A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Westclox was a former manufacturer and is a current brand of clocks and alarm clocks. The company's historic plant is located in Illinois. Charles Stahlberg and others from Waterbury, formed the "United Clock Company" on December 5, 1885, in Peru, intending to manufacture clocks based on a technological innovation by Stahlberg. Stahlberg patented this innovation on September 22, 1885, which involved the use of molded lead alloy movement plates with inset brass bushings as well as lead alloy gear assemblies. Shortly after receiving the 1885 patent, United Clock Company went bankrupt, there are no known surviving examples of the patented clock. In 1887, the company reorganized under the new name Western Clock Company and again went bankrupt, F. W. Matthiessen reorganized it in 1888 as the Western Clock Manufacturing Company. In 1908, the company received a patent for the "Big Ben" alarm clock movement; this movement has a "bell-back" design, meaning that the bell mechanism is integral to the clock's case.
The company first brought the Big Ben to market in 1909. The company's name was shortened to "Western Clock Company" in 1912. In 1910, the Big Ben became the first alarm clock advertised nationally, with ads placed in the Saturday Evening Post; the modern trademark of the company, "Westclox," first appeared on the back of Big Ben alarm clocks from 1910 to 1917. The name appeared on Big Ben dials as early as 1911; the company registered this trademark on January 18, 1916. In 1919, Western Clock Co. Ltd. was incorporated. Twelve years in 1931, the company merged with Seth Thomas Clock Company, with both companies becoming divisions of General Time Corporation; the Westclox unit became known as "Westclox Division of General Time Corporation" in 1936. In 1938, Westclox introduced its first portable travel alarm clock to the market. During World War II, Westclox and other General Time Corporation subsidiaries produced aviation instrumentation and control components, compasses for the United States Army, clocks for the United States Navy.
From 1942 to 1945, Westclox ceased all production intended for domestic civilian sale and dedicated its production resources to the war effort, becoming a major manufacturer of fuzes for military ordnance. The Westclox company was a major manufacturer of dollar watches, it started production of an inexpensive, back-winding pocket watch in 1899, intended to be affordable to any working person and continued producing cheap pocket watches into the 1990s. In 1959, Westclox introduced and patented its "drowse" alarm, one of the first of its kind powered by electricity, which integrated what is now more known as a "snooze" function. Talley Industries acquired General Time in 1968. Westclox introduced its first quartz movement in 1972. In 1988, the management of Talley Industries purchased General Time from the company. Another bankruptcy shortly followed, Salton, Inc. acquired the "Westclox" and "Big Ben" trademarks in 2001. In October 2007, Salton sold its entire time products business, including the Westclox and Ingraham trademarks, to NYL Holdings LLC.
In the early morning of January 1, 2012, a fire broke out at the Westclox compound in Peru, IL. The fire destroyed about 25% of the structure. Two teens were charged with aggravated arson; the fire required police from 20 surrounding municipalities to extinguish. One firefighter, LaSalle fireman Steve Smith, sustained a career-ending injury when a firehose attached to a hydrant popped loose and the metal coupling on the end hit him in the leg. Gallacher was convicted of aggravated arson on October 11, 2012, with a sentence of 6-30 years without the possibility of parole. Gallacher's sentence of aggravated arson was Smith's injury. Westclox Scotland Official website Historic American Engineering Record No. IL-83, "Western Clock Company, Peru Factory" Clockhistory.com: History of Westclox The Westclox Museum: Located in the old factory at Peru, Illinois, USA
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Interstate 39 is a highway in the Midwestern United States. I-39 runs from Normal, Illinois at I-55 to Wisconsin Highway 29 in Rib Mountain, Wisconsin six miles southwest of Wausau. I-39 was designed to replace U. S. Route 51. I-39 was built in the 1990s. In Illinois, the route has a total length of 140.82 miles. In Wisconsin, I-39 has a distance of 182 miles. With the exception of an eight-mile segment around Portage, the Interstate shares a route with at least one other route number in I-39's entirety. From Rockford to Portage, I-39 is concurrent with I-90. I-94 joins the pair in Madison until Portage. At 29 miles in length, this concurrency of three Interstates is the longest in the country. From Portage northward, US 51 is co-signed with the Interstate and has exit numbers based on its mileage. In Illinois, I-39 begins at Interstate 55, north of the Bloomington-Normal, area alongside of Route 251, it runs north through rural areas from the city of Normal. About 55 miles north of the city, I-39 crosses the Illinois River over the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, 2,170.8 metres long.
Just north of the Illinois River, I-39 runs east of the cities of LaSalle and Peru before intersecting Interstate 80. North of I-80, the wind turbines of the Mendota Hills Wind Farm can be seen from milepost 72 at Mendota north to near Paw Paw. I-39 intersects with I-88 near Rochelle. Further north, I-39 crosses the Kishwaukee River before meeting US 20 on the south side of Rockford. I-39 runs east concurrently with US 20 to where the interstate joins the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway and Interstate 90 near Cherry Valley. I-39 and I-90 head north together to South Beloit. There is a toll plaza just south of Rockton Road. US 51 leaves I-39 / 90 at Illinois 75 in South Beloit. For all but 1 mile that Interstate 39 is in Illinois, it is designated concurrently with U. S. Route 51; the southern terminus of I-39 is less than 1 mile from Interstate 74. I-39 enters from Illinois along with I-90, passing under Stateline Road, bypasses Beloit to the east. East of the town, the route has a cloverleaf interchange that serves as the terminus for both WIS 81—which heads westward into Beloit—and I-43, which provides access to Milwaukee.
I-39/I-90 has 3 interchanges that serves Beloit. The I-39/90 concurrency continues to the north and is joined by WIS 11 about 7 mi north of the I-43 interchange; the route bypasses Janesville to the east, although interchanges with US 14 and WIS 26 provide access to the town. There are 4 exits; the route continues to the north, crossing the Rock River before having an interchange with WIS 59 that provides access to Edgerton to the west. Subsequently, the route enters Dane County, it is joined by US 51 from Edgerton and serves as the southern terminus of WIS 73. US 51 leaves the route 4 mi to the north, about 7 mi east of Stoughton; the Interstate turns westward around Utica to an interchange with CTH N. It turns back to the north and interchanges with US 12 and US 18 in Madison. I-39 and I-90 bypass Madison to the east, I-94 joins the concurrency at the eastern terminus of WIS 30, an interchange known as the Badger Interchange. About 2 mi to the north, the highway crosses US 151, which includes a south-side access to High Crossing Boulevard.
The last two Madison area interchanges are US 51 three miles northwest of the US 151 interchange and WIS 19 another mile northwest of the US 51 interchange. Access is provided to CTH V just west of DeForest four miles further north. I-39/I-90/I-94 enter Columbia County four miles north-northwest of CTH V; the Interstates cross WIS 60 at an interchange three miles north of the county line west of Arlington and CTH CS at another interchange four miles further north near Poynette. The highway crosses the Wisconsin River four miles north of CTH CS. At three miles further along the route from the river, I-39 leaves the concurrency with I-90 and I-94 and turns northward while the other two interstates turn northwest. WIS 78 terminates at this interchange and heads southwest; this is the starting point of the segment of freeway. The interstate crosses WIS 33, the first of 3 interchanges accessing Portage, two miles north of I-90/I-94. After crossing the Wisconsin River again, I-39 crosses the second interchange—this one with WIS 16 and turns northeast to an interchange with US 51.
The US route joins the Interstate and both turn north once again and leave the Portage area and, after four miles, enter Marquette County. WIS 23 joins I-39/US 51 northbound, 4 miles from the county line; the three highways pass along Buffalo Lake and encounter a south-side half interchange with CTH D in the town of Packwaukee. WIS 23 leave the concurrency to the east heading toward Montello at WIS 82 near Oxford, and the freeway takes a due north route to pass Westfield. I-39/US 51 enters Waushara County six miles north of Westfield. Four miles north of the county line, I-39 / US 51 junction with WIS 21 in Coloma. I-39/US 51 meet an interchange in Hancock with CTH V five miles further north and WIS 73 crosses in Plainfield after another five miles; this is two miles south of the Portage County line. In Portage County, I-39/US 51 takes a straight due north trajectory which provides access to CTH D, CTH W and WIS 54 over twelve miles
Paul Carus was a German-American author, editor, a student of comparative religion and philosopher. Carus was born in Ilsenburg and educated at the universities of Strassburg and Tübingen, Germany. After obtaining his PhD from Tübingen in 1876 he served in the army and taught school, he had been raised in a pious and orthodox Protestant home, but moved away from this tradition. He left Bismarck's Imperial Germany for the United States, "because of his liberal views". After he immigrated to the USA he lived in Chicago, in LaSalle, Illinois. Paul Carus married Edward C. Hegeler's daughter Mary and the couple moved into the Hegeler Carus Mansion, built by her father, they had six children. In the United States, Carus edited a German-language journal and wrote several articles for the Index, the Free Religious Association organ. Soon after, he became the first managing editor of the Open Court Publishing Company, founded in 1887 by his father-in-law; the goals of Open Court were to provide a forum for the discussion of philosophy and religion, to make philosophical classics available by making them affordable.
He acted as the editor for two periodicals published by the company, The Open Court and The Monist. He was introduced to Charles Sanders Peirce, the founder of American Pragmatism, by Judge Francis C. Russell of Chicago. Carus stayed abreast of Peirce's work and would publish a number of his articles. During his lifetime, Carus published 75 books and 1500 articles through Open Court Publishing Company, he wrote books and articles on history, philosophy, logic, anthropology and social issues of his day. In addition, Carus corresponded with many of the greatest minds of the late 19th and early 20th century and receiving letters from Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Booker T. Washington, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Ernst Mach, Ernst Haeckel, John Dewey, many more. Carus considered himself a theologian rather than philosopher, he referred to himself as "an atheist who loved God". Carus is proposed to be a pioneer in the promotion of interfaith dialogue, he explored the relationship of science and religion, was instrumental in introducing Eastern traditions and ideas to the West.
He was a key figure in the introduction of Buddhism to the West, sponsoring Buddhist translation work of D. T. Suzuki, fostering a lifelong working friendship with Buddhist Master, Soyen Shaku. Carus' interest in Asian religions seems to have intensified after he attended the World's Parliament of Religions. For years afterwards, Carus was a strong sympathizer of Buddhist ideas, but stopped short of committing to this, or any other, religion. Instead, he ceaselessly promoted his own rational concept which he called the "Religion of Science." Carus had a selective approach and he believed that religions evolve over time. After a battle for survival, he expected a "cosmic religion of universal truth" to emerge from the ashes of traditional beliefs. Carus proposed his own philosophy similar to panpsychism known as'panbiotism', which he defined as "everything is fraught with life. Carus was a follower of Benedictus de Spinoza. Carus rejected such dualisms, wanted science to reestablish the unity of knowledge.
The philosophical result he labeled Monism. His version of monism is more associated with a kind of pantheism, although it was identified with positivism, he regarded every law of nature as a part of God's being. Carus held that God was the name for a cosmic order comprising "all that, the bread of our spiritual life." He held the concept of a personal God as untenable. He acknowledged Jesus Christ as a redeemer, but not as the only one, for he believed that other religious founders were endowed with similar qualities, his beliefs attempted to steer a middle course between idealistic metaphysics and materialism. He differed with metaphysicians because they "reified" words and treated them as if they were realities, he objected to materialism because it ignored or overlooked the importance of form. Carus emphasized form by conceiving of the divinity as a cosmic order, he objected to any monism which sought the unity of the world, not in the unity of truth, but in the oneness of a logical assumption of ideas.
He referred to such concepts as henism, not monism. Carus held that truth was independent of time, human desire, human action. Therefore, science was not a human revelation which needed to be apprehended, it is claimed that Carus was dismissed by Orientalists and philosophers alike because of his failure to comply with the rules of either discipline. The legacy of Paul Carus is honored through the efforts of the Hegeler Carus Foundation, the Carus Lectures at the American Philosophical Association, the Paul Carus Award for Interreligious Understanding by the Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions, his publications include: The Open Court Fortnightly Journal Vol 1 1887-1888 The Soul Of Man: An Investigation Of The Facts Of Physiological And Experimental Psychology ISBN 1-4286-1359-5 Monism: Its Scope and Import Homilies of Science (The
Wild Bill Hickok
James Butler Hickok, better known as "Wild Bill" Hickok, was a folk hero of the American Old West known for his work across the frontier as a drover, wagon master, spy, lawman, gambler and actor. He earned a great deal of notoriety in his own time, much of it bolstered by the many outlandish and fabricated tales that he told about his life; some contemporaneous reports of his exploits are known to be fictitious, but they remain the basis of much of his fame and reputation, along with his own stories. Hickok was born and raised on a farm in northern Illinois at a time when lawlessness and vigilante activity were rampant because of the influence of the "Banditti of the Prairie". Hickok was drawn to this ruffian lifestyle and headed west at age 18 as a fugitive from justice, working as a stagecoach driver and as a lawman in the frontier territories of Kansas and Nebraska, he fought and spied for the Union Army during the American Civil War and gained publicity after the war as a scout, marksman and professional gambler.
Over the course of his life, he was involved in several notable shoot-outs. In 1876, Hickok was shot from behind and killed while playing poker in a saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory by Jack McCall, an unsuccessful gambler; the hand of cards which he held at the time of his death has become known as the dead man's hand: two pairs and eights. Hickok remains a popular figure in frontier history. Many historic sites and monuments commemorate his life, he has been depicted numerous times in literature and television, he is chiefly portrayed as a protagonist, though historical accounts of his actions are controversial and most of his career was exaggerated by both himself and various mythmakers. While Hickok claimed to have killed numerous named and unnamed gunmen in his lifetime, according to Joseph G. Rosa, Hickok's biographer and the foremost authority on Wild Bill, Hickok killed only six or seven men in gunfights. James Butler Hickok was born May 27, 1837, in Homer, Illinois, to William Alonzo Hickok, a farmer and abolitionist, his wife Polly Butler.
His father was said to have used the family house, now demolished, as a station on the Underground Railroad. Hickok was the fourth of six children. William Hickok died in 1852, when James was 15. Hickok was a good shot from a young age and was recognized locally as an outstanding marksman with a pistol. Photographs of Hickok appear to depict dark hair, but all contemporaneous descriptions affirm that it was red. In 1855, at age 18, James Hickok fled Illinois following a fight with Charles Hudson, during which both fell into a canal. Hickok moved to Leavenworth in the Kansas Territory, where he joined "General" Jim Lane's Free State Army, a vigilante group active in the new territory. While a Jayhawker, he met 12-year-old William Cody, who despite his youth served as a scout just two years for the U. S. Army during the Utah War. While in Nebraska, James Hickok was derisively referred to as "Duck Bill" for his long nose and protruding lips, he grew a moustache following the McCanles incident and in 1861 began calling himself Wild Bill.
He was known before 1861 by Jayhawkers as "Shanghai Bill" because of his height and slim build. Hickok used his late brother's name, William Hickok, from 1858 and the name William Haycock during the Civil War. Most newspapers referred to him as William Haycock until 1869, he was arrested while using the name Haycock in 1865. He afterward resumed using James Hickok. Military records after 1865 list him as Hickok but note that he was known as Haycock. In an 1867 article about his shoot-out with Davis Tutt, his surname was misspelled as Hitchcock. In 1857, Hickok claimed a 160-acre tract in Kansas. On March 22, 1858, he was elected one of the first four constables of Monticello Township. In 1859, he joined the Russell and Waddell freight company, the parent company of the Pony Express. In 1860, he was badly injured by a bear while driving a freight team from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. According to Hickok's account, he found the road blocked by its two cubs. Dismounting, he approached the bear and fired a shot into its head, but the bullet ricocheted off its skull, infuriating it.
The bear attacked. Hickok managed wounding the bear's paw; the bear grabbed his arm in its mouth, but Hickok was able to grab his knife and slash its throat, killing it. Hickok was injured, with a crushed chest and arm, he was bedridden for four months before being sent to Rock Creek Station in the Nebraska Territory to work as a stable hand while he recovered. The freight company had built the stagecoach stop along the Oregon Trail near Fairbury, Nebraska, on land purchased from David McCanles. On July 12, 1861, David McCanles went to the Rock Creek Station office to demand an overdue property payment from Horace Wellman, the station manager. McCanles threatened Wellman, either Hickok or Wellman killed him. Hickok and another employee, J. W. Brink, were found to have acted in self-defense. McCanles may have been the first man Hickok killed. Hickok subsequently visited McCanles' widow, apologized for the killing, offered her $35 in restitution, all the money he had with him at the time. After the Civil War