LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin was a German passenger-carrying, hydrogen-filled rigid airship which flew from 1928 to 1937. It offered the first commercial transatlantic passenger flight service. Named after the German airship pioneer Ferdinand von Zeppelin, a count in the German nobility, it was conceived and operated by Dr Hugo Eckener, the chairman of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin. Graf Zeppelin made 590 flights totalling 1.7 million kilometres. It was operated by a crew of 36, could carry 24 passengers, it was the largest airship in the world when it was built. It made the first circumnavigation of the world by airship, the first nonstop crossing of the Pacific Ocean by air, it was built using funds raised by public subscription and from the German government, its operating costs were offset by the sale of special postage stamps to collectors, the support of the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, cargo and passenger receipts. After several long flights between 1928 and 1932, including one to the Arctic, Graf Zeppelin provided a commercial passenger and mail service between Germany and Brazil for five years.
When the Nazi Party came to power, they used it as a propaganda tool. It was withdrawn from service after the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, scrapped for military aircraft production in 1940; the first successful flight of a rigid airship, Ferdinand von Zeppelin's LZ1, was in Germany in 1900. Between 1910 and 1914, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft transported thousands of passengers by airship. During World War I, Germany used airships to bomb other strategic targets. In 1917 the German LZ 104 was the first airship to make an intercontinental flight, from Jamboli in Bulgaria to Khartoum and back, a nonstop journey of 6,800 kilometres. During and just after the war and the United States built airships, France and Italy experimented with confiscated German ones. In July 1919 the British R34 flew from East Fortune in Scotland to back. Luftschiffbau Zeppelin delivered LZ 126 to the US Navy as a war reparation in October 1924; the company chairman Dr Hugo Eckener commanded the delivery flight, the ship was commissioned as the USS Los Angeles.
The Treaty of Versailles had placed limits on German aviation. Public subscription raised 2.5 million Reichsmarks, the government granted over ℛℳ 1 million. The LZ 127 was designed by Ludwig Dürr as a "stretched" version of the USS Los Angeles, it was intended from the beginning as a technology demonstrator for the more capable airships that would follow. It was built between 1926 and September 1928 at the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin works in Friedrichshafen, on Lake Constance, which became its home port for nearly all of its flights, its duralumin frame was made of eighteen 28-sided structural polygons joined lengthwise with 16 km of girders and braced with steel wire. The envelope was of thick cotton, painted with aircraft dope containing aluminium to reduce solar heating sandpapered smooth; the gas cells were cotton, lined with goldbeater's skins, protected from damage by a layer containing 27 km of ramie fibre. Graf Zeppelin was 236.6 m long and had a total gas volume of 105,000 m3, of which 75,000 m3 was hydrogen carried in 17 lifting gas cells, 30,000 m3 was Blau gas in 12 fuel gas cells.
It was built to be the largest possible airship that could fit into the company's hangar, with only 46 cm between the top of the finished vessel and the hangar roof. It was the longest and most voluminous airship when built, but it was too slender for optimum aerodynamic efficiency, there were worries that the shape would compromise its strength. Graf Zeppelin was powered by five Maybach VL II 12-cylinder 410 kW engines, each of 33.251 L capacity, mounted in individual streamlined nacelles arranged so that each was in an undisturbed airflow. The engines were reversible, were monitored by crew members who accessed them during flight via open ladders; the two-bladed wooden pusher propellers were 3.4 m in diameter, were upgraded to four-bladed units. Graf Zeppelin flew with one engine shut down to save fuel. Graf Zeppelin was the only rigid airship to burn Blau gas. A liquid-fuelled airship loses weight as it burns fuel, requiring the release of lifting gas, or the capture of water from exhaust gas or rainfall, to avoid the vessel climbing.
Blau gas was only heavier than air, so burning it had little effect on buoyancy. On a typical transatlantic journey Graf Zeppelin used Blau gas 90% of the time, only burning petrol if the ship was too heavy, used ten times less hydrogen per day than the smaller L 59 did on its Khartoum journey. Graf Zeppelin carried 3,500 kg of ballast water and 650 kg of spares, including an extra propeller. Calcium chloride was added to the ballast water to prevent freezing; the ship retained grey water from the sinks for use as additional ballast. Both fresh and waste water could be aft to control trim; the airship took off vertically using static lift started the engines in the air, adding aerodynamic lift. Normal cruising altitude was 650 feet.
Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir Regency is a regency of South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. It takes its name from the three main rivers which flow through that area - the Penukal River, Abab River and Lematang River - while the name Ilir means "downstream". Talang Ubi is the capital of this regency; the regency borders Musi Banyuasin Regency to the north, Banyuasin Regency, Muara Enim Regency to the east, Muara Enim Regency to the south, Musi Rawas Regency, Muara Enim Regency to the west. The regency was established on 14 December 2012, having being part of Muara Enim Regency. Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir Regency is divided into the following 5 subdistricts: Abab North Penukal Penukal Talang Ubi Tanah Abang
Auldgirth is a village on the A76 road in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. Auldgirth village features'The Auldgirth Inn' and the former Auldgirth Primary School, which closed in 2000. Inhabitants of Auldgirth located to the scheme, situated next to the A76, but in recent years this has expanded to the outlying areas due to rejuvenation programmes; the name Auldgirth is from Middle English ald girth, meaning'old enclosure'. At one time it had a manned railway station, situated one mile south of the village, just before the hamlet of Dalswinton. Carse Loch and the Friar's Carse country house hotel are located nearby. Dalgarnock Village and Parish Barburgh Mill, Closeburn
Bekim Kastrati is an Albania former professional footballer who played the majority of his career in Germany. He is a striker who had joined Bonn from Dynamo Dresden in January 2010, switching to Wuppertaler SV Borussia in May. Prior to playing for Düsseldorf he had played for a number of German clubs including Fortuna Düsseldorf, Eintracht Braunschweig and Borussia Mönchengladbach. In January 2008, Fortuna Düsseldorf hosted the SWD Wintercup, inviting Bundesliga sides SV Werder Bremen, Borussia Dortmund and Bayer 04 Leverkusen over for a short one-day tournament. Fortuna won it; the winning goal was scored by Kastrati. A few days Fortuna played a friendly against Bayern Munich. Bayern won thanks to goals by Jan Schlaudraff and Luca Toni. Kastrati had a chance to equalise in the 89th minute, but he crashed into Bayern's third choice keeper Bernd Dreher, it was this incident where he suffered a fractured testicle and had to be brought to a hospital to undergo an emergency operation. He made his debut for Albania in a March 2006 friendly match against Georgia in Tirana and earned a total of 2 caps, scoring no goals.
Edward George Samuel Kelaart was a Ceylonese cricketer who played first-class cricket between 1926 and 1935. He was Ceylon's first international captain, leading the side in two matches against India in 1932-33. On his debut for Ceylon, in a one-day match against the touring MCC in 1922-23, Kelaart scored the first-ever fifty for Ceylon against an MCC team; when the Australians played a one-day match in Colombo in 1929-30, he took 6 for 55 with his off-spin. After appearing for Ceylonese teams in Ceylon against the touring Maharajkumar of Vizianagram's XI in 1930-31, he joined the Maharajkumar's team for some of its matches in India that season. In the victory over Madras he was the outstanding player, making 101 and 26 and taking 3 for 30 and 4 for 11; the Maharajkumar tried unsuccessfully to persuade the Indian selectors to include him in India's touring team to England in 1932. He was vice-captain of Ceylon's first touring team, which toured India in 1932-33, was one of the most successful players on the tour.
He led the side in the two matches against India, Ceylon's first matches against another country. In the first match, drawn, his younger brother Mervyn scored Ceylon's first international century, he was described in 1933 as “the best all-round cricketer in Ceylon for many years, the most brilliant slip fieldsman Ceylon has had”. In a first-class match in Colombo for an India and Ceylon XI against the touring MCC in 1933-34 he took 2 for 22 and 5 for 17, he represented Ceylon at hockey. He married Estelle Alexandra Oorloff in Colombo in August 1925, they had one son. In life they moved to Australia. Ed Kelaart at ESPNcricinfo Ed Kelaart at CricketArchive
Maurice Joseph Brownlie was an international New Zealand rugby union player. A loose forward, Brownlie represented Hawke's Bay at a provincial level, was a member of the New Zealand national team, the All Blacks, from 1922 until 1928, he played 61 matches for New Zealand—a record for All Black appearances that stood until surpassed by Kevin Skinner in 1956–and scored 21 tries. These matches included eight Tests, he captained the All Blacks including for the 1928 tour of South Africa. Brownlie was a member of The Invincibles during their European tour of 1924–25. On that tour, his brother Cyril became the first man to be sent off in a Test match, their older brother Laurie made an appearance for the All Blacks, in 1921. All three brothers played as loose forwards. Brownlie gave service during both world wars. From 1915 to 1919 he served in the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade, including two and a half years in the Middle East, reached the rank of corporal. During the Second World War he served in No. 4 Squadron, Independent Mounted Rifles, part of the Home Guard, from 1940.
Brownlie died in Gisborne on 21 January 1957, was buried at Taruheru Cemetery. He has been inducted into the New Zealand Sports Hall of Fame twice: as a member of The Invincibles, in his own right. Quinn, Keith. "A Rugby Memory. Keithquinnrugby.com. Retrieved 3 February 2017. McLintock, A. H. ed.. "Brownlie, Maurice Joseph". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 3 February 2017