Teatro La Fenice is an opera house in Venice, Italy. It is one of "the most famous and renowned landmarks in the history of Italian theatre", in the history of opera as a whole. In the 19th century, La Fenice became the site of many famous operatic premieres at which the works of several of the four major bel canto era composers – Rossini, Donizetti, Verdi – were performed, its name reflects its role in permitting an opera company to "rise from the ashes" despite losing the use of three theatres to fire, the first in 1774 after the city's leading house was destroyed and rebuilt but not opened until 1792. However, the third fire was the result of arson, it destroyed the house in 1996 leaving only the exterior walls, but it was rebuilt and re-opened in November 2004. In order to celebrate this event the tradition of the Venice New Year's Concert started. Seven old theaters were active in Venice at the end of the eighteenth century, two for the production of plays and the others for music; the grandest of these was the Teatro San Benedetto, which stood on the site occupied by the Rossini cinema.
Built by the Grimani family in 1755, it was subsequently assigned to the Nobile Società di Palchettisti. However, following a judicial ruling in 1787, this association was expelled and forced to give up the opera house to the noble Venier family, the owners of the land on which it was built; the association proposed building a larger and more sumptuous opera house than the one it had lost, which would become the symbol of their changing fortunes and their capacity for ′rebirth′. It was therefore to be called La Fenice, like the mythical, immortal bird able to rise out of its own ashes, to symbolise the association's splendid rebirth after its misfortunes; the piece of land between Contrada Santa Maria Zobenigo and Contrada Sant'Angelo was bought for the purpose in 1790 and the private houses on it were demolished. A competition was announced for the design of the opera house, the committee of experts selected the work of the architect Giannantonio Selva from the 29 plans submitted. Work began in 1791 and was completed just 18 months in April 1792.
La Fenice made its mark as one of the leading opera houses, noted in Italy and Europe both for the high artistic quality of its work and the splendour of its building. But as if the name were the bearer of bad omens, on the night of 13 December 1836 the opera house was devastated by a first fire caused by a installed Austrian heater; the newspapers said it took three days and three nights to put out the fire and that various hotspots were still smouldering among the debris 18 days later. The flames destroyed the house, only the foyer and the Sale Apollinee were saved; the association decided to proceed with its immediate reconstruction. It appointed the architect Giambattista Meduna and his engineer brother Tommaso to carry out the work, while Tranquillo Orsi was responsible for the decorations; the work began in February 1837 and performances were temporarily staged in the Teatro Apollo. Everything was completed in record time. By the evening of 26 December of the same year, the new opera house, reborn in the new artistic style of the age, was opened to the public.
The speed of the work, led to urgent restoration works to the framework being required as early as 1854 and, again under the direction of Giambattista Meduna, the house was redecorated in a style that remained unchanged until 1996. On 23 July 1935 the box-holder owners ceded their share in the opera house to the Comune di Venezia, so it went from private to public ownership, in 1937-8 part of building was subject to further major restorations and alterations by engineer Eugenio Miozzi. On the night of 29 January 1996, during a period of closure for restoration works, a second fire – as the Myth said – this time arson destroyed the house and most of the Sale Apollinee. Once again La Fenice rose again, faithfully reconstructed to a plan by the architect Aldo Rossi, was reopened on 14 December 2003. In 1774, the Teatro San Benedetto, Venice's leading opera house for more than forty years, burned to the ground. By 1789, with interest from a number of wealthy opera lovers who wanted a spectacular new house, "a defined competition" was organised to find a suitable architect.
It was won by Gianantonio Selva who proposed a neoclassical style building with 170 identical boxes in tiers in a traditional horseshoe shaped auditorium, the favoured style since it was introduced as early as 1642 in Venice. The house would face on one side a campo, or small plaza, on the other a canal, with an entrance which gave direct access backstage and into the theatre. However, the process was not without controversy in regard to the aesthetics of the building; some thirty responses were received and, as Romanelli accounts, Selva's was designated as the design to be constructed, the actual award for best design went to his chief rival, Pietro Bianchi. However, Selva's design and finished opera house appears to have been of high quality and the one best suited to the limitations of the physical space it was obliged to inhabit. Construction began in June 1790, by May 1792 the theatre was completed, it was named "La Fenice", in reference to the company's survival, first of the fire of the loss of its former quarters.
La Fenice was inaugurated on 16 May 1792, with an opera by Giovanni Paisiello entitled I giuochi d'Agrigento set to a libretto by Alessandro Pepoli. But no sooner had the opera house been rebuilt than a legal dispute broke out
The Wall Street Journal Dollar Index is an index of the value of the U. S. dollar relative to 16 foreign currencies. The index is weighted using data provided by the Bank for International Settlements on total foreign exchange trading volume; the index rises when the U. S. dollar gains value against the other currencies, falls when the U. S. dollar loses value against the currencies. The methodology and data used for the index set it apart from several existing metrics, such as the ICE U. S. Dollar Index, Dow Jones FXCM Dollar Index and FTSE Curex USD/G8 Index; the WSJ Dollar Index is a trade weighted index but unlike some of the other metrics, the WSJ Dollar Index captures the impact of capital flows on currency volumes, a significant determinant of currency market activity. The WSJ Dollar index was created in 2012 with the aim of improving on the previous US Dollar indices by using a different calculation and more currencies. Wall Street Journal issued a press release for the index on July 18, 2012.
The index was developed by Stephen Bernard and Vincent Cignarella, at the time members of the news team for Dow Jones, the Wall Street Journal and DJ FX Trader, a joint product of Dow Jones & Co. and The Wall Street Journal. Bernard and Cignarella discussed the index launch on WSJ.com's Markets Hub. The pair wrote about the index for The Wall Street Journal and WSJ.com. The triennial foreign exchange turnover survey published by the BIS provides the basis for weighting the WSJ Dollar Index; the BIS includes data on major currency pairs as defined by the organization's most recent triennial report. Each dollar pair that constitutes at least 1% of global currency turnover is included in the index, weighted based on their proportion of volume within the group of currency pairs used in the index; the index was updated in December 2013 with the release of the latest survey. The index now includes 16 dollar currency pairs, up from seven in the previous iteration. Mexico's peso, China's yuan, Russia's ruble, Turkey's lira, South Korea's won, South Africa's rand and New Zealand's, Hong Kong's and Singapore's dollars are now all included in the index for the first time.
The 16 currencies used in the index accounted for 80% of the $5.3 trillion daily trading in global foreign exchange markets. At launch, the WSJ Dollar Index tracked seven foreign currencies, including the euro, pound sterling, Australian dollar, Swiss franc, Canadian dollar, Swedish krona. All seven currencies remain in the current version of the index. Combined the seven currency pairs accounted for more than two-thirds of daily global foreign exchange trading volume at the time the index was launched; the index is re-weighted after the close on the first Friday following the release of the BIS’s triennial survey. The latest triennial survey was published in December 2013; the WSJ Dollar Index differs from the other metrics in that the index is updated every three years. U. S. Dollar Index Trade-weighted US dollar index Trade-weighted effective exchange rate index WSJ Dollar Index
The 2014 Kakkonen season started on 18 April and ended on 4 October 2014. A total of 40 teams contested the league divided into four groups, Eteläinen, Pohjoinen, Läntinen and Itäinen. 29 returning from the 2013 season, two relegated from nine promoted from Kolmonen. The champion of each group qualified to promotion matches to decide which two teams get promoted to the Ykkönen; the bottom two teams in each group and the worst eight-placed qualified directly for relegation to Kolmonen. Each team played. AC Kajaani and OPS were relegated from the 2013 Ykkönen, while FC Jazz and HIFK were promoted to the 2014 Ykkönen. EsPa, FC POHU, Härmä, LPS, MuSa, ORPa, Sudet and Tervarit were relegated from 2013 Kakkonen. FC Espoo, FC Myllypuro, FC Viikkarit, I-Kissat, JBK, OLS, SC KuFu-98 and SOVO were promoted from the 2013 Kolmonen. SavU didn't take its place in 2014 Kakkonen, its place was given for the worst eight-placed of the last season. KTP merged with FC KooTeePee, its place was given for the runner-up of Kolmonen Kaakkois-Suomi.
Group winners will play two-legged ties. Team pairs will be drawn and the two winning teams will be promoted to the Ykkönen for season 2015. Group winners EIF won 6–4 on aggregate. PS Kemi won 4–0 on aggregate. At the end of the season, a comparison is made between the eight-placed teams; the worst eight-placed team will be directly relegated to the Kolmonen. 2014 Veikkausliiga 2014 Ykkönen