The Ferrari 458 Italia is a mid-engine sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Ferrari. The 458 replaced the F430, was first unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show, it was succeeded by the 488, unveiled at the 2015 Geneva Motor Show. In Ferrari's first official announcement of the car, the 458 was described as the successor to the F430 but arising from an new design, incorporating technologies developed from the company's experience in Formula One; the body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli. The 458 is powered by a 4,497 cc of the "Ferrari/Maserati" F136 V8 engine family, generating a power output of 570 PS at 9,000 rpm and 540 N⋅m of torque at 6,000 rpm with 80% torque available at 3,250 rpm; the engine features direct fuel injection, a first for Ferrari mid-engine setups in its road cars. The only transmission available on the 458 is a dual-clutch 7-speed Getrag gearbox, in a different state of tune shared with the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG. There is no traditional manual option, making this the fourth road-car after the Enzo, Challenge Stradale and 430 Scuderia not to be offered with Ferrari's classic gated manual.
It is the first mainstream model to not be offered with a manual transmission. The car's suspension has double wishbones at the front and a multi-link setup at the rear, coupled with E-Diff and F1-Trac traction control systems, designed to improve the car's cornering and longitudinal acceleration by 32% when compared with its predecessors; the brakes include a prefill function whereby the pistons in the calipers move the pads into contact with the discs on lift off to minimize delay in the brakes being applied. This combined with the ABS and standard Carbon Ceramic brakes have caused a reduction in stopping distance from 100–0 km/h to 32.5 metres. Tests have shown the car will stop from 100 km/h in 90 feet or in 85 feet with run flat tires, 85 feet from 60 mph and 80 feet from 60 mph with run flat tires; the adaptive magnetorheological dampers are co-developed with BWI Group. Ferrari's official 0–100 km/h acceleration is 3.4 seconds. The top speed is 325 km/h, it has fuel consumption in combined cycle of 13.3 L/100 km while producing 307 g/km of CO2.
The Ferrari 458 Italia has a power to weight ratio of 2.61 kg per horsepower. In keeping with Ferrari tradition, the body was designed by Pininfarina under the leadership of Donato Coco, the Ferrari design director; the interior design of the Ferrari 458 Italia was done by Bertrand Rapatel, a French automobile designer. The car's exterior styling and features were designed for aerodynamic efficiency, producing a downforce of 140 kg at 200 km/h. In particular, the front grille features deformable winglets that lower at high speeds, in order to offer reduced drag; the car's interior was designed using input from former Ferrari Formula 1 driver Michael Schumacher. According to British car magazine Autocar, the 458 Italia's design has drawn inspiration from the Enzo Ferrari and its Millechili concept car, it has been designed to be Ferrari's sportiest V8-engined car, to distinguish itself from the entry level Ferrari California. The 458 Spider was introduced at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show; this convertible variant of the 458 Italia features an aluminium retractable hardtop which, according to Ferrari, weighs 25 kilograms less than a soft roof such as the one found on the Ferrari F430 Spider, requires 14 seconds for operation.
The engine cover has been redesigned to accommodate the retractable roof system. It has the same 0–100 km/h acceleration time as the coupé but has a lower top speed of 320 km/h due to the added weight; the 458 Speciale was unveiled in 2013 at the Frankfurt Motor Show as the high performance variant of the 458 Italia. Distinctions of the Speciale over the standard 458 Italia are the forged wheels, vented bonnet, finned side sills, a taller rear spoiler and redesigned bumpers, which include active aerodynamics designed by Ferrari Styling Centre in cooperation with Pininfarina; the engine was revised, with power increased to 605 PS at 9,000 rpm and 540 N⋅m of torque at 6,000 rpm. Electronic systems were updated too and side slip angle control was introduced to improve car control on the limit. SSC performs instant-to-instant analysis of the car’s side-slip, comparing it with the target value and optimising both torque management and torque distribution between the two wheels; the Specials accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 3.0 seconds.
Ferrari declared a Fiorano test track lap time of 1:23.5, only 0.5 seconds slower than the F12 berlinetta. Lateral acceleration now reaches 1.33 g. The 458 Speciale A is the convertible variant of the 458 Speciale, unveiled at the 2014 Frankfurt Motor Show. The'A' stands for'Aperta', Italian for'open' – and the model was limited to only 499 examples. Just like the Speciale coupé, the Aperta has a 4.5-litre aspirated V8 engine which generates a power output of 605 PS and 398 lb⋅ft of torque. 0–100 km/h takes 3.0 seconds and the Spider is capable of a top speed of 320 km/h. It was the most
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus
The Ferrari 360 is a two-seater, mid-engine, rear wheel drive sports car manufactured by Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari from 1999 to 2005. It succeeded the Ferrari F355 and was replaced by the Ferrari F430 in 2005. Ferrari partnered with Alcoa to produce an new all aluminium space-frame chassis, 40% stiffer than the F355 which had utilized steel; the design was 28% lighter despite a 10% increase in overall dimensions. Along with a lightweight frame the new Pininfarina body styling deviated from traditions of the previous decade's sharp angles and flip-up headlights; the new V8 engine, utilises a 3.6 litre capacity, a flat plane crankshaft and titanium connecting rods. The engine generates a power output of 400 PS. According to Ferrari, weight was reduced by 60 kg and the 0 to 100 km/h acceleration time improved from 4.7 to 4.5 seconds. The first model to be produced was the 360 Modena followed by the 360 Spider and as a special edition, the Challenge Stradale, the highest-performance road-legal version of the 360 produced by the factory, featuring carbon ceramic brakes, track tuned suspension, aerodynamic gains, weight reduction, power improvements and revised gearbox software among its track-focused brief.
There were 7,565 Spiders produced worldwide. There were 4,199 built for the US market -- 2,389 Spiders. Of those numbers there were only 469 Modenas and 670 Spiders that were produced with a gated 6-speed manual transmission as opposed to the automated F1 single clutch transmission. In addition to this were the low-volume factory race cars and a one-off Barchetta variant; the race cars were all derived from the 360 Modena and for the first time produced as a separate model in their own right. While the Barchetta was based on the Spider variant; the first race car was the 360 Modena Challenge, used in a one-make series. The N-GT was a 360 Challenge car evolved further to compete more in the FIA N-GT racing classes alongside other marques such as Porsche; the first model of the 360 to be produced was the Modena, named after the town of Modena, the birthplace of Enzo Ferrari. Transmission choice ranges from 6-speed manual transmission, or an F1 electrohydraulic manual transmission; the 360 Modena went into production in 1999 and remained in production until 2005 when it was replaced by the F430.
The Modena was followed two years by the 360 Spider, Ferrari's 20th road-going convertible which at launch overtook sales of the Modena. Other than weight, the Spider's specifications matched those of the Modena exactly; the Ferrari 360 Spider was unveiled at the 2000 Geneva Motor Show. It is Ferrari's twentieth road-going convertible; the 360 was designed with a convertible variant in mind. Ferrari designers strengthened the sills, stiffened the front of the floorpan and redesigned the windscreen frame; the rear bulkhead had to be stiffened to cut out engine noise from the cabin. The convertible's necessary dynamic rigidity is provided by additional side reinforcements and a cross brace in front of the engine. Passenger safety is ensured by roll bars; the 360 Spider displays a curvilinear waistline. The fairings imply the start of a roof, stable roll bars are embedded in these elevations. Due to use of light aluminium construction throughout, the Spider weighs in only 60 kg heavier than the coupé.
As with the Modena version, its 3.6 litres V8 generating a power output of 400 PS is on display under a glass engine cover. The engine — confined in space by the convertible's top's storage area — acquires additional air supply through large side air intakes; the intake manifolds were moved towards the centre of the engine between the air supply conduits in the Spider's engine compartment, as opposed to lying apart as with the Modena. In terms of performance, the 0-97 km/h acceleration time was slower due to the slight weight increase, the top speed was reduced. Despite the car's mid-mounted V8 engine, the electrically operated top is able to stow into the compartment when not in use; the convertible top was available in black, blue and beige colours. The transformation from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action, dubbed "a stunning 20 second mechanical symphony". Overall: length 4,477 mm Overall: width 1,922 mm Height: 1,235 mm Wheelbase: 2,600 mm Front track: 1,669 mm Rear track: 1,617 mm Weight: 1,350 kg Curb weight: 1,553 kg Weight distribution: 42/58% front/rear Fuel capacity: 95 L Type: 90° V8 F1310-00 Number of valves: 40 Bore & stroke: 85 mm × 79 mm Total displacement: 3,586 cc Redline: 8,700 rpm Maximum power: 400 PS at 8,500 rpm Maximum torque: 373 N⋅m at 4,750 rpm Top speed: Redline limited - 282 km/h / Manufacturer claim - 295 km/h Lift-to-drag ratio: -0.73:1 Acceleration: 0-60 km/h: 2.47 seconds 0-97 km/h: 4.6 seconds 0-100 km/h: 4.98 seconds 0-120 km/h: 6.79 seconds 0-160 km/h: 11.1 seconds / 11.7 seconds 0-210 km/h: 21.9 seconds Standing 1⁄4 mile: 13.1–13.2 seconds at 170.6–177.0 km/h Standing kilometer: 23.74 seconds Braking: 110 km/h -0 mph: 165–175 ft (50–
