Queen Letizia of Spain
Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano is the Queen of Spain as the wife of King Felipe VI, who ascended on 19 June 2014 on the abdication of his father Juan Carlos I. Before her marriage to Felipe, Letizia was a journalist and news anchor and Felipe have two daughters, Princess of Asturias, who is now the heir presumptive, and Infanta Sofía. Letizia was born in Oviedo, Asturias, to a middle-class family and she is the eldest daughter of Jesús José Ortiz Álvarez, a journalist, and his first wife, María de la Paloma Rocasolano Rodríguez, a registered nurse and hospital union representative. She has two sisters, Telma and Érika, whose death was widely reported by press as due to an intentional prescription drug overdose. Her parents divorced in 1999 and her father remarried on 1 September 2000 in Madrid on 18 March 2004 to fellow journalist Ana Togores, born ca. Letizias paternal grandparents were José Luis Ortiz Velasco, an employee at Olivetti, and María del Carmen Menchu Álvarez del Valle. Her maternal grandfather was Francisco Julio Rocasolano Camacho, a mechanic and cab driver in Madrid for over 20 years who was of French, Letizias maternal grandmother, Enriqueta Rodriguez Figueredo was born in the Philippines to Spanish parents.
British genealogists have provided evidence that through her mothers Rocasolano lineage, Letizia descends from Astorg Roquesoulane, Letizia attended La Gesta School in Oviedo, before her family moved to Madrid, where she attended high school at the Ramiro de Maeztu High School. During her studies, Letizia worked for the Asturian daily newspaper La Nueva España and for the newspaper ABC, after completing her studies, she spent some time in Guadalajara, working at the newspaper Siglo 21. After returning to Spain, she worked for the Spanish version of the economic channel Bloomberg before moving to the news network CNN+, in 2000, she moved to TVE, where she started working for the news channel 24 Horas. In 2002, she anchored the news report programme Informe Semanal. In August 2003, a few months before her engagement to Felipe, Letizia was promoted to anchor of the TVE daily evening news programme Telediario 2, in 2000, Letizia reported from Washington, D. C. on the presidential elections. In September 2001, she broadcast live from Ground Zero following the 9/11 attacks in New York and in 2003, in 2002 she sent several reports from Galicia in northern Spain following the ecological disaster when the oil tanker Prestige sank.
Letizia married Alonso Guerrero Pérez, a writer and a literature teacher, on 7 August 1998, in a simple civil ceremony at Almendralejo, in Badajoz. The marriage was dissolved by divorce in 1999, on 1 November 2003, to the surprise of many, the Royal Household announced Letizias engagement to the Prince of Asturias. Afterwards, she moved to live in a wing of Zarzuela Palace until the day of her wedding, the Prince of Asturias had proposed to her with a 16-baguette diamond engagement ring with a white gold trim. She marked the occasion by giving him gold and sapphire cufflinks. The wedding took place on 22 May 2004 in the Cathedral Santa María la Real de la Almudena in Madrid and it was the first royal wedding in this cathedral, which was consecrated by Pope John Paul II in 1993
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I was King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain prior to the abolition in 1931. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his familys exile, Juan Carloss father, Don Juan, was the fourth child of Alfonso who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Don Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969, was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Francos successor, Juan Carlos spent his early years in Italy and came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his education in 1955, he began his military training. Later, he attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, in 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Greece in Athens, daughter of King Paul. The couple had two daughters and a son together, Elena and Felipe, due to Francos declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spains head of state in the summer of 1974. Expected to continue Francos legacy, soon after his accession, Juan Carlos, introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy.
In 1981, Juan Carlos played a role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the Kings name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America, in 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded the throne as Felipe VI. He was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias and he was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. His early life was dictated largely by the concerns of his father. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to allow it and he began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza, Juan Carlos has two sisters, Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz, and Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria. He had a brother, Alfonso.
On the evening of Holy Thursday,29 March 1956, Juan Carloss younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the familys home Villa Giralda in Estoril, Portugal. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infantes return from the Maundy Thursday religious service and it is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun that had apparently been given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had actually held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired
Heritage Documentation Programs
These programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, and written reports, in 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency. It was founded as a constructive program for architects, draftsmen. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of Americas architectural heritage, by creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement. Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher, who worked for the project for over 40 years. The Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10,1969, by NPS, HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts.
Since the advent of HAER, the program is typically called HABS/HAER. Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, a predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940. That project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, the permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, which was established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States, U. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph. As a branch of the United States Government, its works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures, locales and designs.
Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places HAER,30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. Documenting Complexity, The Historic American Engineering Record and Americas Technological History, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. National Park Service−NPS, official Heritage Documentation Programs website
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
The Island Caribs, known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. They may have descended from the Mainland Caribs of South America, at the time of Spanish contact, the Caribs were one of the dominant groups in the Caribbean, which owes its name to them. They lived throughout the Windward Islands and possibly the southern Leeward Islands, historically it was thought their ancestors were mainland Caribs who conquered the islands from their previous inhabitants, known as the Igneri. In the early period, the Caribs had a reputation as warriors who raided neighboring islands. Early Europeans claimed that they practiced cannibalism – the word derives from a corruption of their name. Today, the Caribs and their descendants continue to live in the Antilles, the Garifuna or Black Caribs, a group of mixed Carib and African ancestry, live principally in Central America. The Caribs are believed to have migrated from the Orinoco River area in South America to settle in the Caribbean islands about 1200 AD, the Taíno had settled the island chains earlier in history, migrating from the mainland.
Caribs traded with the Eastern Taíno of the Caribbean Islands, the Caribs produced the silver products which Ponce de Leon found in Taíno communities. None of the insular Amerindians mined for gold but obtained it by trade from the mainland, the Caribs were skilled boat builders and sailors. They appeared to have owed their dominance in the Caribbean basin to their mastery of warfare, according to Floyd, The question arose in Columbuss time whether Indians could be enslaved and Queen Isabel had ruled against it. These attacks and the some of the perpetrators, at least, were cannibals. On 3 June 1511, Ferdinand declared war on the Caribs, others were assimilated during the colonial period, a few retained areas such as in Dominica. Small populations survive, specifically in the Carib Territory in northeast Dominica, the so-called Black Caribs of St. They intermarried with the Carib and formed the last native culture to resist the British and it was not until 1795 that British colonists transported the so-called Black Caribs to Roatan Island, off Honduras.
Their descendants continue to live today and are known as the Garifuna ethnic group. Carib resistance delayed the settlement of Dominica by Europeans, the so-called Black Carib communities that remained in St. Vincent and Dominica retained a degree of autonomy well into the 19th century. The last known speakers of Island Carib died in the 1930s, the Kalinago of Dominica maintained their independence for many years by taking advantage of the islands rugged terrain. The islands east coast includes a 3, 700-acre territory formerly known as the Carib Territory that was granted to the people by the British Crown in 1903, there are only 3,000 Caribs remaining
George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland
Sir George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, KG was an English peer, naval commander and courtier of Queen Elizabeth I. He was notable at court for his jousting, at the Accession Day Tilts, two famous survivals, his portrait miniature by Nicholas Hilliard and a garniture of Greenwich armour reflect this important part of his life. In contrast, he neglected his estates in the far north of England, Clifford was born on 8 August 1558 at Brougham Castle in Westmorland, the son and heir of Henry Clifford, 2nd Earl of Cumberland. His valuable wardship and marriage was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, life at court meant that George Clifford spent an increasing amount of time in southern England, away from his familys estates. As a result, Brougham Castle, one of his properties in the north, was neglected and abandoned, Clifford rose in the world as an accomplished jouster and became Queen Elizabeths second Champion on the retirement of Sir Henry Lee of Ditchley.
A portrait miniature by Nicholas Hilliard circa 1590 commemorates the appointment and she made him a Knight of the Garter in 1592 and he sat as a peer in the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. Clifford was involved in the formation of the East India Company and he commanded the galleon Elizabeth Bonaventure in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585, during which he had little success but fared better in naval battles against the Spanish fleet in the Caribbean. He led and invested in a number of expeditions but many were turned back due to storms or lack of prizes and his first success was an expedition to the Azores in 1589 taking a number of Portuguese and Spanish prizes. He helped to prepare an expedition with Walter Raleigh which led to the Battle of Flores in 1592 and the capture of richly laden carrack Madre de Deus off Flores in the Azores. At the end of 1593, Clifford financed three ships for an expedition to the Azores, which resulted in the Action of Faial between the English and a joint Iberian/Portuguese fleet.
He commissioned the building of his own ship, the 38-gun Scourge of Malice, during the Battle of San Juan in 1598 he achieved fame for having briefly captured Fort San Felipe del Morro, the citadel protecting San Juan, Puerto Rico. Clifford and his force of men had arrived in Puerto Rico on 15 June 1598, all the great wealth he gained from his buccaneering he lost in jousting and horse racing and was eventually obliged to sell his inherited lands. It formerly hung in Appleby Castle and is now displayed in the Abbot Hall Art Gallery, Kendal and it depicts Anne as a girl at left and as a mature woman at right. The central panel shows her parents and young brothers, the painting is replete with significant elements referring to her life and to her succession to her paternal inheritance, gained after a lengthy legal dispute, only settled in 1617. His two sons and Francis, had died young before the age of 5, thus his daughter and only surviving child Anne Clifford became his sole heiress. She inherited the title Baron de Clifford suo jure, which having been created by writ in 1299 was able to descend in the female line, after lengthy litigation Anne won much of the land, including Brougham and Appleby castles.
Clifford died on 30 October 1605 within the Liberty of the Savoy in London and his chest tomb monument survives in Holy Trinity church, adjacent to his seat of Skipton Castle. George Cliffords tournament armour survives and is considered the finest surviving garniture of the Tudor period, as Queens Champion Cliffords armour would have been unrivaled in beauty
A patio is an outdoor space generally used for dining or recreation that adjoins a residence and is typically paved. Patios are most commonly paved with concrete or stone slabs, Patios can be created using bricks, block paving, tiles or cobbles. Patio is a term used for outdoor seating at restaurants. While common in Europe, eating outdoors at restaurants in North America was exotic until the late 20th century, the Hotel St. Moritz in New York in the 1950s advertised itself as having the first true continental cafe with outdoor seating. The Toronto Star welcomed that citys first patio in the 1960s, andalusian Patio Arizona room Deck Porch Terrace garden Veranda Media related to Patios at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of patio at Wiktionary
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricos capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, San Juan is Puerto Ricos most important seaport, and is the islands manufacturing, financial and tourism center. San Juan is a city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the settlement which he called Caparra. In 1521, the settlement was given its formal name. On the other hand, the name for the island became the name for the city only after the occupation of the island by the United States. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant, because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe.
Because of the cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, artillery from San Juans fort, El Morro, repelled Drake, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion, in 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amezquita and 50 members of the militia on land. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amezquita. The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard, after a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the citys militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion.
On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze, captains Amezquita and Andre Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemys front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships, the British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. The USS Yale captured a Spanish freighter, the Rita in San Juan Bay, on May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory
Alabama Governor's Mansion
The Alabama Governors Mansion is the official residence of the Governor of Alabama and the governors family in Montgomery, the capital city of Alabama. The current Governor of Alabama, Robert J. Bentley lives at the governors mansion, the original governors mansion for Alabama was occupied from 1911 until 1950, when the current mansion was acquired. The current mansion was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 3,1972, the first official residence for Alabamas governor was acquired in 1911. Prior to that time, governors of the lived in private homes or local hotels during their terms of office. The first residence was built by Moses Sabel in 1906, the house, a Beaux Arts brownstone, was located on the southwest corner of South Perry and South Streets in Montgomery. It was purchased for use as a mansion by a special state commission. This commission was authorized to contract for the construction, purchase, or improvement of a residence, the former Sabel home cost the state $46,500.
Governor Emmet ONeal was the first to occupy the mansion and Jim Folsom was the last, the state relocated the official residence from this house to the former Robert Ligon, Jr. house in 1950. The old residence was used as state offices for the Adjutant General and the Military Department until May 1959, when the property was sold to Montgomery Academy. It was subsequently condemned and demolished in 1963 as part of the construction of Interstate 85, the current official residence for the governor replaced the first executive mansion in 1950. Designed in the Classical Revival or Neoclassical style by the architect Weatherly Carter, it was built in 1907 for Robert Fulwood Ligon, the house was purchased by the state for $100,000, with an additional $130,000 spent on renovations and furnishings. Governor Gordon Persons and his family were the first to occupy the former Ligon home, assuming possession of it the day of his inauguration, the interior features 17 primary rooms, with a double staircase leading from the entrance hall to the second level. A formal garden, surrounded by an ornamental wall, originally covered the entire rear grounds of the property.
These grounds now feature gardens, a pergola, a swimming pool in the shape of the state, a guest house, a stone grotto water feature. The entire property is surrounded by an iron fence, with octagonal guard houses at the main gates. In 2003, Patsy Riley, wife of then-Governor Bob Riley, coordinated an effort to renovate, the mansion had been closed to tourism for almost a decade. She and her First Lady and Friends of the Mansion organization raised private funds and it did not involve any taxpayer money. Alabama Governors Mansion George Wallace, Presidential Contender from C-SPANs The Contenders, broadcast from the Alabama Governors Mansion
An official residence is the residence at which a nations head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides. It may or may not be the location where the individual conducts work-related functions or lives. This has occurred in the 21st century in Detroit and New York City, in the case of Denver, no mayor has ever lived in the official residence, the city instead makes it available to certain non-profit groups for special functions. The President uses own private residence, - Its address is 1 Cheongwadae-ro, Jongro-gu, Republic of Korea. It is located next to Gyeongbokgung, the palace during the Joseon Dynasty. Cheong Nam Dae - Cheong Nam Dae used to be one of the two residences for the President of Republic of Korea. It was returned to public in 2003, - It is located in Cheongwon-gun, North Chungcheong Province. Cheong Hae Dae - Cheong Hae Dae used to be one of the two residences for the President of Republic of Korea. Although the president no longer uses this facility this compound is still under the administration of the Republic of Korea Navy, - It is located on one of the islands of Geoje-shi, South Gyeongsang Province.
Chongri Gonggwan - This is the residence for the Prime Minister of Republic of Korea. The Prime Minister, does not work here, - Its address is 111-2 Samcheongdong-gil, Jongro-gu, Republic of Korea. It is located close to Cheong Wa Dae, gukhoeuijang Gonggwan - This is the official residence for the Speaker of the National Assembly of Republic of Korea. The Speaker, does not work here, - It is located in Hannam-dong, Yongsan-gu, where many foreign missions to Korea are located. Daebeobwonjang Gonggwan - This is the residence for the Chief Justice of Republic of Korea. The Chief Justice, does not work here, - It is located in Hannam-dong, Yongsan-gu, Seoul. Most ministers of state and heads of administrative regions have official residences, although they are not listed here. S