Barbian is a comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 15 kilometres northeast of Bolzano. As of 30 November 2010, it had a population of 1,601 and an area of 24.4 square kilometres. Barbian borders the following municipalities: Kastelruth, Waidbruck and Villanders; the municipality of Barbian contains St. Gertraud, Saubach; the city is mentioned for the first time in 994 as Parpian, the name deriving from the Latin personal name Barbius, a name attested in Venetic inscriptions from the Roman era. The shield is tierced per fess in argent and sable. In the second level are represented three churches: St. Nicholas, St. Gertrude and St. Magdalene, which are located in the mountains above the village; the sable bottom is crossed by a thin band of argent and gules, symbolizing the customs bar of the village of Kollmann sited in the municipality. The arms were granted in 1970. According to the 2011 census, 97.53% of the population speak German, 1.87% Italian and 0.60% Ladin as first language.
Media related to Barbian at Wikimedia Commons Homepage of the municipality
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the Province of Trento known as Trentino, the Province of Bolzano known as South Tyrol. From the 9th century until its annexation by Italy in 1919, the region was part of Austria-Hungary and its predecessors, the Austrian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. Together with the Austrian state of Tyrol it is represented by the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino. With a past of poverty, the region is today among the wealthiest and most developed in both Italy and the whole European Union. In English, the region is known as Trentino-South Tyrol or by its Italian name; the region was conquered by the Romans in 15 BC. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, it was divided between the invading Germanic tribes in the Lombard Duchy of Tridentum, the Alamannic Vinschgau, the Bavarians. After the creation of the Kingdom of Italy under Charlemagne, the Marquisate of Verona included the areas south of Bolzano, while the Duchy of Bavaria received the remaining part.
From the 11th century onwards, part of the region was governed by the prince-bishops of Trent and Brixen, to whom the Holy Roman Emperors had given extensive temporal powers over their bishoprics. Soon, they were overruled by the Counts of Tyrol and Counts of Görz, who controlled the Puster Valley: in 1363 its last titular, Countess of Tyrol ceded the region to the House of Habsburg; the regions north of Salorno were Germanized in the early Middle Ages, important German poets like Arbeo of Freising and Oswald von Wolkenstein were born and lived in the southern part of Tyrol. The two bishoprics were given to the Habsburgs. Two years following the Austrian defeat at Austerlitz, the region was given to Napoleon's ally Bavaria; the new rulers provoked a popular rebellion in 1809, led by Andreas Hofer, a landlord from St. Leonhard in Passeier; the resulting Treaty of Paris of February 1810 split the area between Austria and the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. During French control of the region, it was called Haut Adige in order to avoid any reference to the historical County of Tyrol.
After Napoleon's defeat, in 1815, the region returned to Austria. Under Austrian rule the territory of today's province of South Tyrol was called südliches Tirol or Deutschsüdtirol, but was also referred to as Mitteltirol, i.e. Middle Tyrol, due to its geographic position, while Südtirol, i.e. South Tyrol, indicated today's province of Trentino. Trentino was called Welschtirol or Welschsüdtirol. Sometimes Südtirol indicated the whole of the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region. During the First World War, major battles were fought high in the Alps and Dolomites between Austro-Hungarian Kaiserjäger and Italian Alpini, for whom control of the region was a key strategic objective; the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian war effort enabled Italian troops to occupy the region in 1918 and its annexation was confirmed in the post-war treaties, which awarded the region to Italy under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain. Under the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini, the Fascist dictator of Italy, the German population was subjected to an increased forced programme of Italianization: all references to old Tyrol were banned and the region was referred to as Venezia Tridentina between 1919 and 1947, in an attempt to justify the Italian claims to the area by linking the region to one of the Roman Regions of Italy.
