Kinetic art is art from any medium that contains movement perceivable by the viewer or depends on motion for its effect. Canvas paintings that extend the viewers perspective of the artwork and incorporate multidimensional movement are the earliest examples of kinetic art, more pertinently speaking, kinetic art is a term that today most often refers to three-dimensional sculptures and figures such as mobiles that move naturally or are machine operated. The moving parts are generally powered by wind, a motor or the observer, Kinetic art encompasses a wide variety of overlapping techniques and styles. There is a portion of art that includes virtual movement. This term clashes frequently with the apparent movement, which many people use when referring to an artwork whose movement is created by motors, machines. Both apparent and virtual movement are styles of art that only recently have been argued as styles of op art. Kinetic art as a developed from a number of sources. This triumvirate of impressionist painters all sought to create art that was more lifelike than their contemporaries, by the early 1900s, certain artists grew closer and closer to ascribing their art to dynamic motion.
Naum Gabo, one of the two artists attributed to naming this style, wrote frequently about his work as examples of kinetic rhythm and he felt that his moving sculpture Kinetic Construction was the first of its kind in the 20th century. From the 1920s until the 1960s, the style of art was reshaped by a number of other artists who experimented with mobiles. The strides made by artists to lift the figures and scenery off the page and prove undeniably that art is not rigid took significant innovations, Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet were the three artists of the 19th century that initiated those changes in the Impressionist movement. Even though they each took unique approaches to incorporating movement in their works, in the same period, Auguste Rodin was an artist whose early works spoke in support of the developing kinetic movement in art. It is almost impossible to ascribe Manets work to any one era or style of art, one of his works that is truly on the brink of a new style is Le Ballet Espagnol.
The figures contours coincide with their gestures as a way to suggest depth in relation to one another, Manet accentuates the lack of equilibrium in this work to project to the viewer that he or she is on the edge of a moment that is seconds away from passing. The blurred, hazy sense of color and shadow in this work similarly place the viewer in a fleeting moment, in 1863, Manet extended his study of movement on flat canvas with Le déjeuner sur lherbe. The light and composition are the same, the woman bending in the background is not completely scaled as if she were far away from the figures in the foreground. The lack of spacing is Manets method of creating snapshot, near-invasive movement similar to his blurring of the objects in Le Ballet Espagnol. Edgar Degas is believed to be the extension of Manet
It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking. It is used as fuel for vehicles and as a feedstock in the manufacture of plastics. Natural gas is found in underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds. Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in proximity to. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms and thermogenic, biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas. The World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of gas are flared or vented annually.
Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, especially in North America, Natural gas was used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to salt water to extract the salt. The worlds first industrial extraction of gas started at Fredonia, New York. By 2009,66000 km³ had been used out of the total 850000 km³ of estimated remaining reserves of natural gas. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in currently recoverable reserves lasting significantly less, unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields
Installation art is an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that often are site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called public art, land art or intervention art, however. Installation art can be temporary or permanent. Installation artworks have been constructed in exhibition spaces such as museums and galleries, as well as public, many installations are site-specific in that they are designed to exist only in the space for which they were created, appealing to qualities evident in a three-dimensional immersive medium. Artistic collectives such as the Exhibition Lab at New Yorks American Museum of Natural History created environments to showcase the natural world in as realistic a medium as possible, Walt Disney Imagineering employed a similar philosophy when designing the multiple immersive spaces for Disneyland in 1955. Since its acceptance as a discipline, a number of institutions focusing on Installation art were created.
These included the Mattress Factory, the Museum of Installation in London, the intention of the artist is paramount in much installation art whose roots lie in the conceptual art of the 1960s. This again is a departure from traditional sculpture which places its focus on form, early non-Western installation art includes events staged by the Gutai group in Japan starting in 1954, which influenced American installation pioneers like Allan Kaprow. Wolf Vostell shows his installation 6 TV Dé-coll/age in 1963 at the Smolin Gallery in New York, Installation as nomenclature for a specific form of art came into use fairly recently, its first use as documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in 1969. It was coined in this context, in reference to a form of art that had existed since prehistory but was not regarded as a discrete category until the mid-twentieth century. Allan Kaprow used the term Environment in 1958 to describe his transformed indoor spaces, out of the sensory stuff of ordinary life.
In Art and Objecthood, Michael Fried derisively labels art that acknowledges the viewer as theatrical, here installation art bestows an unprecedented importance on the observers inclusion in that which he observes. Ultimately, the things a viewer can be assured of when experiencing the work are his own thoughts and preconceptions. All else may be molded by the artists hands, the central importance of the subjective point of view when experiencing installation art, points toward a disregard for traditional Platonic image theory. In effect, the entire installation adopts the character of the simulacrum or flawed statue, Installation art operates fully within the realm of sensory perception, in a sense installing the viewer into an artificial system with an appeal to his subjective perception as its ultimate goal. Interactive installation is a sub-category of installation art, an interactive installation frequently involves the audience acting on the work of art or the piece responding to users activity.
