LMS Royal Scot Class
The London and Scottish Railway Royal Scot Class is a class of 4-6-0 express passenger locomotive introduced in 1927. Having parallel boilers, all members were rebuilt with tapered type 2A boilers, were in effect two classes; until the mid-1920s, the LMS had followed the Midland Railway's small engine policy, which meant that it had no locomotives of sufficient power for its expresses on the West Coast Main Line. These trains were entrusted to pairs of LMS/MR Midland Compound 4-4-0s between Glasgow and Carnforth, a 4-6-0 locomotive of the LNWR Claughton Class, piloted by an LNWR George V 4-4-0, southwards to Euston station; the Operating and Motive Power Departments of the LMS were satisfied with the small engine policy. However, in 1926 the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Henry Fowler, began the design of a compound Pacific express locomotive; the management of the LMS, faced with disagreement between the CME and the other departments, obtained a loan of a GWR Castle class locomotive, Launceston Castle, operated for one month between Euston and Carlisle.
Following the success of the Castle 4-6-0 in working on the LMS, a decision was taken to cancel Fowler's Pacific project, to replace it with a 4-6-0 with three cylinders and a simple-expansion steam circuit. Because there was an urgent need for new express locomotives the LMS placed an order with the North British Locomotive Company of Glasgow for 50 engines; the North British, with its extensive drawing office and two works, possessed sufficient capacity to expedite the order within a year. The Derby drawing office and North British staff collaborated in designing the class, with the latter producing the working drawings. Fowler took little part in the design process, carried out by Herbert Chambers, Chief Draughtsman at Derby, his staff; the LMS didn't receive them. Instead a set of drawings of the SR Lord Nelson Class were obtained, used for the design of the firebox; the main features of the design followed existing Derby practice, with the cylinders and valve gear being derived from the Fowler 2-6-4T being designed at Derby at that time.
They were introduced without testing. Radford claims that the boiler owed much to the MR 0-10-0 Lickey Banker'Big Bertha'. A further 20 were built by Derby Works, they were named after regiments of the British Army, after historical LNWR locomotives. Those with LNWR names were renamed in 1936 with more names of regiments. From late 1931, after several bizarre forms of smoke deflectors were tried on various locomotives to stop drifting smoke obscuring the crew's forward vision, the straight sided smoke deflectors were added; these were replaced by deflectors with angled top. From 1933 the class was taken off the top-link expresses, being superseded by the LMS Princess Royal Class and the LMS Coronation Class pacifics. In 1933 the LMS was invited to send a locomotive and train to the Century of Progress International Exposition in Chicago, USA, it was decided to send an engine of the Royal Scot class, one was selected, due for general overhaul. The identity of this locomotive is regarded as having been No. 6152 "The Kings Dragoon Guardsman".
The coupled axleboxes were replaced with larger ones, based on a GWR design, the bogie replaced by a De Glehn type derived from GWR practice. Springs and spring rigging were updated, the boiler replaced; the rebuilt locomotive assumed the identity of 6100 The Royal Scot with an enlarged nameplate with details of its appearance at the exhibition. It retained this identity after its return from the USA. LMS 6399 Fury, built in 1929, was an unsuccessful experimental prototype locomotive with a high-pressure, water tube boiler and compound 3-cylinder drive, based on the Royal Scot, it was rebuilt by William Stanier in 1935 with a Type 2 conventional boiler to become 6170 British Legion. This served as the blueprint for rebuilding, but always remained a one-off. In 1942 the LMS rebuilt two LMS Jubilee Class locomotives with Type 2A boilers, but turned to the parallel-boilered Royal Scots whose boilers and cylinders were life-expired, whose smokeboxes were difficult to keep airtight. Between 1943 and 1955 the whole class was rebuilt to create the LMS Rebuilt Royal Scot Class.
