University of La Laguna
The University of La Laguna known as the ULL, is a Spanish university situated in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, on the island of Tenerife. It is the oldest university in the Canary Islands, it has six campuses: Central, Guajara, Campus del Sur and Santa Cruz de Tenerife. In 2015, the University of La Laguna entered the ranking of the top 500 universities in the world by the Institute of Education in Shanghai, being the only of the two Canarian public universities to enter the ranking. In addition, the Leiden ranking, prepared by the Center for Studies of Science and Technology of the Leiden University, has ranked the University of La Laguna as the first Spanish university in scientific collaboration. Meanwhile, in 2016 the University of La Laguna was recognized as the second best university in Spain in Humanities, according to a survey by the Everis Foundation, its origins date to the year 1701 when a center for advanced studies was established by the Augustinians in the town of La Laguna. A Papal Bull of 1744 proposed that it be converted into the Ecclesiastical University of San Agustín.
In 1792, by royal decree, Charles IV of Spain ordered the establishment in San Cristóbal de La Laguna the capital of Tenerife and Canary Islands, of the first Universidad Literaria of the Canaries, but the political situation on the mainland prevented its establishment. However, with the restoration of the House of Bourbon in the guise of Fernando VII of Spain, the university was established at La Laguna as the Universidad de San Fernando. In this role it played an important role the priest Cristóbal Bencomo y Rodríguez, confessor of King Ferdinand VII and Titular Archbishop of Heraclea. Split their units in the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna and Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Moreover, its activity includes university curricula such as the University's environmental La Palma, the Summer University of Lanzarote, the Summer University of La Gomera, the Summer University of Adeje, Classrooms El Hierro Sea, university extension courses, in some municipalities of Tenerife and other islands. One of the most popular student traditions at La Laguna University is the popular Fuga de San Diego every November 13.
Although born in the IES Canarias Cabrera Pinto of the city, it has a great following among the students of the University of La Laguna, as well as in the other educational centers of the Canary archipelago. This tradition had its origin in 1919, when university professor Diego Jiménez de Cisneros arrived at the institute, which one year prevented the students from attending the romería of St. Didacus of Alcalá, but the students did not attend a class, this was repeated annually. This tradition consists, therefore, in the non-attendance of students to class that day. At present, this tradition has extended to the different schools and secondary institutes of the rest of the Canary Islands. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria List of early modern universities in Europe La Laguna University
Persea indica is a species of plant in the Lauraceae family. It belongs to the evergreen tree genus Persea of about 150 species, of which the avocado, P. americana, is the best known. It is found in the Azores and Canary Islands in Macaronesia, it is threatened by habitat loss. It is the vegetable symbol of the island of La Gomera; the Family Lauraceae was part of Gondwanaland flora. There they spread over most of the continent; the genus Persea died out in xerophytic Africa, starting with the freezing of Antarctica about 20 million years ago and the formation of the Benguela current. The genus is extinct in Africa, save for P. indica, which survives in the fog shrouded mountains of the Canary Islands, which with Madagascar, constitute Africa's Laurel forest plant refugia. Fossil evidence indicates that the genus originated in West Africa during the Paleocene, spread to Asia, to South America, to Europe and thence to North America, it is thought that the gradual drying of Africa, west Asia, the Mediterranean from the Oligocene to the Pleistocene, the glaciation of Europe during the Pleistocene, caused the extinction of the genus across these regions, resulting in the present distribution.
P. indica is a species exclusive to Laurisilva, since this habitat is threatened by encroaching agriculture, the laurel forest animal or vegetal species had become rare in many of its former habitats and are threatened by habitat loss. Fossils of Persea indica have been described from the fossil flora of Kızılcahamam district in Turkey, of early Pliocene age. List of animal and plant symbols of the Canary Islands Bañares, A. et al. 1998. Persea indica. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 August 2007
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list
Haplogroup U (mtDNA)
Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. The clade arose from haplogroup R during the early Upper Paleolithic, its various subclades are found distributed across Northern and Eastern Europe, Central and South Asia, as well as North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Canary Islands. The haplogroup U8b's most common subclade is haplogroup K, estimated to date to between 30,000 and 22,000 years ago. Haplogroup U descends from the haplogroup R mtDNA branch of the phylogenetic tree; the defining mutations are estimated to have arisen between 43,000 and 50,000 years ago, in the early Upper Paleolithic. Ancient DNA classified as belonging to the U* mitochondrial haplogroup has been recovered from human skeletal remains found in Western Siberia, which have been dated to c. 45,000 years ago. The mitogenome of the Peştera Muierii 1 individual from Romania has been identified as the basal haplogroup U6* not found in any ancient or present-day humans. Haplogroup U has been found among Iberomaurusian specimens dating from the Epipaleolithic at the Taforalt and Afalou prehistoric sites.
Among the Taforalt individuals, around 13% of the observed haplotypes belonged to various U subclades, including U4a2b, U4c1, U6d3. A further 41% of the analysed haplotypes could be assigned to either haplogroup U or haplogroup H. Among the Afalou individuals, 44% of the analysed haplotypes could be assigned to either haplogroup U or haplogroup H. Haplogroup U has been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, dated to the 1st millennium BC. Additionally, haplogroup U has been observed in ancient Guanche fossils excavated in Gran Canaria and Tenerife on the Canary Islands, which have been radiocarbon-dated to between the 7th and 11th centuries CE. All of the clade-bearing individuals were inhumed at the Tenerife site, with these specimens found to belong to the U6b1a and U6b subclades. Haplogroup U is found in 8 % of Indian tribal populations. Haplogroup U is found in 11% of native Europeans and is held as the oldest maternal haplogroup found in that region.
In a 2013 study, all but one of the ancient modern human sequences from Europe belonged to maternal haplogroup U, thus confirming previous findings that haplogroup U was the dominant type of Mitochondrial DNA in Europe before the spread of agriculture into Europe and the presence and the spread of the Indo-Europeans in Western Europe. Haplogroup U has various subclades numbered U1 to U9. Haplogroup K is a subclade of U8; the old age has led to a wide distribution of the descendant subgroups across Western Eurasia, North Africa, South Asia. Some subclades of haplogroup U have a more specific geographic range. Subclades are labelled U1–U9. Van Oven and Kayser proposed subclades "U2'3'4'7'8" and "U4'9". Behar et al. amended this by grouping "U4'9" as subordinate to "U2'3'4'7'8" for a new intermediate subclade "U2'3'4'7'8'9". The U1 subclades are: U1b. Haplogroup U1 estimated to have arisen between 37,000 years ago, it is found at low frequency throughout Europe. It is more observed in eastern Europe and the Near East.
It is found at low frequencies in India. U1 is found in the Svanetia region of Georgia at 4.2%. Subclade U1a is found from India to Europe, but is rare among the northern and Atlantic fringes of Europe including the British Isles and Scandinavia. Several examples in Tuscany have been noted. In India, U1a has been found in the Kerala region. U1b is rarer than U1a; some examples of U1b have been found among Jewish diaspora. Subclades U1a and U1b appear in equal frequency in eastern Europe; the rare U1 clade is found among Algerians in Oran and the Reguibat tribe of the Sahrawi. The U1a1a subclade has been observed in an ancient individual excavated at the Kellis 2 cemetery in the Dakleh Oasis, located in the southwestern desert of Egypt. 21 of the Kellis burials have been radiocarbon-dated to around 80-445 AD, a timeframe within the Romano-Christian period. Haplogroup U1 has been found among specimens at the mainland cemetery in Kulubnarti, which date from the Early Christian period. DNA analysis of excavated remains now located at ruins of the Church of St. Augustine in Goa, India have revealed the unique mtDNA subclade U1b.
This sublineage is present in Georgia and surrounding regions. Since the genetic analysis corroborates archaeological and literary evidence, it is believed that the excavated remains belong to Ketevan the Martyr, queen of Georgia; the age of U5 is estimated at between 25,000 and 35,000 years old. 11% of Europeans and 10% of European-Americans have some of haplogroup U5. U5 has been found in human remains dating from the Mesolithic in England, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and Spain. Neolithic skeletons that were excavated from the Avellaner cave in Catalonia, northeastern Spain included a specimen carrying haplogroup U5. Haplogroup U5 and its subclades U5a and U5b today form the highest population concentrations in the far north, among Sami and Estonians. However, it is spread at lower levels throughout Europe; this distribution, the age of the haplogroup, indicate individuals belonging to this clade were part of the initial
San Sebastián de La Gomera
San Sebastián de la Gomera is the capital of and municipality on La Gomera in the Canary Islands, Spain. It hosts the main harbour; the population was 8,699 in 2013, the area is 113.59 square kilometres. The port serves ferry routes to the islands of La Palma and El Hierro. Streets include F. Olsen. A bus station named; the area was inhabited by the Guanches before the arrival of the Spanish. Hernán Peraza arrived in 1440. Christopher Columbus stopped at the harbour on 6 September 1492 before heading to India but arrived in America instead; the building in which Columbus stayed whilst on the island is now a museum. Torre del Conde - a tower in the middle of the valley Casa del Colón, a museum dedicated to Christopher Columbus Museo Arqueológico de La Gomera - a museum dedicated to Guanche's social and religious structures Casa de los Peraza Pozo de La Aguada Iglesia de La Asunción and Ermita de San Sebastián Churches Ermita de la Virgen de Guadalupe Playa de San Sebastián Playa de la Cueva Mercado Municipal Apart from the town of San Sebastián the municipality includes the settlements of Benchijigua Jerdune La Laja Lomo Fragoso the eastern part of Playa SantiagoThe municipality includes these sites of interest: Barranco del Cabrito Los Roques rocks Punta Llana Majona Nature Park The economy of San Sebastián de La Gomera is centered on the functions of the capital and its port, as well as in the public sector in the transportation and tourism of Tenerife.
The port serves as a hub for tourists arriving on the 35-minute ferry ride from the nearby island of Tenerife, always visible from La Gomera. The main ferry companies are Fred. Olsen Express and Naviera Armas. In Puntallana is the chapel of the Virgin of Guadalupe, the patron saint of the island of La Gomera. List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife San Sebastian de La Gomera - Canary Islands Info
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Alajeró is a municipality on the island of La Gomera in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands. It is located on SW of the capital San Sebastián de la Gomera; as well as being a municipality, Alajeró is the name of the administrative town that governs that municipality. The valleys and Atlantic coastal strip are used for arable farming, with mountains and hills in the north covered by forest and scrub/grassland used for grazing sheep and goats; the area of Alajeró was in areas known as Hipalán and Orone. On the coastal side of Alajeró, Playa Santiago, part of, located within the Alajeró municipality, was founded by fishermen, attracted to the location by its excellent fishing opportunities; as a result of this canneries and ship repair facilities were established. Although hot during the summer, in the winter months the climate is foggy at higher altitudes, which the inhabitants take advantage of by planting crops in November and harvesting their fruit and vegetables in May.
Agricultural production has fallen over the past few decades, with an agricultural crisis in the 1960s and the 1970s, causing many people to leave, so the smaller villages became depopulated. The fish factory in Playa Santiago, which used to can tuna and sardines, shut down as fish stocks dwindled, although there are still a few remaining fishing boats, whose catch is frozen for transport. There is a boat repair yard in the port; the Garajonay Exprės ferry ran from Valle Gran Rey via Santiago to San Sebastián de la Gomera and on to Los Cristianos, from 2002 to 2008, but ceased due to a lack of government subsidy. La Gomera Airport lies between Santiago. Tourism is not as important in La Gomera as on the larger Canary Islands, but Playa Santiago has a safe sand and shingle beach, a number of apartments and restaurants. Rural tourism is promoted with a new hotel at Alajeró town and Casas Rurales in the villages; the island has numerous way-marked footpaths. The town of Santiago is split between two municipalities and San Sebastian, but dominates the municipality of Alajero with about half the population.
The town of Alajeró, which has the Ayuntamiento, is about 4.5 km inland at 812 m above sea level, Agalán Alajeró Antoncojo Arguayoda Benchijigua Erese Lo del Gato Imada de Tecina Magana A part of Playa Santiago - a fishing port and tourist town Targa Chipude Ermita San Isidro on the peak called Roque Calvario offers a panoramic view of the southwestern coast of the island of La Gomera A famous dracaena the Drago de Agalán, is found North of Alajeró town The Pastrana water mill List of municipalities in Santa Cruz de Tenerife La Gomera Tourist Office La Gomera Island blog