A cove is a small type of bay or coastal inlet. Coves have narrow, restricted entrances, are circular or oval, are situated within a larger bay. Small, sheltered bays, creeks, or recesses in a coast are considered coves. Colloquially, the term can be used to describe a sheltered bay. Geomorphology describes coves as precipitously-walled and rounded cirque-like openings as in a valley extending into or down a mountainside, or in a hollow or nook of a cliff or steep mountainside. A cove can refer to a corner, nook, or cranny, either in a river, road, or wall where the wall meets the floor. A notable example is Lulworth Cove on the Jurassic Coast in England. To its west, a second cove, Stair Hole, is forming. Coves are formed by differential erosion, which occurs when softer rocks are worn away faster than the harder rocks surrounding them; these rocks further erode to form a circular bay with a narrow entrance, called a cove. Jackson, Julia A. Glossary of Geology. Alexandria, VA: American Geological Institute.
Pp. 146–147. ISBN 0-922152-34-9. Clark, John O. E.. The Facts on File: Dictionary of Earth Science. New York: Market House Books Ltd
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods, mollusks and cnidarians; the majority of animal species are invertebrates. Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata; some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the invertebrates paraphyletic, so the term has little meaning in taxonomy; the word "invertebrate" comes from the Latin word vertebra, which means a joint in general, sometimes a joint from the spinal column of a vertebrate. The jointed aspect of vertebra is derived from the concept of turning, expressed in the root verto or vorto, to turn; the prefix in- means "not" or "without". The term invertebrates is not always precise among non-biologists since it does not describe a taxon in the same way that Arthropoda, Vertebrata or Manidae do.
Each of these terms describes a valid taxon, subphylum or family. "Invertebrata" is a term of convenience, not a taxon. The Vertebrata as a subphylum comprises such a small proportion of the Metazoa that to speak of the kingdom Animalia in terms of "Vertebrata" and "Invertebrata" has limited practicality. In the more formal taxonomy of Animalia other attributes that logically should precede the presence or absence of the vertebral column in constructing a cladogram, for example, the presence of a notochord; that would at least circumscribe the Chordata. However the notochord would be a less fundamental criterion than aspects of embryological development and symmetry or bauplan. Despite this, the concept of invertebrates as a taxon of animals has persisted for over a century among the laity, within the zoological community and in its literature it remains in use as a term of convenience for animals that are not members of the Vertebrata; the following text reflects earlier scientific understanding of the term and of those animals which have constituted it.
According to this understanding, invertebrates do not possess a skeleton of bone, either internal or external. They include hugely varied body plans. Many have like jellyfish or worms. Others have outer shells like those of insects and crustaceans; the most familiar invertebrates include the Protozoa, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Arthropoda. Arthropoda include insects and arachnids. By far the largest number of described invertebrate species are insects; the following table lists the number of described extant species for major invertebrate groups as estimated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3. The IUCN estimates that 66,178 extant vertebrate species have been described, which means that over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates; the trait, common to all invertebrates is the absence of a vertebral column: this creates a distinction between invertebrates and vertebrates. The distinction is one of convenience only. Being animals, invertebrates are heterotrophs, require sustenance in the form of the consumption of other organisms.
With a few exceptions, such as the Porifera, invertebrates have bodies composed of differentiated tissues. There is typically a digestive chamber with one or two openings to the exterior; the body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, whether radial, bilateral, or spherical. A minority, exhibit no symmetry. One example of asymmetric invertebrates includes all gastropod species; this is seen in snails and sea snails, which have helical shells. Slugs appear externally symmetrical. Other gastropods develop external asymmetry, such as Glaucus atlanticus that develops asymmetrical cerata as they mature; the origin of gastropod asymmetry is a subject of scientific debate. Other examples of asymmetry are found in hermit crabs, they have one claw much larger than the other. If a male fiddler loses its large claw, it will grow another on the opposite side after moulting. Sessile animals such as sponges are asymmetrical alongside coral colonies. Neurons differ in invertebrates from mammalian cells.
