Parricide is defined as: The act of killing one's father, or less one's mother or some other close relative, but not children. The act of killing a person who stands in a relationship resembling that of a father A person who commits such an act A related adjective Tullia the Younger, along with her husband, arranged the murder and overthrow of her father, securing the throne for her husband. Lucius Hostius was the first patricide in Rome, sometime after the Second Punic War. Mary Blandy poisoned her father, Francis Blandy, with arsenic in England in 1751. Lizzie Borden was an American woman acquitted of murdering her father and stepmother. Lyle and Erik Menendez were convicted in 1994 for the 1989 shotgun murders of their wealthy parents, entertainment executive José Menéndez and his wife Mary; the Criminal Code of Japan once determined that patricide brought capital punishment or life imprisonment. However, the law was abolished because of the trial of the Tochigi patricide case in which a woman killed her father in 1968 after she was sexually abused by him and bore their children.
In the sixth century CE collection of earlier juristical sayings, the Digest, a precise enumeration of the victims' possible relations to the parricide is given by the 3rd century CE lawyer Modestinus: By the lex Pompeia on parricides it is laid down that if anyone kills his father, his mother, his grandfather, his grandmother, his brother, his sister, first cousin on his father's side, first cousin on his mother's side, paternal or maternal uncle, paternal aunt, first cousin by mother's sister, husband, father-in-law, son-in-law, mother-in-law, stepson, patron, or patroness, or with malicious intent brings this about, shall be liable to the same penalty as that of the lex Cornelia on murderers. And a mother who kills her son or daughter suffers the penalty of the same statute, as does a grandfather who kills a grandson. Avunculicide, the killing of one's uncle Filicide, the killing of one's child Fratricide, the killing of one's brother Mariticide, the killing of one's husband Nepoticide, the killing of one's nephew Patricide, the killing of one's father Matricide, the killing of one's mother Prolicide, the killing of one's offspring Sororicide, the killing of one's sister Uxoricide, the killing of one's wife Dictionary.com entry for parricide Pendulum Foundation: Parricide Facts
Eastern State Penitentiary
The Eastern State Penitentiary known as ESP, is a former American prison in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is located at 2027 Fairmount Avenue between Corinthian Avenue and North 22nd Street in the Fairmount section of the city, was operational from 1829 until 1971; the penitentiary refined the revolutionary system of separate incarceration first pioneered at the Walnut Street Jail which emphasized principles of reform rather than punishment. Notorious criminals such as Al Capone and bank robber Willie Sutton were held inside its innovative wagon wheel design. James Bruno and several male relatives were incarcerated here between 1936 and 1948 for the alleged murders in the Kelayres massacre of 1934, before they were paroled. At its completion, the building was the largest and most expensive public structure erected in the United States, became a model for more than 300 prisons worldwide; the prison is a U. S. National Historic Landmark, open to the public as a museum for tours seven days a week, twelve months a year, 10 am to 5 pm.
Designed by John Haviland and opened on October 25, 1829, Eastern State is considered to be the world's first true penitentiary. Eastern State's revolutionary system of incarceration, dubbed the "Pennsylvania system" or separate system, encouraged separate confinement as a form of rehabilitation; the warden was required to visit every inmate every day, the overseers were mandated to see each inmate three times a day. The Pennsylvania System was opposed contemporaneously by the Auburn system, which held that prisoners should be forced to work together in silence, could be subjected to physical punishment. Although the Auburn system was favored in the United States, Eastern State's radial floor plan and system of solitary confinement was the model for over 300 prisons worldwide. Inmates were housed in cells that could only be accessed by entering through a small exercise yard attached to the back of the prison; this design proved impractical, in the middle of construction, cells were constructed that allowed prisoners to enter and leave the cell blocks through metal doors that were covered by a heavy wooden door to filter out noise.
The halls were designed to have the feel of a church. Some believe that the doors were small so prisoners would have a harder time getting out, minimizing an attack on a security guard. Others have explained the small doors forced the prisoners to bow; this design is related to penance and ties to the religious inspiration of the prison. The cells were made of concrete with a single glass skylight, representing the "Eye of God", suggesting to the prisoners that God was always watching them. Outside the cell was an individual area for exercise, enclosed by high walls so prisoners could not communicate. Exercise time for each prisoner was synchronized so no two prisoners next to each other would be out at the same time. Prisoners were allowed to garden and keep pets in their exercise yards; when a prisoner left his cell, an accompanying guard would wrap a hood over his head to prevent him from being recognized by other prisoners. Cell accommodations were advanced for their time, including a faucet with running water over a flush toilet, as well as curved pipes along part of one wall which served as central heating during the winter months where hot water would be run through the pipes to keep the cells reasonably heated.
Toilets were remotely flushed twice a week by the guards of the cellblock. The original design of the building was for seven one-story cell blocks, but by the time cell block three was completed, the prison was over capacity. All subsequent cell blocks had two floors. Toward the end, cell blocks 14 and 15 were hastily built due to overcrowding, they were designed by prisoners. Cell block 15 was for the worst behaved prisoners, the guards were gated off from there entirely. Inmates were punished with the "individual-treatment system." At the time this form of punishment was thought to be most effective. They would be separated from others. In 1924, Pennsylvania Governor Gifford Pinchot sentenced Pep "The Cat-Murdering Dog" to a life sentence at Eastern State. Pep murdered the governor's wife's cherished cat. Prison records reflect that Pep was assigned an inmate number, seen in his mug shot. However, the reason for Pep's incarceration remains a subject of some debate. A contemporary newspaper article reported that the governor donated his own dog to the prison to increase inmate morale.
On April 3, 1945, a major escape was carried out by twelve inmates, who over the course of a year managed to dig an undiscovered 97-foot tunnel under the prison wall. During renovations in the 1930s an additional 30 incomplete inmate-dug tunnels were discovered, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965. The prison was closed in 1971. Many prisoners and guards were transferred to Graterford Prison, about 31 miles northwest of Eastern State; the City of Philadelphia purchased the property with the intention of redeveloping it. The site had several proposals, including a mall and a luxury apartment complex surrounded by the old prison walls. During the abandoned era a "forest" grew in outside within the walls; the prison became home to many stray cats. In 1988, the Eastern State Penitentiary Task Force petitioned Mayor Wilson Goode to halt redevelopment. In 1994, Eastern State opened to the public for historic tours; the solitary confinement s
Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno was a Panamanian politician and military officer, the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989. He had longstanding ties to United States intelligence agencies. S. invasion of Panama. Born in Panama City to a poor mestizo family, Noriega studied at the Chorrillos Military School in Lima and at the School of the Americas, he became an officer in the Panamanian army, rose through the ranks in alliance with Omar Torrijos. In 1968, Torrijos overthrew President Arnulfo Arias in a coup. After Torrijos' death in 1981, Noriega consolidated his power to become Panama's de facto ruler in 1983. From the 1950s until shortly before the U. S. invasion, Noriega worked with U. S. intelligence agencies. Noriega was one of the Central Intelligence Agency's most valued intelligence sources, as well as one of the primary conduits for illicit weapons, military equipment and cash destined for U. S.-backed counter-insurgency forces throughout Latin America. The U. S. regarded Noriega as an ally in its War on Drugs, despite Noriega himself having amassed a personal fortune through drug trafficking operations.
Though his U. S. intelligence handlers were aware of this, it was allowed because of his usefulness to the U. S. Noriega relied upon military nationalism to maintain his support, did not espouse a specific social or economic ideology. In 1988, Noriega was indicted by federal grand juries in Miami and Tampa on charges of racketeering, drug smuggling, money laundering. Following the 1989 United States invasion of Panama, he was captured and flown to the United States, where he was tried on the Miami indictment; the trial, lasting from September 1991 to April 1992, ended with Noriega's conviction on most of the charges. He was sentenced to 40 years in prison, served 17 years after a reduction in his sentence and time off for good behavior. Noriega's U. S. prison sentence ended in September 2007. In 2010, Noriega was extradited to France, where he was sentenced to seven years of imprisonment for money laundering. In 2011 France extradited him to Panama, where he was incarcerated for crimes committed during his rule.
Diagnosed with a brain tumor in March 2017, Noriega suffered complications during surgery, died two months later. Described as a military dictatorship, Noriega's rule in Panama was marked by repression of the media, an expansion of the military, the persecution of political opponents controlling the outcomes of any elections, he was known for his complicated relationship with the U. S. being described as being its ally and nemesis at the same time. He has been called one of the best-known dictators of his time, compared to authoritarian rulers such as Muammar Gaddafi and Augusto Pinochet. Noriega was born in Panama City, into a poor mestizo, or mixed-race, family with Native American and Spanish heritage. Noriega's mother has been variously described as a cook or a laundress, while his father, Ricaurte Noriega, was an accountant. Neither had a lengthy presence in his life: his mother died of tuberculosis when he was still a child. Noriega was brought up by a godmother in a one-room apartment in the slum area of Terraplén.
Authors and journalists have suggested that Noriega was in fact the illegitimate son of his father and his father's domestic worker, whose family name was Moreno. Noriega was educated first at the Escuela República de México, at the Instituto Nacional, a well-regarded high school in Panama City that had produced a number of nationalist political leaders, he was described as an "oddly serious child," a bookish student always neatly dressed by his punctilious godmother. During his time in the Instituto Nacional he met his older brother Luis, a socialist activist and a student at the school: Manuel had not met his siblings. Manuel began living with Luis, who introduced him to politics, including recruiting him into the Socialist Party's youth wing. During his time in the Socialist youth group, Noriega took part in protests and authored articles criticizing the U. S. presence in Panama. He is reported to have begun his association with the U. S. intelligence services at this time, providing information about the activities of his comrades.
He continued to work with the U. S. intelligence services at various points till the 1980s: a $10.70 payment in 1955 was the first of many payments he would receive from the U. S. for his activities. Noriega harbored intentions of becoming a doctor, but was unable to secure a place in the University of Panama's medical school. After graduating from the Instituto Nacional, Noriega won a scholarship to Chorrillos Military School in the Peruvian capital of Lima, with the help of Luis, who had by received a position in the Panamanian embassy in Peru. While in Peru he made the acquaintance of Roberto Díaz Herrera, who became a close ally. Noriega married Felicidad Sieiro de Noriega, whom he had met in the 1960s, the couple had three daughters: Lorena. Siero had been a school teacher, Noriega a member of the National Guard, her family, of Basque heritage, was reported to have been unhappy with the marriage. Noriega was unfaithful to his wife, who at one point expressed a desire for a divorce, though she changed her mind later.
Noriega graduated from Chorrillos in 1962 with a specialization in engineering. He joined the Panama National Guard. Posted to Colón, he was given a commission as a second lieutenant in September 1962, his commanding officer in Colón was Omar Torrijos a Major in the National Guard. Torrijos b
Poissy is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of 23.8 km from the centre of Paris. In 1561 it was the site of the Colloquy of Poissy, it is known for hosting successively the Automobiles Gregoire, Ford SAF, Chrysler, Talbot factories, now hosts one of France's largest Peugeot factories. Inhabitants are called Pisciacais; the "Simca Poissy engine" was made here. Poissy is served by Poissy station on Paris RER line A and on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. Automobile: PSA Peugeot Citroën Wagon Automotive Mahle Aftermarket Faurecia Siemens VDO Automotive Rochas now Fareva Environnement SA Transport and logistics: GEFCO Elidis KDI Promet Trapil Wattelez Casino cafétéria Groupe Derichebourg, Le Technoparc is a Business Park created in 1990, with the intention to facilitate the economic diversification of the city, it occupies about 66 acres on the northeast of PSA Peugeot Citroën factory, bordering the neighbouring commune Achères.
The Park welcomes 150 companies employing a total of 2,000 employees. It hosts The Charles-de-Gaulle High School and The Training Centre for the Employees in Pharmacy gathering 1,500 high school students and students. Two business incubator, a heliport, the Chamber of Commerce of Yvelines-Val d'Oise, two hotels, a sports centre and a municipal technical centre are located there. Villa Savoye, considered by many to be the seminal work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier; the "Noyau de Poissy" is a liquor based on macerated or distilled apricot pits, a local tradition since early 18th century. Musée du jouet, shows 800 games and toys dating between 1850 and 1950. Musée d'art et d'histoire. La salle Molière. La Porteuse de pain. Public secondary schools: Collège les Grands-Champs SEGPA les Grands-Champs Collège Jean Jaurès Lycée Adrienne Bolland Lycée Charles de Gaulle Collège et Lycée Le CorbusierPrivate elementary schools: Institution Notre-Dame preschool and elementary school Poissy is twinned with: Pirmasens, Rhineland-Palatinate, since 1964.
