LOHAS Park is a Hong Kong mass residential development of the MTR Corporation, situated in Tseung Kwan O Area 86, New Territories. After its full completion, it will be the largest single residential estate in the territory. Named "Dream City", it was renamed LOHAS Park. LOHAS is an acronym for "lifestyle of health and sustainability"; the Chinese name means "sunrise health city". The CLP power substation for Phase I The Capitol retains the original name "Dream City Power Substation"; the MTR designated LOHAS Park an'environmental protection city' when planning began in 2002. After the SARS epidemic in early 2003, the element of'health' was incorporated. Following controversy over "wall effect" buildings in 2007, the developers promised there will be sufficient space to allow wind to blow through the estate. LOHAS Park was built at the east of the reclaimed land near the Tseung Kwan O landfill. According to an MTR spokesman, there is an operational landfill about 1 km from development, it is hoped that the problem of smell could be mitigated by town planning.
The 3,550,000 square feet estate will comprise fifty residential towers, offering 21,500 apartments to accommodate 58,000 residents in the site area. These will sit above the MTR LOHAS Park Station; the gross floor area for domestic purposes is up to 1.6 million square metres, retail GFA will occupy up to 50,000 m2The project is divided into 9 to 13 phases, which are to be completed between 2009 and 2015. The first phase, named "The Capitol", situated on the east side of the project, will have 1,380,000 sq ft of floor area; the HK$5 billion first phase of the project is developed by Cheung Kong Holdings. The HK$15 billion second phase was won by Cheung Kong. 1.4 million sq ft of common area with greenery: the common area will include a 200,000 sq ft park and a 330-metre seafront promenade. People and cars will be segregated – pedestrians can walk to various facilities without having to cross a road since all the places are linked with covered walkways; the garden will be watered by a 440,000-litre water-recycling system.
LOHAS Park, itself on land reclaimed from the sea, is surrounded by land reclaimed as landfill. The large piece of greenery to the north of LOHAS Park is the recovered land from the old Tseung Kwan O Stage I landfill which closed in 1995; the large mountain slope on the eastern side of LOHAS Park is the old Tseung Kwan O Stage II/III landfill which closed in 1994. SENT - The above landfills should not be confused with the operating South East New Territories Landfill, about 1 km southeast of LOHAS Park; the SENT is called the Tseung Kwan O landfill in the media. The SENT is expected to become full in the financial year 2014/2015 if the decision to extend its coverage area is not granted. Phase I: The Capitol, Phase IIA: Le Prestige, Phase IIB: Le Prime, Phase IIC: La Splendeur, Phase III: Hemera, Phase IVA: Wing at Sea, Phase IVB: Wing at Sea II, Phase V: Malibu, Phase VI: LP6, Phase VIIA: Montara, Phase VIIB: Grand Montara, Shopping Mall: THE LOHAS The Capitol belongs to the Phase I of the development.
It was jointly developed by Cheung Kong Holdings and MTR Corporation in 2008. It comprises 5 high-rise buildings up to 68 storeys, occupying 1,380,000 square feet of floor area and offering 2,096 flats. Phase II of the development was jointly developed by Cheung Kong Holdings and MTR Corporation and Nan Fung Development. Le Prestige, Phase IIA comprises four high-rise buildings up to 70 storeys, offering 1,688 flats and was completed in 2009. Le Prime, Phase IIB comprises three high-rise buildings up to 76 storeys, offering 1,416 flats and was completed in 2011. La Splendeur, Phase IIC comprises three high-rise buildings up to 72 storeys, offering 1,416 flats and was completed in 2013. Phase II apartments facing East can enjoy the unrestricted view to the permanent recovered greenery; the planned new RTHK headquarters will lie between the greenery. The RTHK building headquarters will be only 10 storeys high compared to the 70+ storeys high of the LOHAS park Phase II towers. Phase III comprises four high-rise buildings.
Phase III is directly attached to the LOHAS Park station. Phases I and II are connected to the MTR station via long covered walkways which are segregated from road traffic level by being elevated throughout the route. Phase III is situated at the Northern side of LOHAS Park. Phase III apartments facing North can enjoy the unrestricted view to the permanent recovered greenery; the greenery is encircled by the new Tseung Kwan O cycling track which links LOHAS Park to the Tseung Kwan O town centre. Part of the greenery is now the Wan Po Road Pet Garden. A new covered walkway is under construction which may offer direct access to the MTR station from the Wan Po Road. Access to the LOHAS Park MTR station by other housing estates residents at the Northern side of the Wan Po Road need to pass through the Phase I The Capitol estate facilities. Heavy pedestrian traffic may have affected the facilities and large scale floor tile refurbishment in the public lift lobbies are undergoing as of August 2014. According to the LOHAS Park master plan, Phase I and Phase II of LOHAS Park are furthest from the permanent sea front, as future phases are constructed, th
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to cost-effective reasons, they are useful within larger stations where local and express services for the same direction of travel can be provided from opposite sides of the same platform thereby simplifying transfers between the two tracks. An alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks; the historical use of island platforms depends upon the location. In the United Kingdom the use of island platforms is common when the railway line is in a cutting or raised on an embankment, as this makes it easier to provide access to the platform without walking across the tracks. Island platforms are necessary for any station with many through platforms. Building small two-track stations with a single island platform instead of two side platforms does have advantages.