Invertebrates cells fire in response to similar stimuli as mammals, such as tissue trauma, high temperature, or changes in pH. The first invertebrate in which a neuron cell was identified was the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. Learning and memory using nociceptors in the sea hare, Aplysia has been described. Mollusk neurons are able to detect tissue trauma. Neurons have been identified in a wide range of invertebrate species, including annelids, molluscs and arthropods. One type of invertebrate respi
Shell Beach, La Jolla
Shell Beach, La Jolla is a small beach in La Jolla, a community of San Diego, United States. The beach is accessed via a flight of concrete steps that start at the south end of Ellen Browning Scripps Park; this beach is located north of Children's Pool Beach, south of Boomer Beach, south of La Jolla Cove. During extreme low tides, the southern end of Shell Beach has an interesting tidepool-like area, with many marine creatures visible; because of the presence of reef structures and rip currents that can be hazardous to scuba divers, the San Diego Council of Divers provides a "Rocks and Reefs" tour for the area. Visible to the south a short distance out from Shell Beach is Seal Rock, which has a number of harbor seals resting on it. List of beaches in San Diego County List of California state parks
La Jolla is a hilly, seaside community within the city of San Diego, occupying 7 miles of curving coastline along the Pacific Ocean within the northern city limits. The population reported in the 2010 census was 46,781. La Jolla is surrounded on three sides by ocean bluffs and beaches and is located 12 miles north of Downtown San Diego and 40 miles south of Orange County; the climate is mild, with an average daily temperature of 70.5 °F. La Jolla is home to many educational institutions and a variety of businesses in the areas of lodging, shopping, finance, real estate, medical practice and scientific research; the University of California San Diego is located in La Jolla, as are the Salk Institute, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Scripps Research Institute, the headquarters of National University. Local Native Americans, the Kumeyaay, called this location mat kulaaxuuy, lit. "land of holes". The topographic feature that gave rise to the name "holes" is uncertain, it is suggested that the Kumeyaay name for the area was transcribed by the Spanish settlers as La Jolla.
An alternative, pseudo-etymological suggestion for the origin of the name is that it is an alternate spelling of the Spanish word la joya, which means "the jewel". Despite being disputed by scholars, this derivation of the name has been cited in popular culture; this supposed origin gave rise to the nickname "Jewel City". During the Mexican period of San Diego's history, La Jolla was mapped as pueblo land and contained about 60 lots; when California became a state in 1850, the La Jolla area was incorporated as part of the chartered City of San Diego. In 1870, Charles Dean acquired several of the pueblo lots and subdivided them into an area that became known as La Jolla Park. Dean was unable to develop the land and left San Diego in 1881. A real estate boom in the 1880s led speculators Frank T. Botsford and George W. Heald to further develop the sparsely settled area. In the 1890s, the San Diego, Pacific Beach, La Jolla Railway was built, connecting La Jolla to the rest of San Diego. La Jolla became known as a resort area.
To attract visitors to the beach, the railway built facilities such as a bath house and a dance pavilion. Visitors were housed in small cottages and bungalows above La Jolla Cove, as well as a temporary tent city erected every summer. Two of the cottages that were built in 1894 still exist: the "Red Roost" and the "Red Rest" known as the "Neptune and Cove Tea Room"; the La Jolla Park Hotel opened in 1893. The Hotel Cabrillo was built in 1908 by "Squire" James A. Wilson and was incorporated into the La Valencia Hotel. By 1900, La Jolla comprised 350 residents; the first reading room was built in 1898. A volunteer fire brigade was organized in 1907. Livery stable owner Nathan Rannells served successively as La Jolla's volunteer fire captain, first police officer, first postmaster. La Jolla Elementary School began educating local children in 1896; the Bishop's School opened in 1909. La Jolla High School was established in 1922. Between 1951 and 1963, other elementary schools were established in the area to ease overcrowding.
The La Jolla Beach and Yacht Club was built in 1927. In 1896 journalist and publisher Ellen Browning Scripps settled in La Jolla, where she lived for the last 35 years of her life, she was wealthy in her own right from her investments and writing, she inherited a large sum from her brother George H. Scripps in 1900. Unmarried and childless, she devoted herself to philanthropic endeavors those benefiting her adopted home of La Jolla, she commissioned many of La Jolla's most notable buildings designed by Irving Gill or his nephew and partner Louis John Gill. Many of these buildings are now on the National Register of Historic Places or are listed as historic by the city of San Diego, her donations launched the Scripps Memorial Hospital in 1924, the Scripps Metabolic Clinic, the Children's Pool. Ellen Browning Scripps founded Scripps College, a women's college, in 1926. Scripps College is located in Claremont in Los Angeles County; the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, one of the nation's oldest oceanographic institutes, was founded in 1903 by William Emerson Ritter, chair of the zoology department at the University of California, with financial support from Scripps and her brother E. W. Scripps.
