 44767 *George Stephenson Crewe Works Forward Topfeed Dec 1947 Dec 1967 Carnforth MPD Undergoing a major overhaul. N/A No, to be certified Bishops Lydeard - 44767.jpg This locomotive was the sole member of the class equipped with Stephenson valve gear.
4806 44806 Kenneth Aldcroft
prev. Magpie (former names)
Derby Works Domed Jul 1944 Aug 1968 North Yorkshire Moors Railway Awaiting overhaul, boiler ticket expired on 1 January 2018 (Extension from 31/10/17). BR Lined Black, Early Emblem No, to be certified (Grosmont - Whitby & Whitby - Battersby Only). 44806 Carrog.jpg
4871 44871 Sovereign (former name) Crewe Works Domed Mar 1945 Aug 1968 East Lancashire Railway Operational and mainline certified. BR Lined Black, Early Emblem Yes (2017 - 2024) LMS 44871 in the loop at Preston.jpg Owned by Ian Riley
4901 44901 Crewe Works Domed Oct 1945 Aug 1968 Vale of Berkeley Railway Under restoration from Barry Scrapyard condition. N/A No Boiler sold to Ian Riley
4932 44932 Horwich Works Domed Sept 1945 Aug 1968 Carnforth MPD Undergoing Overhaul. BR Lined Black, Late Crest No, to be certified 'Black Five' 44932 at Skipton.JPG
5000 45000 Crewe Works Domeless Mar 1935 Oct 1967 Shildon Locomotion Museum Static Display. LMS Black No Black 5 5000 (5441473814).jpg Part of the National Collection.
5025 45025 Vulcan Foundry Domeless Aug 1934 Aug 1968 Strathspey Railway Undergoing overhaul. *LMS Black (On Completion) No Black 5 no.5025 - geograph.org.uk - 511056.jpg Oldest surviving member of the class.
5110 45110 RAF Biggin Hill (former name) Vulcan Foundry Domeless Jul 1935 Aug 1968 Severn Valley Railway Static Display BR Lined Black, Late Crest No LMS Class 5 No 45110 (8062214958).jpg On display inside The Engine House.
5163 45163 Armstrong Whitworth Domeless Aug 1935 May 1965 Colne Valley Railway Under restoration. N/A No
5212 45212 Roy 'Korky' Green Railwayman 1926-2001 (former name) Armstrong Whitworth Domed Nov 1935 Aug 1968 Keighley and Worth Valley Railway Operational and mainline certified. BR Lined Black, Late Crest Yes (2017 - 2024) 45212 Crewe 20180306.jpg On long term loan to Ian Riley, returned from overhaul at Bury in July 2016.
5231 45231 The Sherwood Forester Armstrong Whitworth Domed Aug 1936 Aug 1968 Crewe Diesel TMD Operational and mainline certified. BR Lined Black, Late Crest Yes (2013 - 2020) 45231 Rabbit Bridge.jpg Originally owned by Bert Hitchen, sold by his family in November 2015 to Jeremy Hosking
5293 45293 Armstrong Whitworth Domed Dec 1937 Aug 1965 Colne Valley Railway Under restoration. N/A No
5305 45305 *Alderman A. E. Draper Armstrong Whitworth Domed Jan 1937 Aug 1968 Great Central Railway Undergoing boiler work. *BR Lined Black, Late Crest (On Completion) No, to be certified Hugh llewelyn 45305 & 70013 (5829915330).jpg Based at Great Central Railway Loughborough and planned to be re-certified for a return to service on the mainline.
Boiler certificate expires 2020. Owned by The Draper Family, Hull.
5337 45337 Armstrong Whitworth Domed Apr 1937 Feb 1965 Llangollen Railway Undergoing boiler work. BR Unlined Black, Late Crest No Preserved steam at Irwell Vale - geograph.org.uk - 331546.jpg
5379 45379 Armstrong Whitworth Domed Jul 1937 Jul 1965 Mid-Hants Railway Stored BR Lined Black, Late Crest No Crowcombe - 45379.jpg Boiler ticket expired in early September, 2018.
5407 45407 45157 *The Lancashire Fusilier (main name)

The Glasgow Highlander (disguised as 45157)

Armstrong Whitworth Domed Sept 1937 Aug 1968 East Lancashire Railway Operational and mainline certified. BR Lined Black, Early Emblem Yes (2018 - 2025) 45157 The Glasgow Highlander at Buxton.jpg Owned by Ian Riley. Currently disguised as scrapped sibling 45157 The Glasgow Highlander for 2018.
5428 45428 Eric Treacy Armstrong Whitworth Domed Oct 1937 Oct 1967 North Yorkshire Moors Railway Running in. LMS Black No, to be certified (Grosmont to Whitby and Whitby to Battersby only)
'Black Five' 45428.JPG
Withdrawn from service in October 2016 after mainline certificate to run into Whitby expired
5491 45491 Derby Works Domed Dec 1943 Jul 1965 Great Central Railway Under restoration. N/A No Only surviving example having a boiler with top feed on the front ring in conjunction with Walschaerts valve gear.

† In all cases names are historically inaccurate, i.e. they have all been applied since preservation. Some engines might still have their names but where marked indicates that they currently don't carry them. Either for authenticity or other reasons like the engine is running in another identity.

  • 44767 carries a plaque on the splasher beneath the nameplate that reads 'This locomotive was named by the Rt. Hon. William Whitelaw, C.H., M.C., M.P. at Shildon on 25 August 1975, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.'
  • 44806 was named after the TV series "Magpie" in 1973, it continued to wear this name during the time it was based at the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway and when it relocated to the Llangollen Railway until it was withdrawn for overhaul in 2003. After emerging from its last overhaul in 2007 it ran without the nameplates but was later named after its former owner "Kenneth Aldcroft". It is now based at the North Yorkshire Moors Railway and has since had its nameplates removed.

Details of the boilers currently fitted to preserved examples[edit]

Sound[edit]

In fiction[edit]

In The Railway Series children's books by the Rev. W. Awdry, the character Henry the Green Engine, was rebuilt into a Black Five after his accident with the Flying Kipper.[21]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke LMS Locomotive Profiles (three volumes, three pictorial supplements):
    • No. 5 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 1. Nos. 5000–5224. (+ pictorial supplement)
    • No. 6 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 2. Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear engines from the 5225–5499 and 4658–4999 series. (+ pictorial supplement)
    • No. 7 Mixed traffic class 5s: Caprotti valve gear engines and class summary (+ pictorial supplement)
  • J.S. Whiteley, Gavin Morrison The Power of the Black Fives

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, pp. 49, 23.
  2. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 48.
  3. ^ a b Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 50.
  4. ^ Cook 1999, p. 147.
  5. ^ Haresnape 1970.
  6. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, pp. 62–63.
  7. ^ Nock 1989, pp. 256–7.
  8. ^ Hunt et al. 2004, pp. 39–43, 85.
  9. ^ Jennison et al. 2004, pp. 28–29, 31.
  10. ^ Jennison 2015, pp. 13, 92–94.
  11. ^ "Report on the Accident at Bletchley on 13th October 1939 :: The Railways Archive". www.railwaysarchive.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  12. ^ Trevena 1981, p. 29.
  13. ^ Gerard & Hamilton 1981, pp. 66-69.
  14. ^ Earnshaw 1993, p. 28.
  15. ^ "(untitled)" (PDF). Ministry of Transport. 18 April 1958. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "ORR Issues Prohibition Notice On WCR". Railway Herald. 24 November 2015. 
  17. ^ See details and commentary at Heritage Railway Magazine on-line.
  18. ^ See, for example, David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke, LMS Locomotive Profiles (three volumes, with pictorial supplements).[full citation needed]
  19. ^ See, for example, J W P Rowledge and Brian Reed, The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. (Jubilees, Class 5s, and the BR Standard class 5s), published by Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1977, page 74.
  20. ^ Rowledge 1975, p. 11.
  21. ^ Awdry & Awdry 1987, p. 129.

Bibliography[edit]