Island platforms allow facilities such as shops and waiting rooms to be shared between both tracks rather than being duplicated or present only on one side. An island platform makes it easier for wheelchair users and other people with physical limitations to change services between tracks or access facilities. If the tracks are above or below the entrance level, an island platform layout requires only one staircase and one elevator be built to access the platforms. Building the tracks and entrance at the same level creates a disadvantage. If an island platform is not wide enough to cope with passenger numbers, overcrowding can be a problem. Examples of stations where a narrow island platform has caused safety issues include Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground. An island platform requires the tracks to diverge around the center platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station on high-speed lines. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are 3 to 5 meters.
If the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks must slew out by the same distance. While this requirement is not a problem on a new line under construction, it makes building a new station on an existing line impossible without altering the tracks. A single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, with slower trains diverging from the main line so that the main line tracks remain straight. High-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms; this arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where slow trains can be passed by faster trains. A variation at some stations is to have the slow and fast pairs of tracks each served by island platforms A rarer layout, present at Mets-Willets Point on the IRT Flushing Line, 34th Street – Penn Station on the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and 34th Street – Penn Station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, uses two side platforms for local services with an island in between for express services.
The purpose of this atypical design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Since the IRT Seventh Avenue Line and IND Eighth Avenue Line have adjacent express stations at 42nd Street, passengers can make their transfers from local to express trains there, leaving more space available for passengers utilizing intercity rail at Pennsylvania Station; the Willets Point Boulevard station was renovated to accommodate the high volume of passengers coming to the 1939 World's Fair. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form; this was. If this happened, the lines would need to be compatible with continental loading gauge, this would mean it would be easy to change the line to a larger gauge, by moving the track away from the platform to allow the wider bodied continental rolling stock to pass while leaving the platform area untouched. Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. All railway stations in India consist of island platforms.
In Toronto, 29 subway stations use island platforms. In Sydney, on the Eastern Suburbs Railway and the Epping Chatswood Railway, the twin tunnels are spaced and the tracks can remain at a constant track centres while still leaving room for the island platforms. A slight disadvantage is. In Edmonton, all 18 LRT stations on the Capital Line and Metro Line use island platforms; the Valley Line under construction, utilizes the new low-floor LRT technology, but will only use island platforms on one of the twelve stops along the line. In southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 s
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Po Lam station
Po Lam is an MTR station located in Po Lam, in the New Territories of Hong Kong. It is the northern terminus of the Tseung Kwan O Line; the next station on the line is Hang Hau. Although the station is at ground level, it is covered, though not sealed, from the outside; the station's main entrance is on Mau Yip Road, where five pedestrian footbridges link the station to a public transport interchange for ground transport. It is possible to directly access The Pinnacle from the concourse of the station. Another footbridge crosses Po Fung Road and enables direct access from Po Lam Estate, Yan Ming Court and Verbena Heights. Unlike most MTR stations, the concourse and platform are at the same level; this necessitates the halting of trains from Hang Hau midway between the stations while a train at the station departs. At the same time, trains arriving at Po Lam stay for a much shorter time before departing, when compared to other MTR terminals; the single-track design limits the maximum train service frequency of the Tseung Kwan O Line.
The original design of the station was to have two tracks sharing an island platform, a concourse above the platforms. However, the MTRC, on the advice of the contractors, decided that the concourse would replace what was going to be the second track and part of the island platform; the MTRC decided on the current layout after realising that it would be unlikely that the Tseung Kwan O Line would to be extended beyond Po Lam, as well as to save construction costs. With the current layout, passengers can enter or exit the station from the platform in less than one minute. Just south of the station, there is a siding. A1: Metro City Plaza III A2: Metro City Plaza II B1: Metro City Plaza II B2: Metro City Plaza I B3: King Lam Estate C: Mau Yip Road 12: to Sai Kung 15: to Hong Sing Garden 15M: to Hong Sing Garden 16: to Po Toi O 17M: to Tsui Lam Estate 105: to Hong Sing Garden 106: to Kowloon Bay 107: to Haven of Hope Hospital 111: to San Po Kong 91M: to Diamond Hill 93A: to Kwun Tong Ferry Pier 93K: to Mong Kok East Station 93M: to Lam Tin Station 98D/98P: to Tsim Sha Tsui East 98S: to Mei Foo 290/290A to Tsuen Wan West Station 296M: to Hang Hau Station 690: to Central 690P: to Central 798: to Fo Tan via Sha Tin Media related to Po Lam Station at Wikimedia Commons
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Yale romanization of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still used in books and dictionaries for foreign learners of Cantonese, it shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization. Only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. Modern Cantonese has up to seven phonemic tones. Cantonese Yale represents these tones using a combination of diacritics and the letter h. Traditional Chinese linguistics treats the tones in syllables ending with a stop consonant as separate "entering tones".
Cantonese Yale follows modern linguistic conventions in treating these the same as the high-flat, mid-flat and low-flat tones, respectively. Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems by Meng Haoran: Cantonese phonology Jyutping Guangdong Romanization Cantonese Pinyin Sidney Lau romanisation S. L. Wong Barnett–Chao Romanisation Yale romanization of Mandarin Yale romanization of Korean Gwaan, Choi-wa 關彩華. English-Cantonese Dictionary - 英粤字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-970-6. Matthews, Stephen & Yip, Virginia. Cantonese. A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08945-X. Ng Lam, Sim-yuk & Chik, Hon-man. Chinese-English Dictionary 漢英小字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization, Mandarin in Pinyin. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-922-6. Comparison chart of Romanization for Cantonese with Yale, S. Lau, Toho and LSHK MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary Online Chinese Character to Yale Romanization of Cantonese lookup Conversion tool
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim