The Henry Mountains are located in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Utah and run in a generally north-south direction, extending over a distance of about 30 miles. They were named by Almon Thompson in honour of Joseph Henry, the nearest town of any size is Hanksville, which is north of the mountains. In Navajo, the range is referred to as Dził Bizhiʼ Ádiní. The range is clustered into two groups, with Highway 276 dividing the two portions. The northern group is by far the taller of the two with Mount Ellen,11,522 feet above sea level, Mount Pennell,11,371 feet, the southern group is much lower in elevation. The southern group has two peaks, Mount Ellsworth,8,235 feet and Mount Holmes,8,000 feet, the southern group is known as the Little Rockies. The geology of these mountains was first studied in 1875-1876 by Grove Karl Gilbert and he coined the term laccolite to describe the characteristic shapes of some of the igneous intrusions that core the mountains. The main type of rock is porphyritic diorite.
Ages of the rocks are important for understanding the evolution of the Colorado Plateau. Ages of these rocks were reported to be about 45 to 50 million years in older geologic literature, the intrusions are hosted by Permian to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The Henry Mountains are home to approximately 350 American bison and this study, published in 2015, showed the Henry Mountains bison to be free of brucellosis, a bacterial disease that was imported with non-native domestic cattle to North America. The other three herds are in Yellowstone National Park, Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota and Elk Island National Park in Alberta, an additional five bulls were added to the population in 1942. The herd has gradually moved toward the Henry Mountains, frequenting elevations up to 10,000 feet, the Henry Mountain herd has been brucellosis-free since 1963. A population objective of 325 bison by 2012 was set by Utah wildlife biologists for the Henry Mountain herd, since the bison reproduce easily and the herds have been larger than this in the past, a decision was made to reduce the size of the herd.
To achieve this objective, and increase genetic diversity, breeding animals are being transplanted to other locations from the herd. In January,2009, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources officials transplanted 31 animals to the Book Cliffs in eastern Utah, the new group joined 14 animals previously released in August,2008 from a private herd on the nearby Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation. In addition, special licenses are issued annually to hunt the animals, in 2009,146 public once-in-a-lifetime Henry Mountain bison hunting permits were issued. This hunt is supported in the local area, as the remote
Ute Mountain, is a peak within the Ute Mountains, a small mountain range in the southwestern corner of Colorado. It is on the edge of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation. The Reservation forms the corner of the state and of Montezuma County. Nomenclature for this peak and its range varies, all of these forms of the mountains name and of the ranges name can be found on various USGS maps and reports. The Ute Mountains, with a collective profile commonly known as “The Sleeping Ute”, are a cluster of peaks approximately 5 by 12 miles in extent. Despite being much lower than Colorados highest peaks, Ute Mountain is the eighth most topographically prominent peak in the state and it is notable for its large local relief in all directions, especially its rise of roughly 4,250 ft over the Montezuma Valley to the southeast. The Sleeping Ute is said to resemble a Ute Chief lying on his back with arms folded across his chest, the mountains were valued as a sacred place by the Weeminuche Ute band. In particular, this means that access to the range by outsiders is severely restricted.
Few roads or trails are found in the mountains, although radio towers and water tanks have been built, various other forms of the legend can be found. Readily recognized from many spots up to 50 miles east or west, knees – Hermano Mountain or “The Knees” are obviously the knees of the figure. Toes – East Toe is a small and prominent igneous protrusion at the south-eastern end of the Ute Mountains proportioned. West Toe, a protrusion, has a very similar profile and is perfectly placed to complete the figure from the west. The illusion of a figure is further reinforced by its symmetry. The figure is nearly as complete seen from the west as from the east, the only town on the Reservation, lies at the feet of the figure and is home to most of the Reservations population. As the Reservation capital, Towaoc is the Ute Mountain Ute tribal headquarters, the largest town in the area with a population of over 8000, lies outside the reservation 11.5 miles miles east-northeast of Ute Peak. The elevation of Cortez is 6,200 feet and can be considered the base elevation of the Ute Mountains, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park adjoins Mesa Verde National Park to the east of the mountains.
The western boundary of Mesa Verde National Park is 12 miles east of Ute Peak, the Mesa and the Sleeping Ute share equal prominence as regional landmarks. McElmo Creek and Canyon Of The Ancients National Monument form the terminus of the Ute Mountains
Navajo Mountain is a peak in San Juan County, with its southern flank extending into Coconino County, Arizona. It holds an important place in the traditions of three local Native American tribes, the summit is the highest point on the Navajo Nation. Navajo Mountain is a prominent free-standing laccolith, a body of igneous rock that intruded into sedimentary layers. The igneous rock at the core of the mountain is wrapped in sedimentary layers, such igneous intrusions have been exposed by erosion and well studied in similar mountain ranges on the Colorado Plateau, such as the Henry Mountains, the Abajo Mountains, and the La Sal Range. The Colorado Plateau is made of mostly flat-lying layers of rock that record paleoclimate extremes ranging from oceans to widespread deserts over the last 1.8 billion years. The peak of Navajo Mountain, at approximately 10,388 feet, is made up of uplifted Dakota Sandstone deposited during the Cretaceous Period, the Navajo Mountain region has special cultural significance to the Navajo people, who know it as Naatsisʼáán.
Together with Rainbow Bridge to the northwest, Navajo Mountain figures prominently as the first settlement area in western Navajo origin stories, following the military defeat of the Diné by United States forces in 1863, the political landscape was changed by new boundaries and major physical alterations. The establishment of Rainbow Bridge National Monument, and the filling of Glen Canyon by Lake Powell in 1963, has facilitated tourism of this remote region. Access to Navajo Mountain is still regulated by the sovereign Navajo Nation, climbing the mountain itself is forbidden. Before becoming part of the Navajo Nation, the area was inhabited by the Anasazi and their descendants, the Hopi, call Navajo Mountain Tokonave, or Heart of the Earth. Ruins in the area of Navajo Mountain are still associated with certain Hopi clans. The Navajo Mountain beardtongue is a rare plant limited mainly to the upper slopes of Navajo Mountain
Mount Peale is the highest point in the La Sal Mountains of San Juan County, in the southeastern part of Utah, United States. It is the highest point in Utah outside the Uinta Mountains and it is located about 20 mi southeast of Moab. The summit is the highest point in the Manti-La Sal National Forest, Mount Peale was named for Albert Peale, a mineralogist on the Hayden Survey of 1875. The La Sal Mountains sit on the arid Colorado Plateau, near such famous landmarks as Canyonlands National Park. However, due to their height, the La Sals are heavily forested, Mount Peale can be seen on a clear day from the Wasatch Plateau of central Utah, near Orangeville, over 115 miles away. Mount Peale can be accessed from various directions, but is most commonly climbed from the area of La Sal Pass,10,125 ft, La Sal Pass is accessed from the southeast via a graded gravel road. From the pass the summit is obtained by a short but steep off-trail hike of about 2.5 mi with about 2,600 ft of elevation gain, the route often involves some travel on snow, even in summer.
List of Ultras of the United States Media related to Mount Peale at Wikimedia Commons
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals. It is not a mineral in its own right, but the name is used as a general or field term. Hornblende is a mixture of three molecules, a calcium-iron-magnesium silicate, an aluminium-iron-magnesium silicate, and an iron-magnesium silicate. The general formula can be given as 2–358O222, some metals vary in their occurrence and magnitude and titanium are often present. Sodium and potassium are present and fluorine often substitutes for the hydroxyl in the crystalline structure. Hornblende has a hardness of 5–6, a gravity of 2. 9–3.4 and is typically an opaque green. Its cleavage angles are at 56 and 124 degrees and it is most often confused with various pyroxene minerals and biotite mica, which are black and can be found in granite and in charnockite. Hornblende is a constituent of many igneous and metamorphic rocks such as granite, diorite, basalt, gneiss. It is the mineral of amphibolites. Very dark brown to black hornblendes that contain titanium are ordinarily called basaltic hornblende, from the fact that they are usually a constituent of basalt, hornblende alters easily to chlorite and epidote.
A rare variety of hornblende contains less than 5% of iron oxide, is gray to white in color, and named edenite, from its locality in Edenville, Orange County, New York. List of minerals Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Klein, Cornelis,1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p 416-7, ISBN 0-471-80580-7 Scandinavian mineral gallery retrieved 06/21/05
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate minerals within the feldspar group. Rather than referring to a mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a continuous solid solution series. This was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel in 1826, the series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers, where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the minerals crystal lattice structure. Plagioclase in hand samples is often identified by its polysynthetic crystal twinning or record-groove effect, plagioclase is a major constituent mineral in the Earths crust, and is consequently an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying the composition and evolution of igneous rocks. Plagioclase is a constituent of rock in the highlands of the Earths moon. Analysis of thermal emission spectra from the surface of Mars suggests that plagioclase is the most abundant mineral in the crust of Mars, the extinction angle is an optical characteristic and varies with the albite fraction.
There are several named plagioclase feldspars that fall between albite and anorthite in the series, the following table shows their compositions in terms of constituent anorthite and albite percentages. Anorthite was named by Gustav Rose in 1823 from the Ancient Greek meaning oblique, anorthite is a comparatively rare mineral but occurs in the basic plutonic rocks of some orogenic calc-alkaline suites. Albite is named from the Latin albus, in reference to its pure white color. It is a common and important rock-making mineral associated with the more acid rock types and in pegmatite dikes, often with rarer minerals like tourmaline. The intermediate members of the group are very similar to each other. Bytownite, named after the name for Ottawa, Canada, is a rare mineral occasionally found in more basic rocks. Labradorite is the characteristic feldspar of the basic rock types such as diorite, andesite. Labradorite frequently shows an iridescent display of colors due to light refracting within the lamellae of the crystal and it is named after Labrador, where it is a constituent of the intrusive igneous rock anorthosite which is composed almost entirely of plagioclase.
A variety of known as spectrolite is found in Finland. Andesine is a mineral of rocks such as diorite which contain a moderate amount of silica. Oligoclase is common in granite, syenite and gneiss and it is a frequent associate of orthoclase. The name oligoclase is derived from the Greek for little and fracture, sunstone is mainly oligoclase with flakes of hematite
The province covers an area of 337,000 km2 within western Colorado, northwestern New Mexico and eastern Utah, and northern Arizona. About 90% of the area is drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries, the Green, San Juan. Most of the remainder of the plateau is drained by the Rio Grande, the Colorado Plateau is largely made up of high desert, with scattered areas of forests. In the southwest corner of the Colorado Plateau lies the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, much of the Plateaus landscape is related, in both appearance and geologic history, to the Grand Canyon. The nickname Red Rock Country suggests the brightly colored rock left bare to the view by dryness, hoodoos, reefs, river narrows, natural bridges, and slot canyons are only some of the additional features typical of the Plateau. The Colorado Plateau has the greatest concentration of U. S. National Park Service units in the country outside of the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Among its ten National Parks are Grand Canyon, Glen Canyon, Bryce Canyon, Capitol Reef, Arches, Mesa Verde, and Petrified Forest.
The province is bounded by the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, and by the Uinta Mountains and Wasatch Mountains branches of the Rockies in northern and it is bounded by the Rio Grande Rift, Mogollon Rim and the Basin and Range Province. Isolated ranges of the Southern Rocky Mountains such as the San Juan Mountains in Colorado, north-south trending normal faults that include the Hurricane, Grand Wash, and Paunsaugunt separate the sections component plateaus. This fault pattern is caused by the forces pulling apart the adjacent Basin and Range province to the west. Occupying the southeast corner of the Colorado Plateau is the Datil Section, thick sequences of mid-Tertiary to late-Cenozoic-aged lava covers this section. Development of the province has in part been influenced by structural features in its oldest rocks. Part of the Wasatch Line and its various faults form the edge of the province. Faults that run parallel to the Wasatch Fault that lies along the Wasatch Range form the boundaries between the plateaus in the High Plateaus Section, the Uinta Basin, Uncompahgre Uplift, and the Paradox Basin were created by movement along structural weaknesses in the regions oldest rock.
Some sources include the Tushar Mountain Plateau as part of the Colorado Plateau, the mostly flat-lying sedimentary rock units that make up these plateaus are found in component plateaus that are between 1500 m to over 3350 m above sea level. A supersequence of these rocks is exposed in the various cliffs, within these rocks are abundant mineral resources that include uranium, coal and natural gas. Study of the unusually clear geologic history has greatly advanced that science. A rain shadow from the Sierra Nevada far to the west, higher areas receive more precipitation and are covered in forests of pine and spruce
Igneous rock, or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava, the magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks and metamorphic rocks make up 90–95% of the top 16 km of the Earths crust by volume. Igneous rocks form about 15% of the Earths current land surface, most of the Earths oceanic crust is made of igneous rock. In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either intrusive or extrusive, the mineral grains in such rocks can generally be identified with the naked eye.
Intrusive rocks can be classified according to the shape and size of the intrusive body, typical intrusive formations are batholiths, laccoliths and dikes. When the magma solidifies within the earths crust, it cools slowly forming coarse textured rocks, such as granite, the central cores of major mountain ranges consist of intrusive igneous rocks, usually granite. When exposed by erosion, these cores may occupy huge areas of the Earths surface, intrusive igneous rocks that form at depth within the crust are termed plutonic rocks and are usually coarse-grained. Intrusive igneous rocks that form near the surface are termed subvolcanic or hypabyssal rocks, hypabyssal rocks are less common than plutonic or volcanic rocks and often form dikes, laccoliths, lopoliths, or phacoliths. Extrusive igneous rocks, known as rocks, are formed at the crusts surface as a result of the partial melting of rocks within the mantle. Extrusive igneous rocks cool and solidify quicker than intrusive igneous rocks and they are formed by the cooling of molten magma on the earths surface.
The magma, which is brought to the surface through fissures or volcanic eruptions, hence such rocks are smooth and fine-grained. Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock and forms lava flows, lava sheets. Some kinds of basalt solidify to form long polygonal columns, the Giants Causeway in Antrim, Northern Ireland is an example. The molten rock, with or without suspended crystals and gas bubbles, is called magma and it rises because it is less dense than the rock from which it was created. When magma reaches the surface from beneath water or air, it is called lava, eruptions of volcanoes into air are termed subaerial, whereas those occurring underneath the ocean are termed submarine. Black smokers and mid-ocean ridge basalt are examples of volcanic activity
Grand County, Utah
Grand County is a county located in the U. S. state of Utah. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,225 and its county seat and largest city is Moab. The county was named for the Colorado River, which at the time of statehood was known as the Grand River and it is west from the Colorado state line. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,684 square miles. The Green River forms the boundary and Colorado lies on the eastern boundary. The Colorado River flows through the southeast corner, deserts and plateaus make up the scenery, with few settlements apart from the city of Moab, a Colorado River oasis. Arches National Park lies in the part of the county. Also, the northernmost extension of Canyonlands National Park lies in the southwest corner of the county, the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 4,062 housing units at a density of 1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92. 65% White,0. 25% Black or African American,3. 85% Native American,0.
22% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,1. 66% from other races, and 1. 32% from two or more races. 5. 55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,29. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was out with 26. 90% under the age of 18,8. 20% from 18 to 24,27. 90% from 25 to 44,24. 50% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males, the median income for a household in the county was $32,387, and the median income for a family was $39,095. Males had an income of $31,000 versus $21,769 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,356, about 10. 90% of families and 14. 80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21. 20% of those under age 18 and 8. 40% of those age 65 or over. While most of Utah is deeply Republican, Grand County has become a county in recent years
Manti-La Sal National Forest
The Manti-La Sal National Forest covers more than 1.2 million acres and is located in the central and southeastern parts of the U. S. state of Utah and the extreme western part of Colorado. The forest is headquartered in Price, with district offices in Price, Ephraim, Moab. The maximum elevation is Mount Peale in the La Sal Mountains, the La Sals are the second highest mountain range in Utah after the Uintas. Parts of the forest are included in the Bears Ears National Monument, the La Sal Mountain loop road leads from Castle Valley to Geyser Pass and back down to Moab. Scenic Oowah Lake can be found within the forest. In descending order of area, the forest is located in parts of San Juan, Emery, Grand and Sevier counties in Utah, as well as Montrose. Forest headquarters is located in Price, District offices are located in Ephraim, Moab and Price. The forest was established as the Manti Forest Reserve by the General Land Office on May 29,1903 with 584,640 acres. On July 1,1915 Nebo National Forest was added, on August 28,1950 the name became Manti-La Sal National Forest.
Manti La Sal National Forest is very popular for recreation, the northern district on the Wasatch Plateau is well known for the Skyline Drive, an unpaved road tracing along the backbone of the plateau. There is an extensive ATV trail system in the forest there, the Moab District in the La Sal Mountains contains excellent hiking, as well as spectacular views over the desert regions of Canyonlands National Park and Arches National Park. The Monticello District is home the Manti La Sal National Forests only wilderness area, the Dark Canyon Wilderness, list of U. S. national forests Dark Canyon Wilderness Manti La Sal National Forest
A laccolith is a sheet intrusion that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock. The pressure of the magma is high enough that the strata are forced upward. Laccoliths tend to form at shallow depths and are typically formed by relatively viscous magmas, such as those that crystallize to diorite, granodiorite. Cooling underground takes place slowly, giving time for crystals to form in the cooling magma. The surface rock above laccoliths often erodes away completely, leaving the mound of igneous rock. The term was first applied as laccolite by Grove Karl Gilbert after his study of intrusions of diorite in the Henry Mountains of Utah in about 1875, horizontal sheeted intrusions were fed by vertical intrusions. It is often difficult to reconstruct shapes of intrusions, for instance, Devils Tower in Wyoming was thought to be a volcanic neck, but study has revealed it to be an eroded laccolith. The rock would have had to very slowly so as to form the slender pencil-shaped columns of phonolite porphyry seen today.
At other localities, such as in the Henry Mountains and other isolated mountain ranges of the Colorado Plateau, the small Barber Hill syenite-stock laccolith in Charlotte, has several volcanic trachyte dikes associated with it. Molybdenite is visible in outcrops on this exposed laccolith, in Big Bend Ranch State Park, at the southwesternmost visible extent of the Ouachita orogeny, lies the Solitario. One of the largest laccoliths in the United States is Pine Valley Mountain in the Pine Valley Mountain Wilderness area near St. George, there are many examples of possible laccoliths on the surface of the Moon. These igneous features may be confused with impact cratering
Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock composed principally of the silicate minerals plagioclase feldspar, hornblende, and/or pyroxene. The chemical composition of diorite is intermediate, between that of gabbro and felsic granite. Diorite is usually grey to dark-grey in colour, but it can be black or bluish-grey and it is distinguished from gabbro on the basis of the composition of the plagioclase species, the plagioclase in diorite is richer in sodium and poorer in calcium. Diorite may contain small amounts of quartz and olivine, apatite, magnetite and sulfides occur as accessory minerals. Minor amounts of muscovite may be present, varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. When olivine and more iron-rich augite are present, the grades into ferrodiorite. The presence of significant quartz makes the rock type quartz-diorite or tonalite, and if orthoclase is present at greater than 10 percent, a dioritic rock containing feldspathoid mineral/s and no quartz is termed foid-bearing diorite or foid diorite according to content.
Diorite has a phaneritic, often speckled, texture of coarse grain size and is occasionally porphyritic, orbicular diorite shows alternating concentric growth bands of plagioclase and amphibole surrounding a nucleus, within a diorite porphyry matrix. Diorites may be associated with granite or gabbro intrusions, into which they may subtly merge. Diorite results from the melting of a mafic rock above a subduction zone. It is commonly produced in volcanic arcs, and in mountain building, such as in the Andes Mountains. The extrusive volcanic equivalent rock type is andesite, diorite is an extremely hard rock, making it difficult to carve grand work with. It is so hard that ancient civilizations used diorite balls to work granite and its hardness, allows it to be worked finely and take a high polish, and to provide a durable finished work. One comparatively frequent use of diorite was for inscription, as it is easier to carve in relief than in three-dimensional statuary, perhaps the most famous diorite work extant is the Code of Hammurabi, inscribed upon a 2.23 m pillar of black diorite.
The original can be today in Paris Musée du Louvre. The use of diorite in art was most important among very early Middle Eastern civilizations such as Ancient Egypt, Babylonia and Sumer. It was so valued in early times that the first great Mesopotamian empire—the Empire of Sargon of Akkad—listed the taking of diorite as a purpose of military expeditions. Although one can find diorite art from periods, it more popular as a structural stone and was frequently used as pavement due to its durability