The rebuilds were quite substantial, requiring new boiler and cylinders, but in most cases the original frame stretchers, wheels and fittings were retained. The usual procedure was that as each locomotive arrived for rebuilding, it was stripped and the identity transferred to a fresh frameset prepared using the parts recovered from the locomotive, rebuilt; the new frames were shorter than the originals. Thus, most rebuilt examples retained their own cab, wheels etc. but most of the frame stretchers, other integral parts of the frame were from the rebuilt loco. The new'Rebuilt Scot' design was carried out under the auspices of William Stanier, engaged on war work, so was undertaken by George Ivatt and E. S. Cox; these too were built without smoke deflectors but acquired them. On 30 September 1945, at the Bourne End rail crash, 6157 The Royal Artilleryman was hauling an express passenger train, derailed at Bourne End, Hertfordshire due to excessive speed through a set of points. Forty-three people were killed and 64 were injured.
Note: Date built refers to the'LMS build date'. No original Royal Scots in as built condition survive as all were rebuilt by 1955. No. 6115 Scots Guardsman featured in the 1936 film Night Mail along with No.6108 Seaforth Highlander, the latter being cleaned at an unknown shed. 46126 Royal Army Service Corps
Mallaig is a port in Lochaber, on the west coast of the Highlands of Scotland. The local railway station, Mallaig, is the terminus of the West Highland railway line and the town is linked to Fort William by the A830 road – the "Road to the Isles"; the village of Mallaig was founded in the 1840s, when Lord Lovat, owner of North Morar Estate, divided up the farm of Mallaigvaig into seventeen parcels of land and encouraged his tenants to move to the western part of the peninsula and turn to fishing as a way of life. The population and local economy expanded in the 20th century with the arrival of the railway. Ferries operated by Caledonian MacBrayne and Western Isles Cruises sail from the port to Armadale on the Isle of Skye, Inverie in Knoydart, the isles of Rùm, Eigg and Canna. Mallaig is the main commercial fishing port on the West Coast of Scotland, during the 1960s was the busiest herring port in Europe. Mallaig prided itself at that time on its famous traditionally smoked kippers, the fishmonger Andy Race still providing genuine oak smoked kippers from the factory shop on the harbour.
Mallaig and the surrounding area is a popular area for holidays. The majority of the community speaks English, with a minority of residents speaking both English and Gaelic. In addition, traditional Gaelic is still taught in the school to pupils who choose to learn the language. Mallaig has extensive distance learning facilities, allowing the local population access to all forms of education from leisure classes to university degrees through Lochaber College and the UHI Millennium Institute; the College is one of the most successful of its kind in Britain, with over 8% of the local population accessing its facilities. The college has published a PDF version of the 19th century Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Condition of Crofters and Cottars in the Highlands and Islands report; the Learning Centre has opened a marine-specific vocational centre and is at the forefront of developing Marine Certification courses for fishermen, as well as being a RYA certified centre. Mallaig has its own primary school, which accepted the Gaelic medium schoolchildren from Lady Lovat Primary School in the nearby village of Morar, to allow that school to focus more on their English medium students.
Mallaig has its own High School, opened in 1989 which caters for Mallaig, the villages of Morar and Arisaig, along with the nearby Small Isles of Eigg, Rùm, Muck and Canna and the nearby Knoydart peninsula. The school has increasing numbers of pupils from the Small Isles, as daily travel from home to school is impossible, these pupils are boarded in the school's hostel. Mallaig has several restaurants and takeaways along with a community-run swimming pool and leisure centre; the main focus is on the tourist trade during the summer, however some facilities are open all year round, including the swimming pool. Mallaig has lots of self-catering accommodation and several guest houses. There are three pubs; the compact village centre is close to the harbour and railway station, with residential areas beyond to the south and east of the harbour. Most of the retail premises are in the main street, or on Davies Brae, which runs south from the village centre; the swimming pool is at the high point of the village on Fank Brae.