At first the institution operated out of a boathouse in Coronado. In 1905 they purchased a 170-acre site in La Jolla; the first laboratory buildings there opened in 1907. The institution became part of the University of California in 1912, it became the nucleus for the establishment of the University of California San Diego
San Diego-La Jolla Underwater Park
The San Diego-La Jolla Underwater Park spans 6,000 acres of ocean bottom and tidelands. The park's four distinct habitats make it a popular destination for snorkelers and scuba divers; the park was created by the City of San Diego in 1970 and has two other parks within it: the "look but don't touch" Ecological Reserve and the Marine Life Refuge. Within the underwater park are two artificial reefs, created to attract and enhance marine life; the first was built in 1964 with Santa Catalina quarry rock dumped in 70 feet of water near Scripps Canyon. The second was started in 1975 and is located at a depth of 40 feet just offshore from Black's Beach. From La Jolla Shores, the ocean bottom slopes out to sea; the reefs keep making this an entry point for divers and kayakers. Kelp beds on the outer edges of the slope are popular fishing spots and great for observing seals, dolphins and fish. Beyond the slope the bottom takes a 500-foot - deep plunge into the La Jolla Canyon; the canyon reaches depths of 600 feet within the park.
The abrupt drop and abundance of marine life help to explain why migrating whales can be spotted close to shore. A 30-foot by 75-foot lithocrete map of the underwater park was completed in September 2008 at La Jolla Shores beach, it is located near the boardwalk between the restrooms and the children's play area at the south end of Kellogg Park. The Ecological Reserve has since been expanded to a total of 533 acres, it covers all of La Jolla Cove to a point midway on the La Jolla Shores beach. No fishing or scavenging is permitted within the reserve; the Marine Life Refuge encompasses the Scripps Pier at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and was established back in 1929 as an academic research area. Recreation and fishing are permitted in the refuge; the seven sea caves in La Jolla are perched within a 75-million-year-old sandstone sea cliff. The sea cliff most referred to as the 7 Caves of La Jolla; these seven sculpted cave openings face north, as they sit in between beach of La Jolla Shores and the sandy beach of La Jolla Cove.
The seven sea caves are named as follows, from west to east: The Clam’s Cave, Sunny Jim’s Cave, Arch Cave, Sea Surprize, Shopping Cart, Little Sister, White Lady. The La Jolla Sea Caves are only accessible by kayak, except Sunny Jim's. Sunny Jim’s cave is the only La Jolla cave, accessible by land via a hand-dug tunnel leading down from the historical landmark, the Cave Store; the cave was given this name "Sunny Jim" by the author of The Wizard of Oz. Mr. Baum gave the cave this unique name due to the shape of the cave's opening. Looking outward from the inside of the cave opening resembles a cartoon mascot for British Force Wheat Cereal in the 1920s; the profile of this cereal character matched that of the cave opening. Over the years, visitors have been attracted the seven caves of La Jolla. Long ago smugglers used it to bring in illegal other immigrants. Contraband whiskey was smuggled through the cave during Prohibition. Today many visitors visit “The Cave Store”; the cave opening has been protected over the past 100 years of preservation.
The old Crescent Café, now called The Cave Store is located on 1325 Coast boulevard in La Jolla. The Clam’s Cave is the only sea cave, visible from land; the Clam’s Cave is double sided and the backside can be seen from Goldfish Point on Coast Blvd. The other La Jolla caves are only visible via the ocean; these other caves are awash in waves and therefore seen by anyone except kayakers. White Lady, named for her long, bustled-dress silhouette, is located on the eastern corner of the sea cliff. In front of the cave White Lady, there are lots of larger rocks in the ocean that promote crashing waves and white wash, lending significance to the description “white.” The La Jolla Caves can be witnessed only by kayak. While the park itself used to be a productive fishery for lobster, halibut, mako shark and various other species of fish, the boundaries are still fished for many types of species. One of the most active community fishing the adjacent areas are the saltwater fly fisherman who practice catch and release of many fish as well as fishing the adjacent kelp beds outside the boundary.
The San Diego-La Jolla Underwater Park Ecological Reserve, Vol. 1, La Jolla Cove The San Diego-La Jolla Underwater Park Ecological Reserve, Vol. 2, La Jolla Shores & Canyon City of San Diego: La Jolla Cove Mac.com: La Jolla Underwater Park Map Lajollaguide.com: Mapping Project La Jolla Underwater Park Simulator - Virtual Dive Site of the La Jolla Underwater Park based on the eDiving simulator32°51′09″N 117°16′03″W