Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
San Gabriel River (California)
The San Gabriel River is a urban waterway flowing 58 miles southward through Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California in the United States. It is the central of three major rivers draining the Greater Los Angeles Area, the others being the Los Angeles River and Santa Ana River; the river's watershed stretches from the rugged San Gabriel Mountains to the developed San Gabriel Valley and a significant part of the Los Angeles coastal plain, emptying into the Pacific Ocean between the cities of Long Beach and Seal Beach. The San Gabriel once ran across a vast alluvial flood plain, its channels shifting with winter floods and forming extensive wetlands along its perennial course, a scarce source of fresh water in this arid region; the Tongva people and their ancestors have inhabited the San Gabriel River basin for thousands of years, relying on the abundant fish and game in riparian habitats. The river is named for the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, established in 1771 during the Spanish colonization of California.
Its water was used for irrigation and ranching by Spanish and American settlers before urbanization began in the early 1900s transforming much of the watershed into industrial and suburban areas of greater Los Angeles. Severe floods in 1914, 1934 and 1938 spurred Los Angeles County, the federal government to build a system of dams and debris basins, to channelize much of the lower San Gabriel River with riprap or concrete banks. There is an extensive system of spreading grounds and other works to capture stormwater runoff and conserve it for urban use. Today, the river provides about one-third of the water used in southeast Los Angeles County; the upper San Gabriel has been intermittently mined for gold since the 1860s, its deep gravel bed has been an important source of construction aggregate since the early 1900s. The river is a popular recreation area, with parks and trails in the many flood basins along its course; the headwaters of the San Gabriel River have retained their natural character and are a popular attraction of the Angeles National Forest.
The San Gabriel River basin drains a total of 689 square miles and is located between the watersheds of the Los Angeles River to the west, the Santa Ana River to the east, the Mojave Desert to the north. The watershed is divided into three distinct sections; the northern third, located within the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains, is steep and mountainous. Elevations reach up to 10,064 feet at the highest point of the range. During the winter, many elevations above 6,000 feet are covered in snow; the middle third, the San Gabriel Valley, the southern third, the coastal plain of the Los Angeles Basin, are separated by the Puente Hills and Montebello Hills. With the exception of some recreation areas and lands set aside for flood control, the valleys are entirely urbanized. 2 million people live in the watershed, divided between 35 incorporated cities. Rainfall is higher in the San Gabriel Valley than the coastal plain due to its proximity to the mountains. However, the climate as a whole is arid, with only moderate precipitation in winter and nearly none in summer.
The lower watershed consists of alluvial plains that once experienced seasonal flooding from the San Gabriel River, creating vast swamps and wetlands. Today little of this original environment remains; the San Gabriel is one of the largest natural streams in Southern California, but its discharge varies from year to year. Between 1895 and 1957 the mean unimpaired runoff at Azusa was estimated at 114,000 acre feet, with a range from 9,600 to 410,000 acre feet; the San Gabriel River reached its highest flows in the winter and spring, with runoff dropping after early June before rising again with November or December storms. Today, the flow of the San Gabriel River has been dried up in places by dams and groundwater recharge operations, increased in other sections by wastewater run-off; the East Fork, 17 miles long, is the largest headwater of the San Gabriel River. S. Geological Survey considers it part of the main stem. However, it is colloquially known as the "East Fork" to distinguish it from the West Fork of the San Gabriel.
Its furthest tributary, the Prairie Fork, originates at 9,648-foot Pine Mountain in the Sheep Mountain Wilderness to the southwest of Wrightwood. Draining a high, remote subalpine valley characterized by extensive meadows, it flows west to join with Vincent Gulch, below which the stream is known as the East Fork. Here it turns abruptly south, flowing through a rugged canyon, it is joined from the east by the Fish Fork, which originates on the northwest slopes of Mount Baldy. Below the Fish Fork the East Fork flows through the "Narrows", one of the deepest gorges in Southern California. From the floor of the canyon at 3,000 feet, Iron Mountain rises 8,007 feet to the southeast, while Mount Hawkins, 8,850 feet, rises to the northwest; the Iron Fork tributary joins from the west in the middle of the Narrows. Near the lower end of the Narrows, the river passes under the Bridge to Nowhere, a 120-foot high arch bridge, abandoned after the huge flood of 1938 washed out a highway under construction along the East Fork.
The bridge remains today as a popular destination for hikers and bungee jumpers. After emerging from the Narrows the river continues flowing south through a som
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large, comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are renowned for their large, showy flowers and those species are known as "hibiscus", or less known as rose mallow. There are names for hibiscus such as hardy hibiscus, rose of sharon, tropical hibiscus; the genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. The generic name is derived from the Greek name ἰβίσκος which Pedanius Dioscorides gave to Althaea officinalis. Several species are cultivated as ornamental plants, notably Hibiscus syriacus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. A tea made from hibiscus flowers is known by many names around the world and is served both hot and cold; the beverage is known for its red colour, tart flavour, vitamin C content. The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate with a toothed or lobed margin.
The flowers are large, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petals, colour from white to pink, orange, yellow or purple, from 4–18 cm broad. Flower colour in certain species, such as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age. The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces at maturity, it is of white colours. It is an example of complete flowers. In temperate zones the most grown ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the common garden hibiscus known in some areas as the "rose of Althea" or "rose of Sharon". In tropical and subtropical areas, the Chinese hibiscus, with its many showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus. Several hundred species are known, including: The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, appears in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India with the goddess and the flower merging in form; the hibiscus is used as an offering to Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship. In the Philippines, the gumamela is used by children as part of a bubble-making pastime.