Saint Louis, king of France Guillaume Lasceux and organist Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, painter and mayor of Poissy Félix Févola, sculptor Ibrahim Diaw, handball player Florent Groberg, U. S. Army Medal of Honor recipient Matteo Guendouzi footballer Nimetigna Keita handball player Catherine Lara, singer born in 1945 Houssine Kharja, Moroccan football player born in 1982 Benjamin Franklin resided in Poissy for a time while Envoy to France during the American Revolutionary War Jérôme Phojo, footballer Fabien Raddas, footballer Yohann Sangare, basketball player Skatepark The golf of Béthemont Stadium Léo-Lagrange, built in 1945 Swimming pool des Migneaux and swimming pool Saint-Exupéry AS Poissy Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE Poissy website Collegiale de Poissy — the birth city of Saint Louis
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.
Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.
Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.
The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.
The 14th century brought the Black Death and t
Joseph Athanase Doumerc known as Paul Doumer, was the President of France from 13 June 1931 until his assassination on 7 May 1932. Joseph Athanase Doumerc was born in Aurillac, in the Cantal département, in France on 22 March 1857. Alumnus of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, he became a professor of mathematics at Mende in 1877. In 1878 Doumer married Blanche Richel, they had eight children. From 1879 until 1883 Doumer was professor at Remiremont, before leaving on health grounds, he became chief editor of Courrier de l'Aisne, a French regional newspaper. Initiated into Freemasonry in 1879, at "L'Union Fraternelle" lodge, he became Grand Secretary of Grand Orient de France in 1892, he made his debut in politics as chef de cabinet to Charles Floquet, when Floquet was president of the chamber in 1885. In 1888, Doumer was elected Radical deputy for the department of Aisne. Defeated in the general elections of September 1889, he was elected again in 1890 by the arrondissement of Auxerre.
He was Minister of Finance of France when he tried without success to introduce an income tax. Doumer was Governor-General of French Indochina from 1897 to 1902. Upon his arrival the colonies were losing millions of francs each year. Determined to put them on a paying basis he levied taxes on opium and the salt trade; the Vietnamese and Laotians who could or would not pay these taxes, lost their houses and land, became day laborers. He established Indochina as a market for French products and a source of profitable investment by French businessmen. Doumer set about outfitting Indochina Hanoi, the capital, with modern infrastructure befitting property of France. Tree-lined avenues and a large number of French Colonial buildings were constructed in Hanoi during his governance; the Long Bien Bridge and the Grand Palais in Hanoi were among large-scaled projects built during his term. The palace was destroyed by airstrikes toward the end of World War 2; the bridge became a well-known landmark and target for US pilots during the Vietnam War.
After returning from French Indochina, Doumer was elected by Laon to the chamber as a Radical. He refused, however, to support the ministry of Émile Combes, formed a Radical dissident group, which grew in strength and caused the fall of the ministry, he served as President of the Chamber of Deputies from 1902 to 1905. Doumer became Minister of Finance of France again in 1925, he served as President of the French Senate from 1927 until the 1931 presidential election. He was elected President of the French Republic on 13 May 1931, defeating the better known Aristide Briand, replacing Gaston Doumergue. On 6 May 1932, Paul Doumer was in Paris at the opening of a book fair at the Hôtel Salomon de Rothschild, talking to the author Claude Farrère. Several shots were fired by Paul Gorguloff, a mentally unstable Russian émigré. Two of the shots hit Doumer, at the base of the skull and in the right armpit, he fell to the ground. Claude Farrère wrestled with the assassin. Doumer was rushed to hospital in Paris.
He is the only French president to die of a gunshot wound. As an author he is known by his L'Indo-Chine française, Le Livre de mes fils. List of Finance Ministers of France Politics of France Newspaper clippings about Paul Doumer in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics