La Monnaie

The Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in French, or The Koninklijke Muntschouwburg in Dutch, is an opera house in Brussels, Belgium. Both of its names translate as Royal Theatre of the Mint. Today the National Opera of Belgium, a federal institution, takes the name of the theatre in which it is housed - La Monnaie or De Munt refers both to the building as well as the opera company; as Belgium's leading opera house it is one of the few cultural institutions which receives financial support from the federal government of Belgium. Other opera houses in Belgium, such as the Vlaamse Opera and the Opéra Royal de Wallonie, are funded by regional governments. In the last three decades la Monnaie has reclaimed its place amongst the foremost opera houses in Europe thanks to the efforts of the successive directors Gerard Mortier and Bernard Foccroulle and music directors Sylvain Cambreling and Antonio Pappano; the current edifice is the third theatre on the site. The façade dates from 1818 with major alterations made in 1856 and 1986.

The foyer and auditorium date from 1856, but every other element of the present building was extensively renovated in the 1980s. The first permanent public theatre for opera performances of the court and city of Brussels was built between 1695 and 1700 by the Venetian architects Paolo and Pietro Bezzi, as part of a rebuilding plan following the bombardment of Brussels, it was built on the site of a building. The name of this site la Monnaie remained attached to the theatre for the centuries to come; the construction of the theatre had been ordered by Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, at that time Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands. The Elector had charged his "trésorier", the Italian Gio-Paolo Bombarda, with the task of financing and supervising the enterprise; the date of the first performance in 1700 remains unknown. The first performance mentioned in the local newspaper was Jean-Baptiste Lully's, given on 19 November 1700; the French operatic repertoire would dominate the Brussels stage throughout the following century, although performances of Venetian operas and other non-French repertoire were performed on a regular basis.

Until the middle of the 19th century, plays were performed along with opera and concerts. By the 18th century la Monnaie was considered the second French-speaking stage after the most prominent theatres in Paris. Under the rule of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, who acted as a generous patron of the arts, the theatre flourished. At that time it housed a ballet and an orchestra; the splendour of the performances diminished during the last years of the Austrian rule, due to the severe politics of the Austrian Emperor Joseph II. After 1795, when the French revolutionary forces occupied the Belgian provinces, the theatre became a French Departmental institution. Amongst other cuts in its expenses, the theatre had to abolish its Corps de Ballet. During this period many famous French actors and singers gave regular performances in the theatre during their tour of the provinces of the Empire. Still a consul, Napoleon on his visit to Brussels judged the old theatre too dilapidated for one of the most prestigious cities of his Empire.

He ordered plans to replace the old building by a new and more monumental edifice, but nothing was done during the Napoleonic rule. The plans were carried out under the auspices of the new United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Bombarda building was demolished in 1818; the old theatre was replaced by a new Neo-classical building designed by the French architect Louis Damesme. Unlike the Bombarda building, situated along the street and surrounded by other buildings, the new theatre was placed in the middle of a newly constructed square; this gave it a more monumental appearance, but it was the result of safety concerns since it was more accessible to firemen, reducing the chance that fire would spread to surrounding buildings. The new auditorium was inaugurated on 25 May 1819 with the opera La Caravane du Caire by the Belgian composer André Ernest Modeste Grétry; as the most important French theatre of the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands, la Monnaie had national and international significance.

The theatre came under the supervision of the city of Brussels, which had the right to appoint a director charged with the management its management. In this period famous actors like François Joseph Talma and singers like Maria Malibran performed at la Monnaie; the Corps de Ballet was reintroduced and came under the supervision of the dancer and choreographer Jean-Antoine Petipa, father of the famous Marius Petipa. La Monnaie would play a prominent role in the formation of the Kingdom of Belgium. Daniel Auber's opera La Muette de Portici was scheduled in August 1830 after it had been banned from the stage by King William I, fearing its inciting content. At a performance of this opera on the evening of 25 August 1830, a riot broke out which became the signal for the Belgian Revolution and which led to Belgian independence; the Damesme building continued to serve for more than two decades as Belgium's principal theatre and opera house until it burnt to the ground on 21 January 1855 leaving only the outside walls and portico.

After the fire of January 1855, the theatre was reconstructed after the designs of Joseph Poelaert within a period of fourteen months. The auditorium and the foyer were decorated in a then-popular Eclectic Style; the lavish decoration made excessive use of gilded "carton-pierre" decorations and sculptures, red velvet and brocade. The auditorium was lit by the huge crystal chandelier that today still hangs in the centre of the d

Chamaco Ramírez

Chamaco Ramirez was a Puerto Rican salsa singer and composer. He came to prominence and is still remembered for his work as singer of the Tommy Olivencia Orchestra. Ramirez, was born Ramon Luis Ramirez Toro in the Parada 26 section of Puerto Rico. A gifted musician since his early youth, at the age of 16 and while still a High School student, he joined Tommy Olivencia to start the orchestra which would bear Olivencia's name and which would go by the moniker of La Primerisima Orquesta de Puerto Rico. With Tommy Olivencia y Su Orquesta, in which Ramirez shared vocals with Paquito Guzmán, he would work from 1960 to 1971 and again from 1974 to 1976, he recorded eight albums with this orchestra. In the 1960s, while still a member of Tommy Olivencia y Su Orquesta, he contributed vocals to albums by the Alegre All Stars and Kako and his Orchestra. Besides his vocal work, marked by his ability to improvise, he was a gifted composer who wrote the Salsa classic, Trucutu covered by Marc Anthony. Among his other hits include "Plante Bandera" and "Evelio Y La Rumba".

After leaving Tommy Olivencia's orchestra, Ramirez moved to New York City where he worked with the orchestra of Kako Bastar. He would move to Los Angeles where he worked with two minor local orchestras. In 1979, he released his only solo album, titled Alive and Kicking. During his years, Ramirez had frequent problems with the law related to his use of illegal drugs. On the morning of March 27, 1983, he was the victim of a shooting in the Bronx, New York City, died in an ambulance as he was being taken to the hospital. Jala-Jala Y Guaguancó La Nueva Sensación Musical De Puerto Rico Fire Fire - Quito Vélez, Los Montemar, Lo Mejor 1960s Juntos de Nuevo Planté Bandera - A Mi Pai Chango Way Out - The Alegre All Stars Vol. 4. The Salsa All Stars They Just Don't Makim Like Us Any More Sock It to Me Latino Alive and Kicking List of Puerto Ricans

Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada

The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected part of the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, functioning as the lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada. Its legislative power was subject to veto by the appointed Lieutenant Governor, Executive Council, Legislative Council; the first elections in Upper Canada, in which only land-owning males were permitted to vote, were held in August 1792. The first session of the Assembly's sixteen members occurred in Newark, Upper Canada on 17 September 1792. Shortly before the capital of Upper Canada was moved to York in 1796 the Assembly was dissolved and reconvened for twelve more sessions between 1797 and 1840 in modest buildings in the new capital. Members continued to be elected by land-owning males to represent the larger towns. During the War of 1812, American troops set fire to the buildings of the Assembly. Following the war, the Executive and Legislative Councils became dominated by the Family Compact, a clique of wealthy individuals led by John Strachan, which emerged in 1815.

The Compact was opposed to American republicanism and favoured full establishment for the Anglican church in Upper Canada. Their authoritarian style of governance and disregard for the will of the Legislative Assembly led to demands for government, more responsible to the people and the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837. Opposing the Family Compact were an assortment of anti-establishment members, but it did not gain strength until a more formal group of reformers emerged led by William Warren Baldwin starting 1820s and by William Lyon Mackenzie in the 1830s; the 1840 Act of Union united Upper and Lower Canada into the single Province of Canada and, from this point until Confederation in 1867, a joint parliament was held for the united provinces. 1st Parliament of Upper Canada 1792-1796 2nd Parliament of Upper Canada 1797-1800 3rd Parliament of Upper Canada 1801-1804 4th Parliament of Upper Canada 1805-1808 5th Parliament of Upper Canada 1808-1812 6th Parliament of Upper Canada 1812-1816 7th Parliament of Upper Canada 1817-1820 8th Parliament of Upper Canada 1821-1824 9th Parliament of Upper Canada 1825-1828 10th Parliament of Upper Canada 1829-1830 11th Parliament of Upper Canada 1831-1834 12th Parliament of Upper Canada 1835-1836 13th Parliament of Upper Canada 1837-1840 A few members of the Legislature left Canada.

Some left Canada to join the United States Army during the War of 1812. Some were involved in the Rebellion of 1837 and other just abandoned Canada. Most moved to the United States, some left for Great Britain. Navy Hall at Newark First and second Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada at YorkFrom 1824 to 1832, the Assembly sat at temporary locations due to the fire that destroyed the second home: Residence of the Chief Justice of Upper Canada Old York County Court House on King between Toronto and Church Streets Ballroom of York Hotel at York - one session 1813 York General Hospital Third Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada Legislative Council of Upper Canada Executive Council of Upper Canada Lieutenant Governors of Upper Canada, 1791-1841 Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology, Frederick H. Armstrong, Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1985. ISBN 0-919670-92-X James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac, provincial calendar, for the year of Our Lord 1827: being the third after bissextile or leap year, the eighth year of the reign of His Majesty eorge the Fourth...", 76, ii pp. James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac and astronomical calendar for the year of Our Lord 1828: being bissextile or leap year and the ninth year of the reign of His Majesty King George the Fourth...", 76, ii pp. James G. Chewett, "The Upper Canada almanac, provincial calendar, for the year of Our Lord 1831: being the third after bissextile, or leap year, the second year of the reign of His Majesty King William the Fourth...", 103, ii pp. Government of Ontario site