The flowers and leaves are crushed until the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya stalks are dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles. Together with soap, hibiscus juices produce more bubbles; the hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn behind the left ear, the woman has a boyfriend. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or available for a relationship; the yellow hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower. Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her first novel Purple Hibiscus after the delicate flower; the bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic material rot away. The hibiscus is a national symbol of Haiti, the national flower of nations including the Solomon Islands and Niue. Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. Hibiscus brackenridgei is the state flower of Hawaii.
Many species are grown for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs, are used to attract butterflies and hummingbirds. Hibiscus is a hardy, versatile plant and in tropical conditions it can enhance the beauty of any garden. Being versatile it adapts itself to balcony gardens in crammed urban spaces and can be grown in pots as a creeper or in hanging pots, it is a perennial and flowers through the year. As it comes in a variety of colors, it's a plant; the only infestation that gardeners need to be vigilant about is mealybug. Mealybug infestations are easy to spot as its visible as a distinct white cottony infestation on buds, leaves or stems. To protect the plant you need to trim away the infected part, spray with water, apply an appropriate pesticide. One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf, is extensively used in paper-making; the inner bark of the sea hibiscus called'hau', is used in Polynesia for making rope, the wood for making canoe floats. The tea made of hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold.
The beverage is well known for its red colour and unique flavour. Additionally, it is nutritious because of its vitamin C content, it is known as bissap in West Africa, "Gul e Khatmi" in Urdu & Persian, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Central America and Orhul in India. Some refer to it as a common name for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica and many other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is known as sorrel. In Ghana, the drink is known as soobolo in one of the local languages. In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be prepared by first steeping the petals in hot water until the colors are leached from the petals adding lime juice and cold water/ice cubes. In Egypt and the Arab world, hibiscus tea is known as karkadé, is served as both a hot and a cold drink. Dried hibiscus is edible, it is a delicacy in Mexico, it can be candied and used as a garnish for desserts. The roselle is used as a vegetable; the species Hibiscus su
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U. S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding; the United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U. S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race.
Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white; the largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans, Italian Americans, French Americans, Polish Americans, Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Dutch Americans, Norwegian Americans and Swedish Americans. However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as "Americans", due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution; the vast majority of white Americans have ancestry from multiple countries. Definitions of, "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States; the term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria.
The 2000 U. S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial and or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows: "White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa, it includes people who indicated their race as "White" or reported entries such as German, Lebanese, Moroccan, or Caucasian. In U. S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity and independent of race.
Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country. The characterization of Middle Eastern and North African Americans as white has been a matter of controversy. In the early 20th century, peoples of Arab descent were sometimes denied entry into the United States because they were characterized as nonwhite. In 1944, the law changed, Middle Eastern and North African peoples were granted white status; the U. S. Census is revisiting the issue, considering creating a separate racial category for Middle Eastern and North African Americans in the 2020 Census. In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U. S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White; the US Census considers the write-in response of "Caucasian" or "Aryan" to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing.
In the contemporary United States anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U. S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, Hispanics or Latinos may not identify as, may not be perceived to be, White; the definition of White has changed over the course of American history. Among Europeans, those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Spaniards, Swedes and Russians. Early on in the United States, membership in the white race was limited to those of British, Germanic, or Nordic ancestry. David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves; the process of being defined as white by law came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth and judicial neutrality, by critical theory.
Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the Civil Rights Movement pointed out that though African Americans enjoyed legal equality, white Americans continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Joan Crespí or Juan Crespí was a Franciscan missionary and explorer of Las Californias. A native of Majorca, Crespí entered the Franciscan order at the age of seventeen, he came to New Spain in 1749, accompanied explorers Francisco Palóu and Junípero Serra. In 1767 he went to the Baja California Peninsula and was placed in charge of the Misión La Purísima Concepción de Cadegomó. In 1769, Crespí joined the expedition led by Gaspar de Junípero Serra, he traveled in the vanguard of the land expedition to San Diego, led by Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada, where a presidio and mission were established. Crespí continued north with Portolá and Rivera to identify the port of Monterey; because he was the only one of the Franciscans to make the entire journey by land, Crespí became the first official diarist for the missions. He was one of three diarists to document the first exploration by Europeans of interior areas of Alta California. After reaching Monterey in October 1769, Crespí continued with the expedition that explored as far north as present-day San Francisco, became one of the first Europeans to see San Francisco Bay.
All told, the expedition traveled in the future state of California through the present-day coastal counties of San Diego, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, San Francisco. In 1772, Crespí accompanied Captain Pedro Fages on an exploration of areas to the east of San Francisco Bay; the Fages expedition members were the first Europeans to see the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin Valley. In 1774, Crespí was chaplain of the expedition to the North Pacific conducted by Juan José Pérez Hernández, his diaries, first published in H. E. Bolton's Fray Juan Crespi, published in the original Spanish with facing page translations as A Description of Distant Roads: Original Journals of the First Expedition into California, 1769-1770 provided valuable records of these expeditions. One chapel he built, at the Misión San Francisco del Valle de Tilaco in Landa, is reported as still standing. Joan Crespí at Find a Grave