The Class A4 is a class of streamlined 4-6-2 steam locomotive designed by Nigel Gresley for the London and North Eastern Railway in 1935. Their streamlined design gave them high-speed capability as well as making them recognisable, one of the class, 4468 Mallard, holds the world record as the fastest steam locomotive. Thirty-five of the class were built to haul express passenger trains on the East Coast Main Line route from London Kings Cross via York to Newcastle, via Newcastle to Edinburgh, Scotland, they remained in service on the East Coast Main Line until the early 1960s when they were replaced by Deltic diesel locomotives. Several A4s saw out their remaining days until 1966 in Scotland on the Aberdeen – Glasgow express trains, for which they were used to improve the timing from 3.5 to 3 hours. Gresley introduced the Class A4 locomotives in 1935 to haul streamlined Silver Jubilee trains between London King's Cross and Newcastle; the service was named in celebration of the 25th year of King George V's reign.
During a visit to Germany in 1933, Gresley had been inspired by high-speed streamlined Flying Hamburger diesel trains. The London and North Eastern Railway had considered purchasing similar trains for use from London to Newcastle but the diesel units of the time did not have sufficient passenger carrying capacity and the capital investment in the new technology was prohibitive. Gresley was sure that steam could do well with a decent fare-paying load behind the locomotive. Following trials in 1935 in which one of his A3 Pacifics No.2750 Papyrus recorded a new maximum of 108 mph and completed the journey in under four hours, the LNER's Chief General Manager Ralph Wedgwood authorised Gresley to produce a streamlined development of the A3. Four locomotives were built, all with the word'silver' in their names; the first was 2509 Silver Link, followed by 2510 Quicksilver, 2511 Silver King and 2512 Silver Fox. During a press run to publicise the service, Silver Link twice achieved a speed of 112.5 mph, breaking the British speed record and sustained an average of 100 mph, over a distance of 43 mi.
Following the commercial success of the Silver Jubilee train, other streamlined services were introduced: The Coronation and the West Riding Limited for which more A4s were built. The A4 Pacifics were designed for high-speed passenger services; the application of internal streamlining to the steam circuit, higher boiler pressure and the extension of the firebox to form a combustion chamber all contributed to a more efficient locomotive than the A3. A further design improvement was fitting a Kylchap double-chimney, first on 4468 Mallard in March 1938; the double-chimney improved the capability of the locomotives further, the last three locomotives of the class were fitted with the Kylchap exhaust from new and the rest of the class acquired it in the late 1950s. The class was noted for its streamlined design, which not only improved its aerodynamics, increasing its speed capabilities, but created an updraught to lift smoke away from the driver's line of vision, a problem inherent in many steam locomotives those operated with short cut off valve events.
The distinctive design made it a attractive subject for artists and film-makers. The A4 Class locomotives were known by train spotters as "streaks"; the streamlining side skirts designed by Oliver Bulleid to aerofoil shape that were fitted to all the A4 locomotives, were removed during the Second World War to improve access to the valve gear for maintenance and were not replaced. This apart, the A4 was one of few streamlined steam locomotive designs in the world to retain its casing throughout its existence. Many similar designs, including the contemporary Coronation class, had their streamlining removed or cancelled to cut costs, simplify maintenance and increase driver visibility. On 3 July 1938 4468 Mallard. Gresley never accepted it as the record-breaking maximum, he claimed this speed could only have been attained over a few yards, though he was comfortable that the German speed record of 124.5 mph had been surpassed. Close analysis of the dynamometer roll of the record run confirms that Mallard's speed did in fact exceed that of the German BR 05 002.
The Mallard record reached its maximum speed on a downhill run and failed technically in due course, whereas 05 002's journey was on level grade and the engine did not yet seem to be at its limit. On the other hand, the German train was four coaches long. One fact ignored when considering rival claims, is that Gresley and the LNER had just one serious attempt at the record, far from a perfect run with a 15 mph permanent way check just North of Grantham. Despite this a record was set. Gresley planned another attempt in September 1939, but was prevented by the outbreak of World War II. Prior to the record run on 3 July 1938, it was calculated that 130 mph was possible, Driver Duddington and LNER Inspector Sid Jenkins both said they might well have achieved this figure had they not had to slow for the Essendine junctions. At the end of Mallard's record run, the middle big end ran hot (indicated by the bursting of a heat-sensitive "stink bomb" pl
Bisnorhopanes are a group of demethylated hopanes found in oil shales across the globe and can be used for understanding depositional conditions of the source rock. The most common member, 28,30-bisnorhopane, can be found in high concentrations in petroleum source rocks, most notably the Monterey Shale, as well as in oil and tar samples. 28,30-Bisnorhopane was first identified in samples from the Monterey Shale Formation in 1985. It occurs in abundance throughout the formation and appears in stratigraphically analogous locations along the California coast. Since its identification and analysis, 28,30-bisnorhopane has been discovered in oil shales around the globe, including lacustrine and offshore deposits of Brazil, silicified shales of the Eocene in Gabon, the Kimmeridge Clay Formation in the North Sea, in Western Australian oil shales. 28,30-bisnorhopane exists in three epimers: 17α,18α21β, 17β,18α,21α, 17β,18α,21β. During GC-MS, the three epimers are nearly indistinguishable. However, mass spectral fragmentation of the 28,30-bisnorhopane is predominantly characterized by m/z 191, 177, 163.
The ratios of 163/191 fragments can be used to distinguish the epimers, where the βαβ orientation has the highest, m/z 163/191 ratio. Further, the D/E ring ratios can be used to create a hierarchy of epimer maturity. From this, it is believed that the ααβ epimer is the first-formed, supported by its percent dominance in younger shales. 28,30-bisnorhopane is created independently from kerogen, instead derived from bitumen, unbound as free oil-hydrocarbons. As such, as oil generation increases with source maturation, the concentration of 28,30-bisnorhopane decreases. Bisnorhopane may not be a reliable diagnostic for oil maturity due to microbial biodegradation. Norhopanes are a family of demethylated hopanes, identical to the methylated hopane structure, minus indicated desmethylated carbons. 28,30-bisnorhopane, the more common bisnorhopane biomarker, indicates the absence of methyl groups from C28 and C30, while 25,28,30-trisnorhopane, a related compound found in concurrence with 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicates three demethylated zones across C25, C28, C30.
The exact origins of 28,30-bisnorhopane have not been conclusively established, there are analytical implications towards generation from chemoautotrophic bacteria. GC-MS and other analyses of source rocks, shales containing bisnorhopane provide data on pristane and phytane abundances. 28,30-Bisnorhopane occurs in shales with low pristane to phytane ratios, indicative of generation under anoxic conditions. These shales also contain appreciable levels of sulfur, presented as possible evidence for sulfide-oxidizing bacterial activity. Fossilized bacterial mats found in the Monterey Formation further influence this argument, it has been proposed that the generation mechanism may be a biodegradation through bacterial demethylation of hopanes, however the specific organism and mechanism are still unknown. Diatoms are sometimes mentioned as the primary source for bisnorhopane generation
Mitchell Kupchak is an American professional basketball executive and retired player. He is the current president of basketball operations and general manager of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association; as a college player, Kupchak was an All-American at the University of North Carolina and a member of the gold medal-winning 1976 United States Olympic team. As a professional player, he won three NBA titles – one as a member of the Washington Bullets and two with the Los Angeles Lakers. Kupchak played for Brentwood High School in New York, he was an All-American on the North Carolina Tar Heels men's basketball team, was named Atlantic Coast Conference Player of the Year in his senior season. Kupchak played on the gold medal-winning team at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. Kupchak was named to the NBA All-Rookie Team, he had four productive seasons with Washington and was part of the team that won the NBA championship in 1978. He signed a long term contract with the Lakers in 1981 at the behest of Earvin "Magic" Johnson, who told owner Jerry Buss, "If we could get Mitch Kupchak, I know we could win", after the team's playoff upset.
26 games into the season, Kupchak did not play again until the 1983 -- 84 season. However, Kupchak played a key role in the Showtime Lakers' 1985 championship team against the Boston Celtics, who had intimidated them in the prior year's Finals. Kupchak retired after the 1985–86 season, having played 510 regular season and 68 playoff games, with regular season averages of 10.2 points per game and 5.4 rebounds per game. During his final game, Game 5 of the Western Conference Finals, a brawl broke out between the Lakers and the Houston Rockets, which saw Kupchak and Hakeem Olajuwon ejected. Kupchak showed remarkable forethought in planning for his "life after" being an NBA player—pursuing a focused program to learn the trade of running NBA team operations. While still under his initial player contract, he worked with the front office, developing strong working relationships with Laker management, beginning to "apprentice" with Jerry West, starting studies that led to his MBA from the UCLA Anderson School of Management in 1987.
Kupchak retired from playing in 1986, became the Lakers' assistant general manager. He succeeded West as General Manager, but was not considered to have all of the traditional powers of an NBA GM until 2000. On July 16, 2003, after the Lakers failed to reach the NBA Finals for the first time in 3 years, Kupchak's first major deal was the off-season acquisitions of superstars Karl Malone and Gary Payton. After a number of controversial trade transactions over the years, including the trade of Shaquille O'Neal to the Miami Heat for Lamar Odom, Caron Butler, Brian Grant—as well as the decision to not trade young center Andrew Bynum for point guard Jason Kidd—Kupchak faced severe criticism from Lakers franchise star Kobe Bryant, who urged his firing. However, Kupchak still had the support of the team's owner. In 2007, Kupchak traded Brian Cook and Maurice Evans for Trevor Ariza, the Lakers started the season off with the best record in the West. After an injury to Andrew Bynum cast their recent success in doubt, his February 2008 deal to obtain Spanish power forward Pau Gasol from the Memphis Grizzlies for Kwame Brown, Javaris Crittenton, Aaron McKie, draft picks earned him praise from league insiders and fans alike.
Bryant conceded, "He goes from a F to an A-plus.", while Gregg Popovich, coach of Western Conference rival San Antonio Spurs, went so far as to argue that "there should be a trade committee that can scratch all trades that make no sense". That year, the Lakers reached the NBA Finals for the 5th time in 9 years, but would lose to the Boston Celtics; the following year, they won in a 4-1 rout over the Orlando Magic. In 2009, Kupchak signed 2004 Defensive Player of the Year Ron Artest, famous for his role in the Pacers-Pistons Brawl, as a free agent; the Lakers made it to their seventh NBA Finals in 11 years, winning in a championship re-match against the Celtics in the 2010 NBA Finals. 2011 saw the retirement of longtime coach Phil Jackson, replacing him with Mike Brown, as well as an attempted three-team trade of Odom and Gasol to the Houston Rockets, in exchange for the New Orleans Hornets' All-Star point guard, Chris Paul Because the Hornets was still owned by the NBA, Commissioner David Stern vetoed the trade for unspecified "basketball reasons"—leaving the Lakers with a publicly disgruntled Odom, shocked Gasol.
On July 4, 2012, after two consecutive playoff exits in the semi-final round, Kupchak used a traded player exception on two-time, former NBA Most Valuable Player, Steve Nash. The deal to get Nash in a Laker uniform was finalized for a package of future draft picks and cash considerations; that same summer, Kupchak dealt Andrew Bynum, who had just been voted to his first All-Star team, in a four-way trade for his Eastern Conference counterpart, three-time Defensive Player of the Year Dwight Howard. The move was announced August 10, 2012, but the flurry of personnel changes did not stop
Joanna Gleason is a Canadian actress and singer. She is a Tony Award–winning musical theatre actress and has had a number of notable film and TV roles. Joanne Hall was born in Toronto, the eldest of three siblings born to television producer and game show personality Monty Hall, his wife, both of whom died in 2017. At the time of her birth, her father was working at the Canada Wheat Board and had changed his name from Halparin to Hall, he started his TV career and went on to fame as host of Let's Make a Deal. In May 1956, the Hall family moved to New York and, in the early 1960s, they again moved to Los Angeles. Hall graduated from Beverly Hills High School in 1968, she was in the school's productions of The Music Man, The Mikado, The Grass Harp, The Madwoman of Chaillot. In high school, Gleason received acting instruction from John Ingle, the soap opera star, who taught at BHHS from 1955 to 1985, she continued her education at UCLA Occidental College, from which she graduated. Gleason has been holding classes and workshops all over the country.
Although Gleason started her acting career in television, she is best known for her stage and musical theatre work. She made her Broadway debut in 1977 in I Love My Wife, for which she was honored with a Theatre World Award. Additional Broadway credits include Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing, Peter Nichols' A Day in the Death of Joe Egg, Nick & Nora, Into the Woods, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, The Cartells, her film and television career began in 1977 with her first appearance on her father's program Let's Make A Deal. In 1979, she was cast as a supporting character in Hello, Larry, a role she held throughout the oft-maligned sitcom's two-season run, she had Her Sisters and Heartburn. In the television movie Still the Beaver she played Kimberly. Gleason worked again with Woody Allen in Crimes and Misdemeanors, this time playing the wife of Allen's character. Gleason appeared in several films in the 1990s, including F/X2, Mr. Holland's Opus, Boogie Nights, The Boys. More she has appeared in The Good Wife, Blue Bloods, The Wedding Planner, The Newsroom.
On television, she played the role of Nadine Berkus on the show Love & War, several episodes of which she directed. She played Joan Silver on Temporarily Yours. Gleason starred in the Lifetime series Oh Baby as Charlotte from 1998 to 2000 directing episodes of this show. Shortly following the end of this series, she starred opposite Bette Midler and Lindsay Lohan on Bette as agent Connie Randolph, her numerous guest starring TV credits include episodes of The West Wing, The Practice, King of the Hill, Friends, ‘’Password Plus’’,Tracey Takes On... Murphy Brown, ER and The Outer Limits. Gleason appeared in 6 episodes of the Canadian black comedy series Sensitive Skin as Veronica, from 2014 to 2016. In 2007, Gleason was honoured by the New England Theatre Conference with a Special Award for Achievement in Theatre. Gleason has been married to actor Chris Sarandon since 1994; the two met while performing in Broadway's short-lived 1991 musical Nick & Nora, returned to the stage together in 1998's Thorn and Bloom, collaborated on several films, such as Road Ends, Edie & Pen, Let the Devil Wear Black, American Perfekt.
Gleason was married twice previously. She was married to acting coach Paul G. Gleason, whose surname she kept professionally, although they divorced on June 28, 1982, in Nevada, she married Michael Bennahum. Gleason has Aaron David Gleason, from her first marriage. Gleason's siblings are television writer/director Sharon Hall Kessler and Emmy award-winning television writer/director Richard Hall. Joanna Gleason at the Internet Broadway Database Joanna Gleason at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Joanna Gleason on IMDb Joanna Gleason – Downstage Center interview at American Theatre Wing.org TonyAwards.com Interview with Joanna Gleason BroadwayWorld: Holtzman's'Something You Did' Premieres Off-Bway with Gleason
Neelkanth Ganjoo was a high court judge in Kashmir. In the late 1960s, as a sessions court judge, he had presided over the trial of JKLF founder Maqbool Bhat in the murder of police inspector Amar Chand in 1966. In August 1968, he sentenced one other to death; this sentence was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1982. In 1984, after JKLF cadres in Britain murdered diplomat Ravindra Mhatre, Bhat's execution was carried out in Tihar jail; the same year, some militants bombed Ganjoo's house. On 4 November 1989, a group of three people surrounded Ganjoo as he was in the Hari Singh Street market near the High Court in Srinagar, he attained martyrdom in broad daylight. Ganjoo was among the early Kashmiri Pandits killed by terrorists in Kashmir
Guido Ponzini is a young Italian stick-bass player. He works playing his solo compositions and with flute master Guo Yue. Guido plays in Shan Qi and with bajan virtuoso Vladimir Denissenkov and as guest with Adel Salameh and Ayub Ogada, he recorded his first solo cd end 2005, called “Twilight Town” including compositions by him and Giovanni Amighetti. Cd came out 20 October 2006 released by German company Ozella Music. Guido Ponzini was born on April 1985 in Manerbio, Italy. At the age of sixteen he started the study of electric bass. Since 2002 he studied with renowned producer Giovanni Amighetti composition basics in world and contemporary music, he is attending the Viola da Gamba course by Master Roberto Gini at the conservatory A. Boito in Parma, Italy. In 2005 he started to play Chapman Stick, developing a personal and variegate approach, He plays silicon bass, a short-scale fretless electric bass with silicon strings; as bass and stick player he worked with many world music artists like Ayub Ogada, Adel Salameh, Naziha Azzouz and Vladimir Denissenkov, performing in importants events and festivals He is now working on his solo project and in Shan Qi with Guo Yue and Giovanni Amighetti developing live performances in which the traditional instruments are merged with new technologies like the NDS software Electroplankton created by Toshio Iwai.
"Twilight Town: a musical journey through memories of an imaginary world" is his solo debut album in which he presents original compositions written by him and G. Amighetti for stick and electric bass, featuring Guo Yue and Italian singer Luisa Cottifogli as special guests. On MySpace on ARVmusic.org on Ozella Music Video on YouTube