There are two minimarkets, gift shops. An art gallery sells work by local artists. There is a small bookshop A heritage centre next to the railway station is based around old photographs of the locality, but as Mallaig has only existed during the age of photography this offers a good introduction to the history and heritage of the locality. There are Roman Catholic and Church of Scotland churches, a Fishermen's Mission facility run by the Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen. There is a small petrol station with restricted opening times near the harbour. Completed in 1901, the West Highland Line links Mallaig railway station by rail to Fort William and Glasgow; the line was voted the top rail journey in the world by readers of independent travel magazine Wanderlust in 2009, ahead of the iconic Trans-Siberian and the Cuzco to Machu Picchu line in Peru. The five-hour trip to Glasgow Queen Street railway station passes through spectacular scenery including seascapes, lochsides and moorland terrain, offers views of Loch Lomond, the Gare Loch, Rannoch Moor, Ben Nevis and Glen Shiel, Loch Eil.
The line runs along the Clyde between Helensburgh and Glasgow and offers views across the estuary. In the years prior to the First World War, following the opening of the line in 1901 there was a steady increase in the value of fish sold,exceeding £60,000 in 1914. In the summer the Jacobite steam train service from Fort William visits Mallaig. Sheil Buses operate a bus service from Mallaig to Fort William. Buses run south along the A861 to the villages of Acharacle and Strontian. Mallaig is an important ferry port with regular Caledonian MacBrayne ferry services to Armadale on the Isle of Skye, a thirty-minute sailing, they run a daily service to the Small Isles of Canna, Rùm, Eigg and Muck, although the timetable and itinerary differ from day to day. Calmac offers a non-landing ticket which allows visitors to cruise the Small Isles. In addition, a local ferry service owned by former lifeboatman Bruce Watt sails daily to Inverie in Knoydart, a remote village, calls by prior arrangement at Tarbet in Morar, a location, only accessible by sea.
This service offers a non-landing cruise through scenic Loch Nevis
Liverpool Lime Street railway station
Liverpool Lime Street is a terminus railway station, the main station serving the city centre of Liverpool. Opened in August 1836, it is the oldest grand terminus mainline station still in use in the world. A branch of the West Coast Main Line from London Euston terminates at the station, as does the original Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Services from this station serve a wide range of destinations across England, with direct services to Welsh and Scottish destinations to be reintroduced in 2019. Having realised that their existing Crown Street Station was too far away from the city centre, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway commenced construction of the more central Lime Street Station in October 1833. Designed by John Cunningham, Arthur Holme, John Foster Jr, it was opened in August 1836. Proving to be popular with the railway-going public, within six years of its opening, expansion of the station had become necessary; the first expansion, collaboratively produced by Joseph Locke, Richard Turner, William Fairbairn and John Kennedy, was completed during 1849 at a total cost of £15,000.
During 1867, work upon a further expansion of Lime Street Station commenced, during which time the present northern arched train shed was built. Designed by William Baker and Francis Stevenson, upon completion, the train shed was the largest such structure in the world, featuring a span of 200 feet, as well as the first to make extensive use of iron. During 1879, a second parallel southern train shed was completed. Following the nationalisation of the railways during 1948, Lime Street Station was the subject of various upgrades and alterations, installing new signalling systems in and around the station, a redeveloped concourse, along with the building of new retail and office spaces. In 1962, regular electric services between Lime Street and Crewe were started and in 1966, the station hosted the launch of its first InterCity service, which saw the introduction of a regular 100 mph service between Liverpool and London. During the 1970s, a new urban rail network, known as Merseyrail was developed, while all other long-distance terminal stations in Liverpool were closed, resulting such services being centralised at Lime Street for the whole city.
In October 2003, the Pendolino service operated by private rail operator Virgin Trains, introducing a faster service between Liverpool and London, was ceremonially unveiled at the station. During May 2015, the electrification of the former Liverpool and Manchester Railway's route was completed, as well as the line to Wigan via St Helens Central. Lime Street Station is fronted by a large building designed in the Renaissance Revival style, the former North Western Hotel, which has since been converted to apartments. Since the 1970s, the main terminal building has provided direct access to the underground Lime Street Wirral Line station on the Merseyrail network. Between the 1960s and 2010, an office tower block named Concourse House, along with several retailers, stood outside the southern train shed. Lime Street is the largest and oldest railway station in Liverpool, is one of 18 stations managed by national infrastructure maintenance company Network Rail. During 2017, work commenced at Lime Street Station upon a £340 million remodelling programme.
In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations, written by columnist and editor Simon Jenkins, Lime Street Station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars. The original terminus of the 1830 Liverpool and Manchester Railway was located at Crown Street, in Edge Hill, to the east of and outside the city centre; however before Edge Hill had been opened, it was apparent that there was a pressing need for another station to be built, which would this time be closer to the city centre. Accordingly, during October 1833, the construction commenced on a purpose-built station at Lime Street in the city centre; the means of connecting the new station to L&MR's network came in the form of a twin-track tunnel, constructed between Edge Hill and the site of the new Lime Street station a year prior to work being started on the station itself. The station was designed by the architects John Cunningham, Arthur Holme, John Foster Jr. During August 1836, Lime Street Station was opened to the public, although the construction process was not completed until the following year.
This building was designed with four large gateways. For its early operations, as a consequence of the steep incline uphill from Lime Street to Edge Hill, trains would be halted at Edge Hill and the locomotives detached from the trains; the return journey was achieved via the use of a stationary steam engine located at Edge Hill, which would be used to haul the carriages up to Edge Hill by rope. This system was constructed by the local engineering firm Mather and Company, who worked under the direction of the engineer John Grantham. During 1870, this practice came to an end. Lime Street Station was a near-instant success with the railway-going public. Within six years of its opening, the rapid growth of the railways had necessitated the expansion of the original station. An early plan for the enlarged station would have involved th
Carnforth is a small town and civil parish near Lancaster in the north of Lancashire, situated at the north east end of Morecambe Bay. The parish of Carnforth had a population of 5,350 recorded in the 2001 census, forms part of the City of Lancaster; the 2011 Census measured a population of 5,560. Due to the closeness of the coast and the hills, Carnforth is a popular base for walkers and cyclists exploring the area; the River Keer, the West Coast Main Line, the A6 and the Lancaster Canal pass through the town. The M6 motorway passes just to the east, linked to Carnforth by the A601; the name "Carnforth" is thought to derive from its old function as a ford of the River Keer on which it is situated. Over time the descriptive name "Keer-ford" may have morphed into the modern "Carnforth". An alternative explanation is that the name derives from'Chreneforde' and is Anglo-Saxon in origin, as cited in the Victoria County History of Lancashire. Much of the history of Carnforth ironworks. Vast deposits of limestone located locally made Carnforth an ideal place for an ironworks, as limestone is a key component of the smelting process.
In 1846 the Carnforth Ironworks Company established a works, located near the railway station. In the same year a recession occurred in the Earl of Dudley ironworks in Worcestershire, this meant there was a surplus of workers. A number of workers lived in the nearby company village of Dudley. In 1864 the Carnforth Haematite Company took over the works and production was vastly increased due to iron ore, brought in by rail from the Furness Peninsula. By 1872 steel production became the main focus for the works using the new Bessemer process. By 1889 this process had failed. Iron production continued at the works until 1929 when it closed down; the site was taken over by the War Department as an ordnance depot and remained as such until the 1960s. From to the present the site is now an industrial estate consisting of several businesses. In the 19th century, Carnforth grew from a small village into a railway town when it became the junction of three major railways. With the closure of Carnforth MPD in 1968, the railway station facilities were reduced – the main line platforms were closed in May 1970 and subsequently removed when the line was electrified two years later.
As a result, no express services on the West Coast Main Line call at the town. The railway station is nowadays served by trains from Lancaster to Leeds. An important motive power depot was located to the west of the WCML and was one of the last to retain an allocation of steam locomotives until mid-1968; the buildings are now occupied by West Coast Railways who still maintain and overhaul steam locos in their premises. The concrete locomotive coaling tower is a rare survivor. From the 1920s to the 1980s Morphy's Mill, in Oxford Street, was a major employer of women in Carnforth. Contrary to its name it was not a mill but a factory making other garments. In 1945, Carnforth railway station was used as a set for the David Lean film Brief Encounter, starring Celia Johnson and Trevor Howard. Fans of this film were one of the major factors in the recent refurbishment of the railway station, including construction of a refreshment room to match the studio set used in the film, now run by the Carnforth Station Trust.
Gallery of film locations The town has a rugby club Carnforth RUFC and football team Carnforth Rangers. Primary schools: Our Lady of Lourdes RC Primary School North Road Primary School Christ Church C of E Primary SchoolSecondary schools: Carnforth High SchoolThere is a small public library within the town. There is a general practice surgery in the town with four associate GPs, it has smaller surgeries in Arnside, Bolton-le-Sands and Silverdale, to serve patients in outlying villages. It is within the North Lancashire clinical commissioning group and patients are served by the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust. There is an NHS clinic, adjacent to the GP practice, used for a variety of services. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward is smaller than the parish with a total population of 4,439. The Conservative Party politician Cecil Parkinson was born in Carnforth in 1931 and became Baron Parkinson of Carnforth in 1992. Listed buildings in Carnforth Carnforth War Memorial Visit Carnforth Website – Tourism Website for Carnforth Carnforth Town Council – Official Website for the Town Council of Carnforth
LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 5407
LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 45407'The Lancashire Fusilier' is a LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 locomotive engine built at Armstrong Whitworth in 1937. Owned by railway engineering company Riley and Son, it is one of 18 surviving Black 5 locomotives. No. 45407 was built by Armstrong Whitworth of Scotswood, Newcastle, in 1937 for the London Midland and Scottish Railway. It was works No. 1462, one of 226 locomotives which formed the largest order placed with a private builder by a British railway company, worth £2.7 million. It was outshopped to Kettering, worked along the Midland Main Line. In the late 1960s the engine was moved between various sheds ending up at Lostock Hall in 1968. During its working life no. 45407 was based at the following sheds: Kettering Shrewsbury Derby Derby Holbeck Grimesthorpe Millhouses Derby Saltley Derby Kentish Town Bedford Nottingham Burton Speke Junction Speke Junction Lostock Hall One of the final Black 5s in operation, 45407 was withdrawn on 4 August 1968. Dr Peter Beet, the co-founder of Steamtown Carnforth, with Sir Bill McAlpine, business partner David Davis, visited Lostock Hall MPD to choose a locomotive to save, selecting No. 45407.
Davis bought the locomotive for £3,300, it became part of the Steamtown collection, where for some time it was painted in Furness Railway Indian red livery. In 1974, it was bought by Paddy Smith, he operated the engine on various enthusiast tours, including the Settle-Carlisle Line, the Cambrian Coast Express, the Crewe to Holyhead Line. After the last season in Scotland, No. 45407 was returned to Carnforth, moved to the East Lancashire Railway to run out the last three years of its boiler certificate. In 1997, Ian Riley bought the engine, had it overhauled at his railway engineering works and Son, Bury; the works included a new tender with greater water capacity, the fitting of air brake equipment to enable the engine to haul modern coaching stock. And the fitting of A. W. S. to comply with Railtrack's modern Signaling requirements. The loco is based on the East Lancashire Railway at Bury, was main-line registered until January 2018 following an overhaul in 2010. Around mid January she was moved by road to Ian Riley's workshop in Heywood where another overhaul was to be undertook.