With the improvement of technology over the years, artists are able to explore outside of the boundaries that were never able to be explored by artists in the past. The media used are more experimental and bold, they are usually cross media and may involve sensors, by using virtual reality as a medium, immersive virtual reality art is probably the most deeply interactive form of art
Hochelaga-Maisonneuve is a district of Montreal, situated on the eastern half of the island, generally to the south and southwest of the citys Olympic Stadium. Its population is a mix of working-class Québécois, named after the First Nations village of Hochelaga, encountered in 1535–36 by the explorer Jacques Cartier, the neighbourhood was at one time believed to be the location of the prehistoric village. Nevertheless, it is agreed that the village of Hochelaga was in the general area of what is downtown Montreal. Ironically, the village was not located in the vicinity of Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, despite being one of the poorest areas of the city, the district of 25.2 square kilometers is considered an up-and-coming one, with immigrants creating new businesses. It is a populated residential neighbourhood, with some industry. The Marché Maisonneuve and Promenade Ontario are affordable shopping areas for locals, Olympic Park, containing the Stadium, Olympic Tower, Saputo Stadium, Olympic Pool, Maurice Richard Arena, and Parc Maisonneuve, offer recreation for locals and tourists.
The district enjoys a view of the International Fireworks Festival during the summer months. The neighbourhood has a collection of residential architecture unique to Montreal. The districts relatively cheap prices and proximity to downtown Montreal have attracted developers. The Commission scolaire de Montréal operates French-language public schools, the English Montreal School Board operates English-language schools. The Montreal Public Libraries Network operates the Hochelaga and Maisonneuve libraries
Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different
Jean-Paul Riopelle, CC GOQ was a painter and sculptor from Quebec, Canada. He became the first Canadian painter to attain widespread international recognition, born in Montreal, Riopelle began drawing lessons in 1933 and continued through 1938. He studied engineering and photography at the école polytechnique in 1941, in 1942 he enrolled at the École des beaux-arts de Montréal but shifted his studies to the less academic école du Meuble, graduating in 1945. He studied under Paul-Émile Borduas in the 1940s and was a member of Les Automatistes movement, breaking with traditional conventions in 1945 after reading André Bretons Le Surréalisme et la Peinture, he began experimenting with non-objective painting. He was one of the signers of the Refus global manifesto, in 1947 Riopelle moved to Paris and continued his career as an artist, after a brief association with the surrealists he capitalized on his image as a wild Canadian. His first solo exhibition took place in 1949 at the Surrealist meeting place, in 1959 he began a relationship with the American painter Joan Mitchell.
Living together throughout the 1960s, they kept separate homes and studios near Giverny and they influenced one another greatly, as much intellectually as artistically, but their relationship was a stormy one, fueled by alcohol. His 1992 painting Hommage à Rosa Luxemburg is Riopelles tribute to Mitchell, who died that year, the presence of long filaments of paint in his painting from 1948 through the early 1950s has often been seen as resulting from a dripping technique like that of Jackson Pollock. Rather, the creation of such came from the act of throwing, with a palette knife or brush. Riopelles voluminous impasto became just as important as color and his oil painting technique allowed him to paint thick layers, producing peaks and troughs as copious amounts of paint were applied to the surface of the canvas. But it never works, so I add more, without realizing it, I have never wanted to paint thickly, paint tubes are much too expensive. But one way or another, the painting has to be done, when I learn how to paint better, I will paint less thickly.
It has to right away. A third element, range of gloss, in addition to color and volume, paints are juxtaposed so that light is reflected off the surface not just in different directions but with varying intensity, depending on the naturally occurring gloss finish. These three elements, color and range of gloss, would form the basis of his oil painting technique throughout his long, Riopelle received an Honorable Mention at the 1952 São Paulo Art Biennial. In 1953 he showed at the Younger European Painters exhibition at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City, the following year Riopelle began exhibiting at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. In 1954, works by Riopelle, along with those of B. C, binning and Paul-Émile Borduas represented Canada at the Venice Biennale. He was the sole artist representing Canada at the 1962 Venice Biennale in an exhibit curated by Charles Comfort and he was made a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts
Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all. Public art may include any art which is exhibited in a public space including publicly accessible buildings, the relationship between the content and audience, what the art is saying and to whom, is just as important if not more important than its physical location. Cher Krause Knight states, arts publicness rests in the quality, such cultural interventions have often been realised in response to creatively engaging a communitys sense of place or well-being in society. Such commissions can still result in physical, permanent artworks and sculptures and these often involve increasingly integrated and applied arts type applications. However, they are beginning to include other, much more process-driven. As such, these do not always rely on the production of a physical or permanent artwork at all and this expanded scope of public art can embrace many diverse practices and artforms.
