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LOT Polish Airlines

LOT Polish Airlines incorporated as Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT S. A. is the flag carrier of Poland. Based in Warsaw and established on 29 December 1928, it is one of the world's oldest airlines in operation. With a fleet of 100 aircraft, LOT Polish Airlines flies to over 120 destinations across Europe and North America. Most of the destinations originate from its hub at Warsaw Chopin Airport. LOT is a member of the Star Alliance; the airline was established on 29 December 1928 by the Polish government as a self-governing limited liability corporation, taking over existing domestic airlines Aerolot and Aero, started operations on 1 January 1929. In addition to existing services from Warsaw to Kraków, Poznań, Gdańsk and Lwów, there were created services to Bydgoszcz and Katowice, in 1932 to Wilno; the first aircraft used were Junkers F.13 and Fokker F. VII, its first international service began on 2 August 1929 to Vienna. It was at this point that LOT's well-renowned logo was picked as the winning entry of the airline's logo design competition.

The LOT was accepted into IATA in 1930. State Treasury had 86% shares in the line, the rest belonged to Province of Silesia and city of Poznań. In 1931 the crane and Gronowski's logo were recognised by the company's corporate leadership as the emblem of LOT Polish Airlines, in the same year the company's first multi-segment international flight along the route Warsaw – Lwów – CzerniowceBucharest was launched. In next years there followed services to Berlin, Helsinki, including some waypoints. By 1939 the lines were extended to Beirut, Copenhagen, reaching 10,250 km of routes. Douglas DC-2, Lockheed Model 10A Electra and Model 14H Super Electra joined the fleet in 1935, 1936 and 1938 respectively. Several Polish aircraft designs were tested, but only single-engined PWS-24 airliner was acquired in any number. In 1934, after five years of operating under the LOT name, the airline received new head offices, technical facilities, hangars and warehouses located at the new, modern Warsaw Okęcie Airport.

This constituted a move from the airline's previous base at Pole Mokotowskie as this airport had become impossible to operate safely due to how it had become absorbed into Warsaw's outlying urban and residential areas. In 1938 LOT changed its name, following the Polish spelling reform of that year from Polskie Linje Lotnicze'LOT' to Polskie Linie Lotnicze'LOT'. In the same year a well-publicised transatlantic test flight from Los Angeles via Buenos Aires, Dakar to Warsaw, aimed at judging the feasibility of introducing passenger service on the Poland-United States route, was carried out by LOT pilots and crew. There were plans to open services among others to London and Moscow and transatlantic service in 1940; the airline had carried 218,000 passengers before the war. In 1939 there were 697 employees, including 25 pilots. Services were suspended after the outbreak of the Second World War on 1 September 1939 and during following German occupation. Thirteen airliners, that got to Romania, were next seized by the Romanian government.

For the duration of the Second World War, the airline suspended operations. After the liberation of Poland, from August 1944 until December 1945 the Polish Air Force maintained basic transport in the country. On 10 March 1945 the Polish government recreated the LOT airline, as a state-owned enterprise. In 1946, seven years after the service was suspended, the airline restarted its operations after receiving ten Soviet-built ex-Air Force Lisunov Li-2Ts further passenger Li-2Ps and nine Douglas C-47s. Both domestic and international services restarted that year, first to Berlin, Paris and Prague. In 1947 there were added routes to Bucharest, Budapest and Copenhagen. Five modern, although troublesome SE.161 Languedoc joined the fleet for a short period in 1947–1948, followed by five Ilyushin Il-12B in 1949. After the end of Stalinism in Poland, few Western aircraft would be acquired. After that, the composition of the airline's fleet shifted to Soviet-produced aircraft. Only in 1955 LOT inaugurated services to Moscow, being the centre of the Marxist–Leninist world, to Vienna.

Services to London and Zürich were not re-established until 1958, to Rome until 1960. Nine Ilyushin Il-18 turboprop airliners were introduced in June 1961, leading to the establishment of routes to Africa and the Middle East, in 1963 LOT expanded its routes to serve Cairo. In the 1970s there were added lines to Baghdad, Benghazi and Tunis; the Antonov An-24 was delivered from April 1966, followed by the first jet airliners Tupolev Tu-134 in November 1968. The Tu-134s were operated on European routes; the Ilyushin Il-62 long-range jet airliner inaugurate the first transatlantic routes in the history of Polish air transport to Toronto in 1972 as a charter flight and a regular flight to New York City in 1973. LOT began service on its first Far East destination – Bangkok via Dubai and Bombay in 1977. In 1977 the air

Chosroid dynasty

The Chosroid dynasty known as the Iberian Mihranids, were a dynasty of the kings and the presiding princes of the early Georgian state of Iberia from the 4th to the 9th centuries. The family, of Iranian Mihranid origin, accepted Christianity as their official religion c. 337, maneuvered between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Iran to retain a degree of independence. After the abolition of the Iberian kingship by the Sassanids c. 580, the dynasty survived in its two related, but sometimes competing princely branches—the elder Chosroid and the younger Guaramid—down to the early ninth century when they were succeeded by the Georgian Bagratids on the throne of Iberia. The Chosroids were a branch of the Mihranid princely family, one of the Seven Great Houses of Iran, who were distantly related to the Sasanians, whose two other branches were soon placed on the thrones of Gogarene and Gardman, the two Caucasian principalities where the three nations – Armenians and Georgians – commingled. According to the Georgian Chronicles, the first Chosroid king Mirian III was installed, through his marriage to an Iberian princess Abeshura, on the throne of Iberia by his father whom the Georgian chronicles refer to as "Chosroes", Great King of Iran.

Another medieval Georgian chronicle, Conversion of Kartli, is at odds with the tradition of Life of the Kings of the Georgian Chronicles and identifies Mirian as the son of King Lev, successor of King Aspacures I. Lev is unattested elsewhere; the ascendance of the Mihranid lines to the thrones of Caucasia was, in fact, a manifestation of the victory of the Sassanids over what remained in the region of the Arsacid Dynasty of Parthia whose Armenian branch was now in decline and the Georgian one had been extinct. As an Iranian vassal king, Mirian III, the founder of the Chosroid Dynasty, participated in the Sassanid war against the Roman Empire. However, in the Peace of Nisibis of 298, Rome was acknowledged its suzerainty over eastern Georgia, but recognized Mirian as the king of Iberia. Mirian adapted to the change in the political fabric of Caucasia, established close ties with Rome; this association was further enhanced after the female Christian missionary, converted Mirian, his wife Nana and household into Christianity in or around 337.

However, the Sassanids continued to vie with Rome for influence over Iberia, succeeded in temporarily deposing Mirian's Romanophile successor, Sauromaces II, in favor of the pro-Iranian Aspacures II in 361. The Roman emperor Valens intervened and restored Sauromaces to the throne in 370, although Aspacures’ son and successor, Mihrdat III, was permitted to retain control of the eastern part of the kingdom. However, by 380, the Sassanids had reasserted their claims by reuniting Iberia under the authority of Aspacures III of Iberia and began to extract tribute from the country; the Romans evidently admitted the loss of Iberia in the aftermath of the 387 Treaty of Acilisene with Iran. The growth of Iranian influence in eastern Georgia, including the promotion of Zoroastrianism, was resisted by the Christian church and a part of the nobility, the invention of the Georgian alphabet, a crucial instrument in the propagation of Christian learning, being the most important cultural legacy of this struggle.

The Chosroid kings of Iberia, albeit Christian, remained loyal to their Iranian suzerains until Vakhang I Gorgasali the most popular Chosroid king of Iberia traditionally credited with the foundation of Georgia’s modern-day capital Tbilisi, reversed his political orientation in 482, bringing his state and church more into line with current Byzantine policy. He led, in alliance with the Armenian prince Vardan Mamikonian, an open revolt against the Sassanids and continued a desperate, but unsuccessful, struggle until the end of his life. After Vakhtang I's death in 522, the family went in decline and exercised only a limited authority over Iberia, the government being run by the Tbilisi-based Iranian viceroy through the compromise with local princes; when Bacurius III of Iberia died in 580, the Sassanids seized opportunity to abolish the monarchy, without much resistance from the Iberian aristocracy. Dispossessed of the crown, heirs of Vakhtang I remained in their mountain fortresses – the senior Chosroid branch in the province of Kakheti, the minor one, the Guaramids, in Klarjeti and Javakheti.

A member of the latter branch, Guaram I, revolted, in 588, from the Sassanid rule and pledged his loyalty the Byzantine emperor Maurice, being bestowed with the high Byzantine dignity of curopalates. He succeeded in restoring the autonomy of Iberia in the form of a presiding principate, a rearrangement, accepted by Iran in the peace of 591, which divided Iberia between Byzantium and Iran at Tbilisi. Guaram's son and successor, Stephanus I, transferred his allegiance to the Sassanids and reunited Iberia drawing a vigorous response from the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, who, in alliance with the Khazars, campaigned in Iberia and captured Tbilisi after an uneasy siege in 627. Heraclius I had Stephanus flayed alive and gave his office to the pro-Byzantine Chosroid prince Adarnase I of Kakheti. Reinstated by Heraclius, the Chosroid dynasty were persistent in their pro-Byzantine line, but Stephanus II was forced to recognize himself a tributary to the Arab Caliphate which would become a dominant regional power.

Following the death of Adarnase II, the rival Guaramid branch, with Guaram II (684-

Chupacabra vs. The Alamo

Chupacabra vs. The Alamo is a 2013 made-for-TV movie about a pack of Chupacabra that use a tunnel to escape from Mexico to San Antonio, Texas. In their travels, they engage in many violent attacks, they begin to kill various drug cartel members. The film stars Erik Julia Benson as the protagonists, it was directed by Terry Ingram with the story by Jeffrey Schenck. The movie was released in the U. S. and Canada and later in Brazil and Germany under the titles Chupacabra and Chupacabra – Angriff der Killerbestien. A group of corpses are found in a tunnel, where they were killed by Chupacabras; the following day, Carlos Seguin and Tracy Taylor begin to investigate the killings and discover a dying man, attacked by the Chupacabras. The dying man identifies his killers as "Diablo". Tracy soon discovers a pile of bones deeper within the tunnel. A Chupacabra attacks Tracy, but she is able to kill it and the dead body is taken back to a lab to study. In the film, Agent Perez, one of Seguin's partners, is searching the field with his dog.

Both are killed by a pack of Chupacabras. Before the man is killed, he takes a picture of one of the Chupacabras, which Carlos finds while investigating the murders; the Chupacabras attack a group of teenagers during a Cinco de Mayo party, forcing Sienna, Carlos' daughter and one of her friends to hide inside the school. They are able to call Carlos, able to shoot the Chupacabras; however while they are recovering in their home, another pack of Chupacabras attacks, this time injuring Sienna and killing her friend, Brooke. After being relieved by his boss, Carlos enlists the aid of his son's gang. One of his agent friends, Wilcox comes up to help with a tactical team. Using the signal from a transponder that Taylor tagged unto one of the Chupacabras, the group trace the pack of monsters into a nearby warehouse. However, they end up being ambushed by the Chupacabras with most of the tactical team being killed. In the climax and the group of survivors lead the Chupacabras to the Alamo, where a battle takes place.

In the end, they kill all the Chupacabras by blowing up the Alamo. The movie was shot on location in Texas, it was distributed by Echo Bridge Home Entertainment in the USA and by Signature Entertainment in the UK on DVD. Digital Post Services was used for ADR Recording in post production; the tagline for the film was "Chupacabras attack with a vengeance and this time they're taking on the Alamo". The movie has no rating on the Rotten Tomatoes site and there are no available rating numbers for its airing. Chupacabra vs; the Alamo on IMDb

Port Clinton Light

Port Clinton Light is a lighthouse in Port Clinton, Ohio at the northern end of Waterworks Park. It had been on the outer end of the west pier, located in the city's harbor entrance; this lighthouse has two incarnations. Only the present structure survives as it was moved to a marina and replaced by a skeleton tower in 1952; the marina in turn sold the lighthouse back to the city, it was placed in the park restored. At just 20 ft, Port Clinton Light is the shortest lighthouse in the state; the first lighthouse was 40 feet tall in height. Austin Smith was the first keeper of the lighthouse six months. Despite calls for the light to be discontinued due to a lack of harbor traffic, it remained until 1870. In that year the lantern room was removed from the tower which resulted in complaints from residents regarding its aid. In 1883, piers in the port were extended into Lake Erie which prompted congress to act in 1895 on the construction of a new lighthouse; the new lighthouse was constructed from wood and went into service on the outer end of the west pier in 1896.

The old tower was razed in 1899, the original keeper's dwelling was replaced in 1901 in favor for a more modern residence. The lighthouse was automated in 1926, was sold the following year which resulted in its deactivation; the Keeper's residence was used as an apartment building in the 1940s and as a restaurant in 1983. The wooden lighthouse was removed from the pier in 1952 and was relocated to the new owner's marina on the Portage River; that same year a new white skeleton tower was erected on the spot. In 2009 the restaurant, in the Keeper's residence closed due to a fire; the owner was arrested and charged with arson in 2010 which resulted in the residence being sold to Croghan Colonial Bank in 2013. The wooden lighthouse tower was donated in 2011 to the city of Port Clinton by the owners of the same marina that had acquired it 59 years prior. Repairs were made to the old tower which resulted in a complete restoration but there were legal battles on where the structure should be placed; the Port Clinton Lighthouse Conservancy and the city had everything settled on July 14, 2015 with the placement in the northern end of Water Works Park.

While the structure is illuminated during nightfall it is no longer considered a navigational aid. A. ^ The lighthouse is considered active as is no longer used as a navigational aid. B.^ David's son Wallace looked after the lighthouse for a few months until automation

Christine Falls Bridge

The Christine Falls Bridge is a reinforced concrete arch bridge in Mount Rainier National Park, spanning Van Trump Creek at Christine Falls. The bridge was built in 1927–1928 by contractor J. D. Tobin of Portland, who built the Narada Falls Bridge at the same time; the arch has spans 56 feet. The bridge is 30 feet wide, it is an example of National Park Service Rustic design. The bridge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 13, 1991, it is part of the Mount Rainier National Historic Landmark District, which encompasses the entire park and which recognizes the park's inventory of Park Service-designed rustic architecture. Two other bridges existed at this location; the "Old Christine Falls Bridge", built circa 1908 by the US Army Corps of Engineers, was constructed of wood in a Howe truss design. Its span was 100 feet above the surface; the first Christine Falls Bridge was condemned in 1917 because it was "badly decayed". A 60-foot bridge was constructed closer to the falls as a replacement.

Media related to Christine Falls Bridge at Wikimedia Commons Christine Falls Historic American Engineering Record No. WA-48, "Christine Falls Bridge, Spanning Van Trump Creek on Nisqually Road, Longmire vicinity, Pierce County, WA"

Ralph Lingen, 1st Baron Lingen

Ralph Robert Wheeler Lingen, 1st Baron Lingen was an English civil servant. Lingen was born in Birmingham, he was the grandson of Ralph Lingen, Fellow of Wadham College and was a descendant of Elisabeth de Burgh. Lingen was first educated at Bridgnorth Grammar School and became a scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, in 1837, he won the Hertford scholarships. He subsequently won the Eldon Law Scholarship. After teaching as an assistant master at Rugby School he entered the Inns of Court as a Barrister at Lincoln's Inn, he was called to the bar in 1847. It was in this role that he became involved with the 1847 Blue Books episode in 1847-8 within which his xenophobic disdain of the Welsh became apparent. After a short period was chosen in 1849 to succeed Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth as its secretary or chief permanent official, he retained this position till 1869. The Education Office of that day had to administer a somewhat chaotic system of government grants to local schools, Lingen was conspicuous for his fearless discrimination and rigid economy, qualities which characterized his whole career.

When Robert Lowe became, as vice-president of the council, his parliamentary chief, Lingen worked congenially with him in producing the Revised Code of 1862 which incorporated "payment by results". Shortly before the introduction of Forster's Education Act of 1870, Lingen was transferred to the post of permanent secretary of the treasury. In this office, which he held till 1885, he proved a most efficient guardian of the public purse, he was a tower of strength to successive chancellors of the exchequer, it used to be said that the best recommendation for a secretary of the treasury was to be able to say "No" so disagreeably that nobody would court a repetition. Lingen was at all events a most successful resister of importunate claims, his undoubted talents as a financier were most prominently displayed in the direction of parsimony. In 1885 he retired, he had been made a CB in 1869 and a KCB in 1878, on his retirement he was raised to the peerage as Baron Lingen, of Lingen in the County of Hereford.

In 1889 he was made one of the first aldermen of the new London County Council, but he resigned in 1892 with increasing deafness. His portrait contains the heraldic arms of Trinity College and not his personal arms which are recorded in Burkes peerage and around his neck hangs his KCB order of knighthood. Lord Lingen married Emma, daughter of Robert Hutton, in 1852. There were no children from the marriage, he died in July 1905, aged 86, was buried in Brompton Cemetery, London. The grave lies on the western side of the central enclosed roundel; the peerage died with him. Lady Emma Lingen is buried with him. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lingen, Ralph Robert Wheeler Lingen, Baron". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 729. Lucas, Charles P.. "Lingen, Ralph Robert Wheeler". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Sutherland, Gillian. "Lingen, Ralph Robert Wheeler, Baron Lingen". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34548. Ralph Lingen, Secretary to the Education Department 1849-1870, by A. S. Bishop. British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 138–163. Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Society for Educational Studies