It was planned for 45407 to emerge following overhaul in the guise of scrapped sister 45157 The Glasgow Highlander for 2018 to mark 150 years since the founding of the Glasgow Highlanders. The locomotive made an appearance at the beginning of the 2005 black comedy movie Keeping Mum, during the 1991 episode of'The Mystery of Hunter's Lodge' by Agatha Christie starring David Suchet. Below are a set of photographs showing 45407 in action on heritage railways as well as at work on the mainline in the preservation era. No.45407 @ Riley and Son 45407 working up Shap and Beattock with 76079 banking in Oct 2001
Carnforth MPD is a former LMS railway depot located in the town of Carnforth, Lancashire. Developed in 1944 on the site of the former London and North Western Railway depot, its late construction in the steam locomotive age resulted in its long-term use and conservation by British Railways. Targeted as part of a preservation scheme, when this failed it was developed as major visitor attraction Steamtown Carnforth. Today, closed as a museum, it acts as the major national operational base of the West Coast Railway Company. Carnforth was not an important or well developed village before the Victorian era railway age, but was geographically strategically located to make it so. While supplies of lime stone made it interesting, access into Westmorland, the Lake District and the coast of Cumberland beyond made it an ideal transport hub point. Carnforth railway station opened as a single platform wooden structure for access to the village, but was made into a permanent stone structure by the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway in 1846.
In 1857 it became a junction station when the Ulverston and Lancaster Railway used it, as did the Furness Railway soon afterwards after taking control of the ULR. In the 1870s architect William Tite redesigned the station and layout, allowing Midland Railway trains access; the regionally competing London and North Western Railway took over the L&CR, created a jointly operated station. This growth continued from the late-Victorian era into the early 1950s. At its height Carnforth handled up to 100 trains a day of holidaymakers, commuters and fuel bound for the seaside, cities and industrial centres; when the Midland Railway reached Carnforth in 1857, it developed an extensive roundhouse depot and maintenance shed to service its locomotive stock. The building today is still in use as a light industrial facility. In the 1880s the LNWR had rebuilt the small 2-road L&CR facility adjacent to the station into a standard-pattern LNWR 6-road facility. At the railway grouping in 1923, the London Midland and Scottish Railway was created by amalgamation of the MR and the LNWR with other railway companies.
While the former MR roundhouse was used for passenger types, the former LNWR shed was used for freight locomotives. From 1936 onwards under instruction from the Air Ministry's Sir Kingsley Wood, in a programme headed by Herbert Austin many key industries in London and the industrialised Midlands, had created a shadow factory infrastructure to enable production should war break out. Many of these shadow factories, plus a number of Royal Ordnance Factories, had been deliberately located in Cumbria and the Northwest coast, out of range of the bombers of the Nazi Luftwaffe; when World War 2 did break out, with a combination of additional staff moved and recruited to these facilities, plus the raw materials going in and requirement of distribution of output, the transport result was a relative boom in both freight and passenger traffic. With the United States involved in the war from 1941, planning for Operation Overlord the invasion of Europe began; the Port of Liverpool and the west coast ports of Scotland were key to importing war machinery and supplies from North America, as well as distributing US Army and Canadian Army troops across England for training, again in the northwest and northeast.
The combination of these factors put a huge strain on local locomotive servicing facilities at Carnforth. Therefore, in late 1942, the Government agreed to fund the construction of a new shed at Carnforth, to allow for the new and planned level of locomotive servicing requirement. Built on the site of the former LNWR facility and opened in 1944, it allowed for the servicing of many more locomotives, together with mechanised supporting infrastructure reduced the need for operational manpower. On nationalisation in 1948, British Railways inherited an brand new depot, bigger - due to a now lack of war activity - than was required; this allowed them to close a number of other local and older or less efficient sheds, secondly to keep the shed open longer than many when the decision to modernise traction to electric and diesel came. As a result, Carnforth MPD remained undeveloped from its reconstruction in 1944, by the time it closed in 1968. BR closed the Lakeside branch to passengers on 6 September 1965, to all traffic two years later.
A group of enthusiasts chaired by Dr Peter Beet formed the Lakeside Railway Estates Company, with the idea of preserving both the line and Carnforth MPD, to provide a complete steam operating system. Negotiations with BR resulted in an agreement to buy the majority of the Lakeside branch, at Carnforth rent out: the former wagon works. Beet formed Steamtown Railway Museum Ltd, the resultant visitor attraction Steamtown Carnforth became a mecca for steam enthusiasts facing a national ban on steam traction on the BR network. With the assistance of the Lancaster Railway Circle, an increasing number of steam engines arrived at Steamtown from 1967 onwards. However, although backed by transport minister Barbara Castle, the need to build a number of motorway bridges and re-routing of the A590 road from Haverthwaite via Greenodd to Plumpton Junction, meant that the complete vision was unsuccessful; this caused a split within the Lakeside Railway society in 1970, with one part of the group forming the Lakeside & Haverthwaite Railway to operate the residual line, taking four of the engines with them.
Steamtown continued under the leadership of Dr Beet, who developed it as a major regional visitor attraction. This included the purchase of both SNCF Chapelon Pacific No. 231. K.22, Deutsche Bundesbahn oil-fired 012 Pacific No. 012 10
Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 118,200 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 332,200 in 2014. Chester was granted city status in 1541. Chester was founded as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the reign of the Emperor Vespasian in 79 AD. One of the main army camps in Roman Britain, Deva became a major civilian settlement. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia, which became Chester's first cathedral, the Saxons extended and strengthened the walls to protect the city against the Danes. Chester was one of the last cities in England to fall to the Normans. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. Chester is one of the best preserved walled cities in Britain, it has a number of medieval buildings, but some of the black-and-white buildings within the city centre are Victorian restorations.
Apart from a 100-metre section, the listed Grade I walls are complete. The Industrial Revolution brought railways and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period; the Roman Legio II Adiutrix during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian founded Chester in AD 79, as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix. It was established in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy, as a fortress during the Roman expansion northward, was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river. The'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix, based at Deva. Central Chester's four main roads, Northgate and Bridgegate, follow routes laid out at this time. A civilian settlement grew around the military base originating from trade with the fortress; the fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in the Roman province of Britannia built around the same time at York and Caerleon.
The civilian amphitheatre, built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people. It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, is a Scheduled Monument; the Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century. Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia, the Romano-British civilian settlement continued and its occupants continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea. After the Roman troops withdrew, the Romano-British established a number of petty kingdoms. Chester is thought to have become part of Powys. Deverdoeu was a Welsh name for Chester as late as the 12th century. Another, attested in the 9th-century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius, is Cair Legion. King Arthur is said to have fought his ninth battle at the "city of the legions" and St Augustine came to the city to try to unite the church, held his synod with the Welsh Bishops.
In 616, Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeated a Welsh army at the brutal and decisive Battle of Chester, established the Anglo-Saxon position in the area from on. The Northumbrian Anglo-Saxons used an Old English equivalent of the British name, Legacæstir, current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simple name Chester emerged. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia on what is considered to be an early Christian site: it is known as the Minster of St John the Baptist, Chester which became the first cathedral. Much the body of Æthelred's niece, St Werburgh, was removed from Hanbury in Staffordshire in the 9th century and, to save it from desecration by Danish marauders, was reburied in the Church of SS Peter & Paul - to become the Abbey Church, her name is still remembered in St Werburgh's Street which passes alongside the cathedral, near the city walls. The Saxons extended and strengthened the walls of Chester to protect the city against the Danes, who occupied it for a short time until Alfred seized all the cattle and laid waste the surrounding land to drive them out.
It was Lady of the Mercians, that built the new Saxon burh. A new Church dedicated to St Peter alone was founded in AD 907 by the Lady Æthelfleda at what was to become the Cross. In 973, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, two years after his coronation at Bath, King Edgar of England came to Chester where he held his court in a palace in a place now known as Edgar's Field near the old Dee bridge in Handbridge. Taking the helm of a barge, he was rowed the short distance up the River Dee from Edgar's Field to the great Minster Church of St John the Baptist by six (the monk Henry Bradshaw records he