These might be implemented as stand-alone, or as collaborative hybrids involving a multi-disciplinary approach, the range of its potential is of course endless, ever-changing, and subject to continual debate and differences of opinion among artists, funders and commissioning clients. Public art is not confined to objects, procession, street theatre. In a similar example, sculptor Gar Waterman created a giant arch measuring 35x37x3 feet which straddled a city street in New Haven, in Cape Town, South Africa, Africa Centre presents the Infecting the City Public Art Festival. Programs like President Roosevelts New Deal facilitated the development of art during the Great Depression but was wrought with propaganda goals. New Deal art support programs intended to develop national pride in American culture while avoiding addressing the faltering economy that said culture was built upon, although problematic, New Deal programs such as FAP altered the relationship between the artist and society by making art accessible to all people.
The New Deal program Art-in-Architecture developed percent for art programs, a structure for funding public art still utilized today and this program gave one half of one percent of total construction costs of all government buildings to purchase contemporary American art for that structure. A-i-A helped solidify the principle that art in the US should be truly owned by the public. They established the legitimacy of the desire for public art. While problematic at times, early public art programs set the foundation for current public art development, Public art became much more about the public. The will to create a deepest and more pertinent connection between the production of the artwork and the site where it is made visible prompts different orientations, in 1969 Wolf Vostells Stationary traffic was made in Cologne. Between the 1970s and the 1980s, gentrification and ecological issues surface in public art practices both as a motive and as a critical focus brought in by artists. In recent years, programs of green urban regeneration aiming at converting abandoned lots into green areas regularly include public art programs, the 1980s witness the institutionalisation of sculpture parks as curated programs
Place Jean-Paul Riopelle
Place Jean-Paul-Riopelle is a public square located in the Quartier international of Montreal, Canada. The square was created in 2004 and was built over the Ville-Marie Expressway at the time as the CDP Capital Centre. It was named in honour of Quebec artist Jean-Paul Riopelle who died in 2002 and his fountain sculpture La Joute was moved to the square from the Olympic Park in Hochelaga-Maisonneuve. In the northern part of the square, a water basin highlights a sculpture by Jean-Paul Riopelle, La Joutes central element is a fountain with alternating water jets. A circle of fire appears on the surface of the water during summer evenings and this work was previously installed at the Olympic Park since 1976. A sculpture representing Jean-Paul Riopelle stands in between the trees on the part of the square. It was realized by Roseline Granet in 2003, place Jean-Paul-Riopelle contains eighty-eight trees from eleven different species, including the Sugar Maple and Bitternut Hickory. These mature trees are planted in a pattern reminiscent of a computer printed circuits.
From the ground, gutters project light mist during late night entertainment of La Joute
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
A fountain is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were originally purely functional, connected to springs or aqueducts and used to drinking water and water for bathing and washing to the residents of cities, towns. Until the late 19th century most fountains operated by gravity, and needed a source of higher than the fountain, such as a reservoir or aqueduct. In addition to providing drinking water, fountains were used for decoration, Roman fountains were decorated with bronze or stone masks of animals or heroes. In the Middle Ages and Muslim garden designers used fountains to create versions of the gardens of paradise. King Louis XIV of France used fountains in the Gardens of Versailles to illustrate his power over nature, the baroque decorative fountains of Rome in the 17th and 18th centuries marked the arrival point of restored Roman aqueducts and glorified the Popes who built them.
By the end of the 19th century, as indoor plumbing became the source of drinking water. Mechanical pumps replaced gravity and allowed fountains to recycle water and to force it high into the air, the Jet dEau in Lake Geneva, built in 1951, shoots water 140 metres in the air. The highest such fountain in the world is King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, fountains are used today to decorate city parks and squares, to honor individuals or events, for recreation and for entertainment. A Splash pad or spray pool allows city residents to enter, get wet, the musical fountain combines moving jets of water, colored lights and recorded music, controlled by a computer, for dramatic effects. Drinking fountains provide clean drinking water in buildings, parks. Ancient civilizations built stone basins to capture and hold precious drinking water, a carved stone basin, dating to around 2000 BC, was discovered in the ruins of the ancient Sumerian city of Lagash in modern Iraq. The ancient Assyrians constructed a series of basins in the gorge of the Comel River, carved in rock, connected by small channels.
The lowest basin was decorated with carved reliefs of two lions, the ancient Greeks were apparently the first to use aqueducts and gravity-powered fountains to distribute water. In the 6th century BC the Athenian ruler Peisistratos built the fountain of Athens. It had nine large cannons, or spouts, which supplied drinking water to local residents. Greek fountains were made of stone or marble, with water flowing through bronze pipes, most Greek fountains flowed by simple gravity, but they discovered how to use principle of a siphon to make water spout, as seen in pictures on Greek vases. The Ancient Romans built a system of aqueducts from mountain rivers and lakes to provide water for the fountains