The Spyker C8 is a sports car produced by the Dutch automaker Spyker Cars since 2000. The design takes visual cues from the 1999 Spyker Silvestris V8 concept car but the proportions have been changed vastly. There are several variants of the C8: C8 Spyder SWB C8 Spyder T C8 Laviolette C8 Laviolette LM85 C8 Double 12S C8 Double 12R C8 Spyder GT2-R C8 Laviolette GT2-R C8 Aileron C8 Aileron Spyder C8 Preliator C8 Preliator Spyder The C8 Spyder is the original base model with an Audi 4.2 litre V8 engine giving the car 400 PS and a top speed of 300 km/h. The C8 Spyder T has a more powerful Audi 4.2 litre V8 twin turbo with 525 PS, giving it a top speed of 320 km/h. The C8 Laviolette has the 400 PS Audi engine but unlike the Spyder models that come with a fixed roof with a glass canopy; the C8 Double 12R is a version made for the 24 hours of Le Mans using the Audi V8 engine with 480 PS and the C8 Double 12S is the street version of this car which has the same glass canopy of the Laviolette and optionally has a 620 PS engine instead of the 400 PS engine from the C8 Spyder, giving it a top speed between 301 km/h and 345 km/h depending on the engine.
Both Double 12 versions have a modified C8 Spyder frame with a longer wheelbase and a bigger fuel tank, 100 L instead of 75. The C8 Preliator was announced at the 2016 Geneva Motor Show. Only 50 vehicles will be produced; the car has a 4.2 L supercharged Audi V8 producing 525 hp, resulting in a 0-100 km/h time of 3.7 seconds and a top speed of 322 km/h. The car comes with a choice of a 6 speed ZF automatic transmission; as with previous Spyker models, the car has typical aviation inspired design elements such as NACA styled air-inlets. Driver technology has been upgraded as well compared to previous models, with the C8 Preliator gaining a heads-up display and bluetooth connectivity for phones; the Spyder C8 Double 12R's first race was the 2002 12 Hours of Sebring, though an accident prevented the car from finishing. It participates in the 24 Hours of Le Mans and several other endurance races. Since 2005 it has participated in FIA GT races in the GT2 class with a Spyker C8 Spyder GT2R. A C8 appeared in Season 4 episode 7 of Top Gear driven by The Stig.
The Spyker C8 Laviolette has been featured in movies such as Basic Instinct 2, War and Fast & Furious 6. The Spyker C8 was featured in a 2010 commercial for Reese's Puffs; the C8 has been featured in a number of video games, including: Spyker Cars
Porsche 911 GT3
The Porsche 911 GT3 is a high performance version of the Porsche 911 sports car intended for racing. It is a line of high-performance models, which began with the 1973 911 Carrera RS; the GT3, introduced in 1999, is named after the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile Group GT3 class, in which it was designed to compete. A number of variations, designed for road and track duty, have been introduced since its launch in 1999. More than 14,000 cars have been produced; the GT3 has had a successful racing career in the one-make national and regional Porsche Carrera Cup and GT3 Cup Challenge series, as well as the international Porsche Supercup supporting the FIA Formula 1 World Championship. It has won championship and endurance races, including the GT class of the American Le Mans Series seven times, first overall in the 24 Hours of Daytona, first overall at the 24 Hours Nürburgring six times; the "GT3" nameplate was introduced in 1999 as part of the first generation of the Porsche 996 model range.
As with Porsche's previous 911 RS models, the 996 GT3 was focused on racing, so was devoid of items that added unnecessary weight to the car. Sound deadening was completely removed, as were the rear seats, rear loud speakers and air conditioning, although automatic air conditioning and CD/radio became no-cost optional add-ons; the engine of the 996 GT3 set it apart from most of the other Porsche 996 models, although it shared the same basic design of the standard so-called "integrated dry sump" flat-six engine. The engine is aspirated and based on the unit used in the Porsche 962 and Porsche 911 GT1 race cars; that engine was known after its designer Hans Mezger. The engine uses the original air-cooled 911's versatile dry-sump crankcase, with an external oil reservoir; the 996 GT3 has 360 PS, compared to the 300 PS of the regular Porsche 996. In GT3 configuration, this so-called "split" crankcase uses, instead of a fan and finned cylinders, separate water jackets added onto each side of the crankcase to cool banks of three cylinders with water pumped through a radiator.
Thus, the GT3 engine is similar to the water-cooled Porsche 962 racing car's engine, based on the same crankcase. The 962 differs, however, by using six individual cylinder heads while the GT1/GT3, like the air and water-cooled Porsche 959, uses two cylinder heads, each covering a bank of three cylinders; the GT3 engine could thus be thought of as similar to a 959 engine, but with water-cooled cylinders. Up to early model year 2004 996 GT3 production, the basic casting used for the crankcase of the GT3 was the same as the air-cooled engine; the "964" casting number was visible on the bottom of the crankcase, on areas machined in air-cooled applications, but not in water-cooled ones. The crankcase casting was changed in mid-2004 to a "996" casting number crankcase to eliminate these external air-cooled remnants, but internally it was the same; because the 911 air-cooled crankcase uses the Porsche 356 engine to transmission mounting flange configuration, the 996 GT3 used a manual gearbox of air-cooled 911 heritage.
This gearbox has interchangeable gear ratios and is more durable making it more suitable for racing than the standard 911 type 996 gearbox. To bring the vehicle's track-prowess to the maximum level, Porsche endowed the GT3 with enlarged brakes, a lowered, re-tuned suspension system, lighter-weight wheels and a new front bumper with matched rear spoiler to help increase downforce, thereby increasing grip. Porsche offered; this option replaced the standard electrically adjustable leather front seats with manually adjustable racing buckets finished in fire-retardant fabric, single mass flywheel, bolt-in half-roll cage, 6-point drivers racing harness, fire extinguisher and preparation for a battery master switch. The Clubsport option was never offered to US customers, ostensibly due to the additional DOT crash testing that would have been required to allow US sales. Porsche made significant updates to the GT3 for 2004, using the 2002 996 facelift including headlights that were differentiated from the Porsche Boxster.
The 2004 version is known as the 996.2 GT3. Horsepower was raised to 381 PS and torque to 284 lb⋅ft, 80% of, available from 2,000 rpm; the braking setup was upgraded, now featuring 6-piston calipers on the front, the Porsche Ceramic Composite Brake system was offered as an option. In track testing by American automotive journals, the GT3 managed a 0-60 mph time of 4.5 seconds and a quarter mile time of 12.0 seconds at 118 mph. During skidpad testing the vehicle posted 1.03g. Porsche's official test-driver Walter Röhrl completed the Nürburgring Nordschleife with the 996 GT3 in 7 minutes 56 seconds, a feat, used by Porsche to promote the car. In 2003, Porsche introduced the Porsche 911 GT3 RS, an more track-focused version of the 996 GT3. RS is short for the German RennSport "racing sport" in English; the "RS" moniker, the characteristic lightweight blue or red wheels and "GT3 RS" side stickers link the 996 GT3 RS to important Porsches such as the Carrera 2.7 RS of the early 1970s. The 996 GT3 RS is lighter than the 996 GT3 thanks to a polycarbonate rear window, carbon fiber hood and rear wing.
Porsche Ceramic Composite Brake Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide ceramic composite brakes, which are more heat and
Morgan Aero 8
The Morgan Aero 8 is a sports car built by Morgan Motor Company at its factory in Malvern Link and designed by the firm's designer Matthew Humphries. The Aero 8 is notable for several reasons because it is the first new Morgan design since 1964's +4+, it does not use an oddity in a modern sporting car. It is the first Morgan vehicle with an aluminium chassis and frame as opposed to traditional Morgan vehicles that have an aluminium skinned wooden body tub on a steel chassis; the engine first powering the Aero 8 was a 4.4L BMW M62 V8 mated to a 6-speed Getrag transmission. In 2007, the Series 4 Aero 8 was released which had an upgraded 4.8L BMW N62 V8 with an optional ZF automatic transmission. All Aero 8s are assembled at Morgan's Malvern Link factory, where they are able to produce up to 14 cars a week, it has been criticized for its "crosseyed" look, justified by the manufacturers as conferring aerodynamic benefits. In response, Morgan changed the design for 2007 and cars to a front end design based on the Morgan Aeromax, using Mini rather than VW New Beetle headlights.
The Morgan Aeromax is the coupe variation of the Aero 8. Production, undertaken in 2008 and 2009, was limited to one hundred cars, each costing £110,000. Owners have included Rowan Atkinson and Paul O'Grady. Taillights of AeroMax and Super Sports were borrowed from Lancia Thesis; the Morgan Aero SuperSports is a targa-roofed version of the AeroMax, sharing its bonded aluminium chassis and lower bodywork with the coupe. At the Geneva Motor Show in March 2015 Morgan announced that the Morgan Aero 8 would be revived with a new model. Engine: BMW N62 V8 Bore & Stroke: 93mm x 83.3mm Engine size: 4799 cc Power Output: 367 PS at 6000 rpm Torque Output: 490 N⋅m at 3600 rpm Valvetrain setup: DOHC 32-valve Double'Vanos' Valvetronic Compression ratio: 10.0:1 Automatic: 6-speed Manual Transmission 1st gear: 4.05:1 2nd gear: 2.4:1 3rd gear: 1.58:1 4th gear: 1.19:1 5th gear: 1:1 6th gear: 0.87:1 Final drive: BTR Limited slip 3.08:1 Front: Independent, inboard Eibach coil springs over Koni shock absorbers Rear: Independent floating inboard Eibach coil springs over Koni shock absorbers Front: AP Racing 350 mm cast iron discs/6-pot calipers Rear: AP Racing 332 mm cast iron discs/2-pot calipers Wheels: 18 in by 9 in forged alloy wheels Tyres: 245/45/18 Chassis: Ultra stiff CAD designed aluminum alloy chassis specially treated and bonded with Gurrit Essex adhesive and riveted with Bollhoff rivets Body Panels: aluminium Weight: Automatic Gearbox 2596 lbs.
There have been several entries in the FIA GT series from both works cars and privateers. It is used in the British GT Series, it is racing in the FIA GT3 European championship and has proven competitive. The Aero 8 GT3 car is built by AUTO GT; the Aero 8 was used in the 2003 Bathurst 24 Hour scoring a DNF with a rare BMW engine failure and the 2004 12 Hours of Sebring finishing 20th outright and 10th in the GT class. Morgan Motor Company's Aero 8 webpage
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is considered one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world and has been called the "Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency"; the event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport. The race is organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest and is held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, which contains a mix of closed public roads and dedicated sections of racing track, in which racing teams must balance the demands of speed with the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without mechanical failure. Of the 60 cars which qualified for the 2018 race, 41 cars ran the full duration. Since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship; because of the decision to run a World Endurance Championship super-season in the period May 2018 to June 2019, the 24 Hours of Le Mans will be run twice in the same season: it will be both the second and the last round of the season.
In 2011 it was a part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, it formed a part of the World Sportscar Championship from 1953 until that series' final season in 1992. Over time, Le Mans has influenced events that have sprung up all around the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at locations such as Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Bathurst; the American Le Mans Series and Europe's Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. Other races include the Le Mans Classic, a race for historic Le Mans race cars from years' past held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a motorcycle version of the race, held on the shortened Bugatti version of the same circuit, a kart race, a truck race, a parody race 24 Hours of LeMons; the 2019 24 Hours of Le Mans will be held on June 15–16 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test.
Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines, the 24 Hours of Le Mans would instead concentrate on the ability of manufacturers to build sporty yet reliable cars. This encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible. At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics and stability at high speeds. While this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability; the oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of fuel each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduce time spent during pit stops.
Such technological innovations have had a trickle-down effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop faster road cars in order to develop them into faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have been changed to their benefit and to further push efficiency; the race is held in June, leading at times to hot conditions for drivers in closed vehicles with poor ventilation. The race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors cover distances well over 5,000 km; the record is 2010's 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding mechanical damage, as well as managing the cars' consumables fuel and braking materials, it tests endurance, with drivers racing for over two hours before a relief driver can take over during a pit stop while they eat and rest.
Current regulations mandate. Competing teams race in groups called "classes", or cars of similar specification, while competing for outright placing amongst all classes; the race showcased cars as they were sold to the general public called "Sports Cars", in contrast with the specialised racing cars used in Grand Prix motor racing. Over time, the competing vehicles evolved away from their publicly available road car roots, today the race is made of two overall classes: prototypes, Grand Touring cars; these are further broken down into 2 sub-classes each, constructors' prototypes, privateer prototypes and 2 subclasses of GT cars. Competing teams have had a wide variety of organization, ranging from competition departments of road car manufacturers to professional motor racing teams to amateur teams; the race has spent long periods as a round of the World S