North British Locomotive Company
The North British Locomotive Company was created in 1903 through the merger of three Glasgow locomotive manufacturing companies. Its main factories were located at the neighbouring Atlas and Hyde Park Works in central Springburn, as well as the Queens Park Works in Polmadie. A new central Administration and Drawing Office for the combined company was completed across the road from the Hyde Park Works on Flemington Street by James Miller in 1909 sold to Glasgow Corporation in 1961 to become the main campus of North Glasgow College; the two other Railway works in Springburn were St. Rollox railway works, owned by the Caledonian Railway and Cowlairs railway works, owned by the North British Railway. Latterly both works were operated by British Rail Engineering Limited after rail nationalisation in 1948. In 1918 NBL produced the first prototype of the Anglo-American Mark VIII battlefield tank for the Allied armies, but with the Armistice it did not go into production. NBL built steam locomotives for countries all over the world.
This included North America, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa. The New South Wales Government Railways purchased numerous North British locomotives, as did the Victorian Railways as late as 1951; the Western Australian Government Railways purchased many North British Locomotives, such as the P class. Between 1903 and 1959 NB supplied many locomotives of various classes to Egyptian State Railways, they included 40 of the 545 class 2-6-0 in 1928. Between 1921 and 1925, NBL supplied New Zealand Government Railways with 85 NZR AB class locomotives; the whole fleet of AB class engines numbered 143, as built. Two were lost at sea. In 1935 NB supplied six Palestine Railways P class 4-6-0 locomotives to haul main line trains between Haifa and the Suez Canal. In 1939 NB supplied 40 4-8-2 locomotives to the New Zealand Railways Department. In 1951 NB supplied another 16 JA class, though these did not have the American-style streamlining of the J class. Together with the NB predecessor firms, North British supplied about a quarter of the steam locomotives used by the NZR.
In 1949 South African Railways bought more than 100 2-8-4 locomotives from NBL and these became the Class 24. Additionally South Africa purchased some of its Class 25, 4-8-4 engines from the company between 1953–55; these successful engines with various in-service modifications survived until the end of steam in South Africa in 1992. NB introduced the Modified Fairlie locomotive in 1924. In total South Africa purchased over 2,000 locomotives from the North British Locomotive Company; as of January 2010, Umgeni Steam Railway operates SAR Class 3BR engine 1486, now named "Maureen", on the line between Kloof and Inchanga, a distance of about 23.5 kilometres. She hauls vintage sightseeing trains some coaches of which date back to 1908. In 1953, RENFE in Spain acquired 25 2-8-2 locomotives from the North British Locomotive Company. One example, 141F 2111 is preserved in working order. Locomotives made for railways in Britain and Ireland included the Barry Railway. After 1923, customers included the Great Western Railway.
In 1922 the New Zealand Railways Department ordered a batch of its successful AB class Pacifics from NBL, to be built and shipped as soon as possible. The trio 22878, 22879 and 22880 were built amidst this batch. 22878 and 22879 were loaded aboard SS Wiltshire and she sailed for Auckland, New Zealand, but she got into difficulty at Rosalie Bay, on the east coast of Great Barrier Island and sank. Remnants of both locomotives, the Wiltshire can be seen on the sea floor. 22880 was dispatched on a subsequent sailing and was put into service in New Zealand as AB class number 745. This locomotive was in service for more than 30 years but hit a washout near Hawera, it was left in the mud for nearly 50 years but
Great Yarmouth known to locals as Yarmouth, is a seaside town in Norfolk, England. It straddles the narrow mouth of the River Yare 20 miles east of Norwich, it had an estimated population of 38,693 at the 2011 Census, making it the most third populous place in Norfolk. The town has been a seaside resort since 1760, was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century, it is the gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the North Sea. For hundreds of years it was a major fishing port, depending on the herring fishery, but its fishing industry suffered a steep decline in the second half of the 20th century, has now all but disappeared; the discovery of oil in the North Sea in the 1960s led to a flourishing oil rig supply industry, today it services offshore natural gas rigs. More the development of renewable energy sources offshore wind power, has created further opportunities for support services. A wind farm of 30 generators is within sight of the town on the Scroby Sands. Great Yarmouth rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in 1844 making it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Yarmouth, triggering an influx of settlers.
Wellington Pier was built in 1854, Britannia Pier opened in 1858. Throughout the 20th century, Yarmouth continued to be a booming resort, with a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. In addition to its beach, Yarmouth's major attractions and landmarks include Britannia Pier, the Pleasure Beach, the Sea Life Centre, the Hippodrome Circus and the Time and Tide Museum, as well as the UK's only surviving Victorian seaside cast iron and glass Winter Garden; the town itself is on a 3.1-mile spit sandwiched between the North River Yare. Its well-known features include the main tourist sector on the seafront; the area is linked to Gorleston and Southtown by Haven Bridge and to the A47 and A149 by the Breydon Bridge. The urban area that makes up the town of Great Yarmouth has an area of 8.3 sq mi and according to the Office for National Statistics in 2002 had a population of 47,288. It is the main town in the larger Borough of Great Yarmouth.
The ONS identify a Great Yarmouth Urban Area, which has a population of 68,317, including the sub-areas of Caister-on-Sea and Great Yarmouth. The wider borough of Great Yarmouth has a population of around 92,500, increasing to 97,277 at the 2011 census. Great Yarmouth was 92.8% White British, with the next biggest ethnic demographic being Other White, at 3.5%, which consists of Eastern Europeans. Great Yarmouth lies near the site of the Roman fort camp of Gariannonum at the mouth of the River Yare, its situation having attracted fishermen from the Cinque Ports, a permanent settlement was made, the town numbered 70 burgesses before the Norman Conquest. Henry I placed it under the rule of a reeve. In 1101 the Church of St Nicholas was founded by Herbert de Losinga, the first Bishop of Norwich, consecrated in 1119; this was to be the first of several priories founded in what was a wealthy trading centre of considerable importance. In 1208, King John granted a charter to Great Yarmouth; the charter gave his burgesses of Yarmouth general liberties according to the customs of Oxford, a gild merchant and weekly hustings, amplified by several charters asserting the rights of the borough against Little Yarmouth and Gorleston.
The town is bound to send to the sheriffs of Norwich every year one hundred herrings, baked in twenty four pasties, which the sheriffs are to deliver to the lord of the manor of East Carlton, to convey them to the King. The hospital was founded in Yarmouth in the reign of Edward I by Thomas Fastolfe, father of Thomas Fastolf, the Bishop of St David's.. In 1551, a grammar school founded and the great hall of the old hospital was appropriated to its use; the school was closed from 1757 to 1860, was re-established by the charity trustees, settled in new buildings in 1872. In 1552 Edward VI granted a charter of admiralty jurisdiction confirmed and extended by James I. In 1668 Charles II incorporated Little Yarmouth in the borough by a charter which with one brief exception remained in force until 1703, when Queen Anne replaced the two bailiffs by a mayor. In 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War the Zealand Expedition was assembled in the town. In 1702 the corporation founded the Fishermen's Hospital.
In the early 18th century Yarmouth, as a thriving herring port, was vividly and admiringly described several times in Daniel Defoe's travel journals, in part as follows: Yarmouth is an antient town, much older than Norwich. It is plac'd on a peninsula between the sea; the ships ride here so close, as it were, keeping up one another, with their head-fasts on shore, that for half a mile together, they go cross the stream with their bolsprits over the land, their bowes, or heads, touching the wharf.
LNER Thompson Class B1
The London and North Eastern Railway Thompson Class B1 is a class of steam locomotive designed for medium mixed traffic work. It was designed by Edward Thompson, it was the LNER's equivalent to the successful GWR Hall Class and the LMS Stanier Black Five, two-cylinder mixed traffic 4-6-0s. However, it had the additional requirement of having to be cheap because, due to wartime and post-war economies, the LNER, never the richest railway company, had to make savings. Introduced in 1942, the first example, No. 8301, was named Springbok in honour of a visit by Jan Smuts. The first 40 of the class were named after breeds of antelopes and the like, they became known as bongos after 8306 Bongo. 274 were built by the LNER. 136 were built by British Railways after nationalisation in 1948. The total number in stock at any one time however was only 409 as 61057 crashed in 1950 and was scrapped; the prototype for the new B class 4-6-0 was built at Darlington and entered service on 12 December 1942. It was the first 2-cylinder main-line locomotive constructed for the LNER since the grouping, such had been Sir Nigel Gresley's faith in the 3 cylinder layout.
With cost saving a wartime priority the LNER's draughtsmen went to great lengths to re-use existing patterns and tools to economise on materials and labour. Extensive use was made of welding instead of steel castings; the boiler was derived from the Diagram 100A type fitted to the LNER Class B17 Sandringham 4-6-0s but with a larger grate area and an increase in boiler pressure to 225 pounds per square inch. The appearance of No. 8301 coincided with a visit to Britain by the Prime Minister of South Africa, Field Marshal Jan Smuts, and, as mentioned above, it was named Springbok. 18 other B1s took the names of LNER directors. Not that there were many B1s to be named during the war years: constraints on production meant that the first ten were not completed until 1944. However, Thompson placed substantial orders with two outside builders: Vulcan Foundry and the North British Locomotive Company of Glasgow. Between April 1946 and April 1952 NBL built 290 B1s. Over the period the cost of each engine rose from £14,893 to £16,190.
Vulcan Foundry contributed 50 at £15,300 apiece. Orders for the B1s, which became Nos. 61000–61409 under British Railways, totalled 410. The B1s operated throughout LNER territory; the first batch was distributed among depots on the former Great Eastern Railway section: Ipswich and Stratford in London. They were an immediate success and were soon working the Liverpool Street - Harwich boat trains, the Hook Continental, the Day Continental and the Scandinavian. B1s were a familiar sight on other top-link workings such as The East Anglian, The Broadsman and The Fenman. During the 1950s over 70 B1s were stationed on ex-GE lines, they enjoyed similar popularity on ex-Great Great Central territory. Engines based at Darnall, Sheffield were rostered for the Master Cutler and South Yorkshireman expresses. Elsewhere there were substantial allocations in West Yorkshire and East Yorkshire. If any fault is to be highlighted on the B1, it must be the ride quality. O. S. Nock criticised the B1s for a poor ride, not something many were used to on the Gresley engines.
The B1 was cheap to build, but the final result was an engine, somewhat lacking in the quality LNER men had come to expect. The two-cylinder layout gave the engines good starting power and excellent hill climbing abilities, but it caused bad hunting effects, a result of the use of cut-offs of up to 75%, as such they were less kind on the passengers they carried than the B17s they replaced. Overall, however, it was necessary that the B1s be introduced, because the LNER was operating a large number of engines that were well past their economic life, it was somewhat ironic that among the engines that came under threat with the arrival of the B1s were the ones that Thompson admired the most: the engines of the North Eastern Railway designed by Vincent Raven. On 7 March 1950, locomotive No. 61057 was hauling an express passenger train at night, when it collided with the rear of a mineral train in fog, 3⁄4 mile north east of Witham Junction. The locomotive was badly damaged. On 4 September 1953, locomotive No. 61046 was hauling a passenger train, derailed at Bethnal Green, London when a set of points moved under it.
In August 1961, locomotive No. 61229 was derailed at Yorkshire. 59 of the 410 locomotives were named. Early B1s were named after species of antelope, whilst engines were named after members of the board of directors of the LNER; this led to the fact that the Class B1 contained the shortest name given to a British locomotive and one of the longest. Note this does not include all engines With the change in the policies of British Railways, the B1s were withdrawn long before their projected economic working life. Excepting No. 61057, destroyed in an accident in 1950, the first normal withdrawal was No. 61085 in November 1961. The remaining locomotives were withdrawn between 1962 and 1967. After withdrawal from capital stock, 17 were taken into departmental stock where they were used as boilers for carriage heating. For this they had their couplers removed so they could not haul trains, though they could still propel themselves. Two have been preserved, these being 1264 and 61306. Both of these were built by North British.
SourcesBoddy, M. G..
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement, 4-6-0 represents the configuration of four leading wheels on two axles in a leading bogie, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. In the mid 19th century, this wheel arrangement became the second most popular configuration for new steam locomotives in the United States of America, where this type is referred to as a Ten-wheeler; as a locomotive pulling trains of lightweight all wood passenger cars in the 1890-1920s, it was exceptionally stable at near 100 mph speeds on the New York Central's New York to Chicago Water Level Route and on the Reading Railroad's Camden to Atlantic City, NJ, line. As passenger equipment grew heavier with all steel construction, heavier locomotives replaced the Ten Wheeler. During the second half of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries, the 4-6-0 was constructed in large numbers for passenger and mixed traffic service.
A natural extension of the 4-4-0 American wheel arrangement, the four-wheel leading bogie gave good stability at speed and allowed a longer boiler to be supported, while the lack of trailing wheels gave a high adhesive weight. The primary limitation of the type was the small size of the firebox. In passenger service, it was superseded by the 4-6-2 Pacific type whose trailing truck allowed it to carry a enlarged firebox. Prussia and Saxonia however went directly to the 2-8-2 Mikado type. For freight service, the addition of a fourth driving axle created the 4-8-0 Mastodon type, rare in North America, but became popular on Cape gauge in Southern Africa; the 4-6-0T locomotive version was a far less common type. It was used for passenger duties during the first decade of the twentieth century, but was soon superseded by the 4-6-2T Pacific, 4-6-4T Baltic and 2-6-4T Adriatic types, on which larger fire grates were possible. During the First World War, the type was used on narrow gauge military railways.
In 1907, five 6th Class locomotives of the Cape Government Railways were sold to the 3 ft 6 in Benguela Railway. These included one of the Dübs-built locomotives of 1897 and two each of the Neilson and Company and Neilson and Company-built locomotives of 1897 and 1898. In the mid-1930s, in order to ease maintenance, modifications were made to the running boards and brake gear of the CFB locomotives; the former involved mounting the running boards higher, thereby getting rid of the driving wheel fairings. This gave the locomotives a much more American rather than British appearance. In April 1951, three Class NG9 locomotives were purchased from the South African Railways for the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes, they were placed in service on the Ramal da Chibía, a 600 mm gauge branch line across 116 kilometres from Sá da Bandeira to Chiange. The locomotives were observed dumped at the Sá da Bandeira shops by 1969 and the branch line itself was closed in 1970. In 1897, three Class 6 4-6-0 locomotives were ordered by the Cape Government Railways from Neilson and Company for use on the new Vryburg to Bulawayo line of the fledgling Bechuanaland Railway Company.
The line through Bechuanaland Protectorate was still under construction and was operated by the CGR on behalf of the BR at the time. The locomotives were returned to the CGR; the Finnish State Railways operated the Classes Hk1, Hk2, Hk3, Hk5, Hv1, Hv2, Hv3, Hv4, Hr2 and Hr3 locomotives with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement. The Class Hk1, numbers 232 to 241, was built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1898; the ten Baldwin locomotives were designated H1 class. Numbers 291 to 300 and 322 to 333 were built by the Richmond Locomotive Works in 1900 and 1901; the 22 Richmond locomotives were designated H2 class and were nicknamed Big-Wheel Kaanari. One of them, no. 293, the locomotive that brought Lenin from exile in August–September 1917 prior to the Russian Revolution, was presented by Finland to the Soviet Union on 13 June 1957 and is preserved at the Finland Station in St. Petersburg, Russia. Another 100 of these locomotives were manufactured in Finland from 1903 to 1916, numbered in the range from 437 to 574 and designated H3 to H8 classes.
The Class Hk5 was numbered from 439 to 515. One, no. 497, is preserved at Haapamäki. The Class Hv1 was built from 1915 by Lokomo, they were nicknamed Heikki and were numbered 545 to 578 and 648 to 655. The class remained in service until 1967. One, no. 555 named Princess, is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum. The Class Hv2 was built by Berliner Maschinenbau and Lokomo in the years between 1919 and 1926, they were numbered 579 to 593, 671 to 684 and 777 to 780. One, no. 680, is preserved at Haapamäki. The Class Hv3 was built by Berliner and Lokomo in the years from 1921 to 1941, they were numbered 638 to 647, 781 to 785 and 991 to 999. Three Class Hv3 locomotives were preserved, no. 781 at Kerava, no. 995 at Suolahti and no. 998 at Haapamäki. The Class Hv4 was built by Tampella and Lokomo in the years from 1912 to 1933 and were numbered 516 to 529, 742 to 751 and 757 to 760. Two, numbers 742 and 751, are preserved at Haapamäki; the Swedish State Railways sold its Class Ta and Tb locomotives to Finland in 1942.
At the time, they were not in traffic in Sweden and, since they were purchased by Finland, they were not considered as war assistance. The Class Ta was designat
London and North Eastern Railway
The London and North Eastern Railway was the second largest of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It operated from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948. At that time, it was divided into the new British Railways' Eastern Region, North Eastern Region, the Scottish Region; the company was the second largest created by the Railways Act 1921. The principal constituents of the LNER were: Great Eastern Railway Great Central Railway Great Northern Railway Great North of Scotland Railway Hull and Barnsley Railway North British Railway North Eastern RailwayThe total route mileage was 6,590 miles; the North Eastern Railway had the largest route mileage of 1,757 miles, whilst the Hull and Barnsley Railway was 106.5 miles. It covered the area east of London, it included the East Coast Main Line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle upon Tyne and the routes from Edinburgh to Aberdeen and Inverness. Most of the country east of the Pennines was including East Anglia.
The main workshops were in Doncaster, with others at Darlington and Stratford, London. The LNER inherited four of London's termini: Fenchurch Street (ex-London and Blackwall Railway. In addition, it ran suburban services to Broad Moorgate; the LNER owned: 7,700 locomotives, 20,000 coaching vehicles, 29,700 freight vehicles, 140 items of electric rolling stock, 6 electric locomotives and 10 rail motor cars 6 turbine and 36 other steamers, river boats and lake steamers, etc. In partnership with the London and Scottish Railway, the LNER was co-owner of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, the UK's biggest joint railway, much of which competed with the LNER's own lines; the M&GNJR was incorporated into the LNER in 1936. In 1933, on the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board, the LNER acquired the remaining operations of the Metropolitan Railway Company; the LNER was the majority partner in the Cheshire Lines Committee and the Forth Bridge Railway Company. It depended on freight from heavy industry in Yorkshire, the north east of England and Scotland, its revenue was reduced by the economic depression for much of the early part of its existence.
In a bid to improve financial efficiency, staffing levels reduced from 207,500 in 1924 to 175,800 in 1937. For investment to retain freight traffic, new marshalling yards were built in Whitemoor in Cambridgeshire, Hull in Yorkshire to attempt to retain freight traffic. Sir Ralph Wedgwood introduced a Traffic Apprenticeship Scheme to attract graduates, train young managers and provide supervision by assistant general manager Robert Bell for career planning; the company adopted a regional managerial system, with general managers based in London and Edinburgh, for a short time, Aberdeen. For passenger services, Sir Nigel Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer built new powerful locomotives and new coaches. Developments such as the streamlined Silver Jubilee train of 1935 were exploited by the LNER publicity department, embedded the non-stop London to Edinburgh services such as the Flying Scotsman in the public imagination; the crowning glory of this time was the world record speed of 126 miles per hour achieved on a test run by LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard.
In 1929, the LNER chose the typeface Gill Sans as the standard typeface for the company. Soon it appeared on every facet of the company's identity, from metal locomotive nameplates and hand-painted station signage to printed restaurant car menus and advertising posters; the LNER promoted their rebranding by offering Eric Gill a footplate ride on the Flying Scotsman express service. Gill Sans was retained by the Railway Executive in 1949 and was the official typeface until British Rail replaced it in the mid 1960s with Rail Alphabet. Continental shipping services were provided from Harwich Parkeston Quay; the company took up the offer in 1933 of government loans at low interest rates and electrified the lines from Manchester to Sheffield and Wath yard, commuter lines in the London suburban area. The LNER inherited: 8 canals, including the Ashton, Macclesfield, Nottingham & Grantham, Peak Forest Docks and harbours in 20 locations, including Grimsby, Hull, Middlesbrough, some eastern Scottish ports, Harwich and London Other wharves, piers 2 electric tramways 23 hotels A 49% stake in the haulage firm Mutter, Howey & Co.
Ltd. It took shares in a large number of bus companies, including for a time a majority stake in United Automobile Services Ltd. In Halifax and Sheffield, it participated in Joint Omnibus Committees with the LMS and the Corporation. In 1935, with the LMS, Wilson Line of Hull and others it formed the shipping company Associated Humber Lines Ltd. In 1938 it was reported that the LNER, with 800 mechanical horse tractors, was the world's largest owner of this vehicle type; the LNER operated a number of ships. The most common liveries were lined apple green on passenger locomotives and unlined black on freight locomotives, both with gold lettering. Passenger
Walschaerts valve gear
The Walschaerts valve gear is a type of valve gear invented by Belgian railway mechanical engineer Egide Walschaerts in 1844 used to regulate the flow of steam to the pistons in steam engines. The gear is sometimes named without the final "s", since it was incorrectly patented under that name, it was extensively used in steam locomotives from the late 19th century until the end of the steam era. The Walschaerts valve gear was slow to gain popularity; the Stephenson valve gear remained the most used valve gear on 19th-century locomotives. However, the Walschaerts valve gear had the advantage that it could be mounted on the outside of the locomotives, leaving the space between the frames clear; the first locomotive fitted with the Walschaerts valve gear was built at the Belgian Tubize workshops, was awarded a gold medal at the 1873 Universal Exhibition in Vienna. In 1874 New Zealand Railways ordered two NZR B class locomotives, they were Double Fairlie locomotives, supplied by Avonside. They were Cape gauge.
The Mason Bogie, a modified Fairlie locomotive of 1874, was the first to use the Walschaerts gear in North America. The first application in Britain was on a Single Fairlie 0-4-4T, exhibited in Paris in 1878 and purchased by the Swindon and Andover Railway in March 1882. According to Ahrons, the locomotive saw little service as nobody seems to have known how to set the valves and this led to enormous coal consumption. In the 20th century, the Walschaerts valve gear was the most used type on larger locomotives. In Europe, its use was universal, whilst in North America, the Walschaerts gear outnumbered its closest competitor, the derived Baker valve gear, by a wide margin. In Germany and some neighbouring countries, like Poland and Czechoslovakia, the Walschaerts gear is named the Heusinger valve gear after Edmund Heusinger von Waldegg, who invented the mechanism independently in 1849. Heusinger's gear was closer to the form adopted, but most authorities accept Walschaerts' invention as sufficiently close to the final form.
The Walschaerts valve gear is an improvement on the earlier Stephenson valve gear in that it enables the driver to operate the steam engine in a continuous range of settings from maximum economy to maximum power. At any setting, the valve gear satisfies the following two conditions: The valve opens to admit steam to the cylinder just before the start of a piston stroke; the pressure of this steam provides the driving force. Soon before the space on one side of the piston starts to contract, the valve starts to release steam from that space to the atmosphere, so as not to impede the movement of the piston. In an economical setting, steam is admitted to the expanding space for only part of the stroke. Since the exhaust is shut, during the rest of the stroke the steam that has entered the cylinder expands in isolation, so its pressure decreases. Thus, the most energy available from the steam is used; the Walschaerts valve gear enables the engineer to change the cutoff point without changing the points at which intake starts.
Economy requires that the throttle be wide open and that the boiler pressure is at the maximum safe level to maximise thermal efficiency. For economy, a steam engine is used of a size such that the most economical settings yield the right amount of power most of the time, such as when a train is running at steady speed on level track; when greater power is necessary, e.g. when gaining speed when pulling out of a station and when ascending a gradient, the Walschaerts valve gear enables the engineer to set the cutoff point near the end of the stroke, so that the full pressure of the boiler is exerted on the piston for the entire stroke. With such a setting, when the exhaust opens, the steam in the cylinder is near full boiler pressure; the pressure in the steam at that moment serves no useful purpose. This sudden pulse of pressure causes the loud “choo” sound that members of the public associate with steam engines, because they encounter engines at stations, where efficiency is sacrificed as trains pull away.
A steam engine well adjusted for efficiency makes a soft “hhHHhh” sound that lasts throughout the exhaust stroke, with the sounds from the two cylinders overlapping to produce a nearly constant sound. The valve gear operation combines two motions; the secondary is the directional/amplitude motion, imparted at the top. Consider that the driver has adjusted the reversing lever such that the die block is at mid-gear. In this position the secondary motion is eliminated and the piston valve travel is shortest, giving minimal injection and exhaust of steam; the travel of the piston valve is twice the total of lap plus lead. Contrast this to when the die block is at the bottom of the expansion link, giving maximum steam injection and exhaust; this is used in accelerating forward from rest. Conversely when the die block is at the top of the expansion link, maximal power in reverse is obtained. Once the locomotive has accelerated the driver can adjust the reverser toward the mid-gear position, decreasing cut-off to give a more economical use of steam.
The engine's tractive e