Hitler and Mussolini agreed in 1938 that the German-speaking population would be transferred to German-ruled territory or dispersed around Italy, but the outbreak of the Second World War prevented them from carrying out the relocation. Thousands of people were relocated to the Third Reich and only with great difficulties managed to return to their ancestral land after the end of the war. In 1943, when the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies, the region was occupied by Germany, which reorganised it as the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills and put it under the administration of Gauleiter Franz Hofer; the region was de facto annexed to the German Reich until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime and Italian rule was restored in 1945. Italy and Austria negotiated the Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement in 1946, put into effect in 1947 when the new republican Italian constitution was promulgated, that the region would be granted considerable autonomy. German and Italian were both made official languages, German-language education was permitted once more.
The region was called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland between 1947 and 1972. However, the implementation of the agreement was seen as satisfactory by neither the German-speaking population nor the Austrian government; the issue became the cause of significant friction between the two countries and was taken up by the United Nations in 1960. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful because of popular discontent and a campaign of sabotage and bombings by German-speaking autonomists and separatists led by t
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society was renamed the Max Planck Society; the MPS now includes 83 institutions representing a wide range of scientific directions. Planck came from a intellectual family, his paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen. One of his uncles was a judge. Planck was born in Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig, he was baptized with the name of Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck. However, by the age of ten he used this for the rest of his life, he was the 6th child in the family, though two of his siblings were from his father's first marriage.
War was common during Planck's early years and among his earliest memories was the marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into Kiel during the Second Schleswig War in 1864. In 1867 the family moved to Munich, Planck enrolled in the Maximilians gymnasium school, where he came under the tutelage of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in the youth, taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics, it was from Müller. Planck graduated early, at age 17; this is. Planck was gifted, he took singing lessons and played piano and cello, composed songs and operas. However, instead of music he chose to study physics; the Munich physics professor Philipp von Jolly advised Planck against going into physics, saying, "in this field everything is discovered, all that remains is to fill a few holes." Planck replied that he did not wish to discover new things, but only to understand the known fundamentals of the field, so began his studies in 1874 at the University of Munich. Under Jolly's supervision, Planck performed the only experiments of his scientific career, studying the diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum, but transferred to theoretical physics.
In 1877 he went to the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass. He wrote that Helmholtz was never quite prepared, spoke miscalculated endlessly, bored his listeners, while Kirchhoff spoke in prepared lectures which were dry and monotonous, he soon became close friends with Helmholtz. While there he undertook a program of self-study of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose thermodynamics as his field. In October 1878 Planck passed his qualifying exams and in February 1879 defended his dissertation, Über den zweiten Hauptsatz der mechanischen Wärmetheorie, he taught mathematics and physics at his former school in Munich. By the year 1880, Planck obtained two highest academic degrees offered in Europe; the first was a doctorate degree after he completed his paper detailing his research and theory of thermodynamics. He presented his thesis called Gleichgewichtszustände isotroper Körper in verschiedenen Temperaturen, which earned him a habilitation.
With the completion of his habilitation thesis, Planck became an unpaid Privatdozent in Munich, waiting until he was offered an academic position. Although he was ignored by the academic community, he furthered his work on the field of heat theory and discovered one after another the same thermodynamical formalism as Gibbs without realizing it. Clausius's ideas on entropy occupied a central role in his work. In April 1885 the University of Kiel appointed Planck as associate professor of theoretical physics. Further work on entropy and its treatment as applied in physical chemistry, followed, he published his Treatise on Thermodynamics in 1897. He proposed a thermodynamic basis for Svante Arrhenius's theory of electrolytic dissociation. In 1889 he was named the successor to Kirchhoff's position at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin – thanks to Helmholtz's intercession – and by 1892 became a full professor. In 1907 Planck turned it down to stay in Berlin. During 1909, as a University of Berlin professor, he was invited to become the Ernest Kempton Adams Lecturer in Theoretical Physics at Columbia University in New York City.
A series of his lectures were translated and co-published by Columbia University professor A. P. Wills, he retired from Berlin on 10 January 1926, was succeeded by Erwin Schrödinger. In March 1887 Planck married Marie Merck, sister of a school fellow, moved with her into a sublet apartment in Kiel, they had four children: Karl, the twins Emma and Grete, Erwin. After the apartment in Berlin, the Planck family lived in a villa in Berlin-Grunewald, Wangenheimstrasse 21. Several other professors from University of Berlin lived nearby, among them theologian Ad
Alta Badia is a ski resort in the Dolomites of northern Italy, in the upper part of the Val Badia in South Tyrol. It is included in the territories of the municipalities of Corvara, La Val. Centered on Corvara, the extended area's lift-served summit elevation is 2,550 m on the Sella group, with an overall vertical drop of 1,226 m to Pedraces; the native language of the majority of the locals is Ladin. Alta Badia is a regular stop on the World Cup schedule by the men in mid-December, its giant slalom course, the classic Gran Risa, is one of the most challenging on the circuit. In December 2012, the course had a vertical drop of 448 m, starting at 1,871 m and finishing at 1,423 m, near La Ila; the race was won by Ted Ligety of the U. S. who won two years earlier. Nearby World Cup venues are Cortina d'Ampezzo to the east. Official website Ski Map.org – Alta Badia
Bruneck (German pronunciation:. Bruneck lies at the confluence of the Ahr with the Rienz. Here the northern Tauferer Ahrntal side valley and the southern Gadertal of the Gran Ega creek join the broad Pustertal; the municipal area stretches from the slopes of the Zillertal Alps in the west to the Rieserferner Group of the High Tauern range in the east. In the south rises the Kronplatz massif, part of the Dolomites, the Bruneck Hausberg with the Messner Mountain Museum Corones building designed by Zaha Hadid on top at an elevation of 2,275 metres and a popular ski area; the Bruneck town centre is located about 35 kilometres west of Brixen and 70 kilometres of the regional capital Bolzano on the road to the Brenner Pass. To the east, the town is 60 kilometres from Winnebach on the border with East Tyrol in Austria. According to the 2011 census, 82.47% of the population speak German, 15.24% Italian and 2.29% Ladin as first language. The town was named after its founder, the Brixen prince-bishop Bruno von Kirchberg, first appeared as Bruneke in a deed issued on 23 February 1256.
At that time, the town consisted of two rows of houses forming a narrow lane. During the turbulent times of the interregnum upon the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250, the prince-bishop had a fortress erected above the town, first mentioned in 1276; the castle was enlarged under Prince-Bishop Albert von Enn, who had the town walls and moat completed until 1336. Soon thereafter, further rows of houses were built outside the eastern gate; these led to the small Church of Our Lady. The first church inside the town walls was built beneath the castle by the Brunecker burgher Niklas von Stuck; this church is today the Rainkirche. In 1358, Heinrich von Stuck, brother of Niklas, funded the hospital/almshouse, built in the following years. Soon the town received the right to impose high justice. A castle leader occupied the fortress as the bishop's representative. In the 14th and 15th centuries, there was brisk trade between Venice; some of the traded goods were brought through the Puster Valley and stored long-term in Bruneck on the Ballplatz.
This soon brought fame. In this time, the Puster Valley painting school was founded by the painter Hans von Bruneck and others; the great masters Michael and Friedrich Pacher studied at this school. In 1500, the Puster Valley was reunited with Tyrol because of a testamentary contract between the house of Habsburg and the counts of Görz-Tirol; the town of Bruneck remained an episcopal possession. In 1610, which had belonged to the parish of St. Lorenzen, became a parish in its own right; the first parish priest documented was Johann Herlin in 1613. In 1626, the Capuchin order came to Bruneck; the Fathers built themselves a monastery at the "Spitalangerle". In 1741, a convent was built by the Ursulines. On 11 April 1723, the worst fire in the town's history occurred. In Oberragen, not far from the church, a fire broke out, soon spread by the strong east wind across a large part of the town destroying it. During the long-lasting Napoleonic Wars the town suffered no material damage, but as a marching station went into great debt because of housing and feeding soldiers and infantrymen for many years.
After World War I, South Tyrol and so Bruneck became part of the Italian State, getting the Italian name. The city was spared damage in World War I, but in World War II the town was bombed, leading to loss of both life and property; the emblem is a tower with a sloping roof, on an embattled wall with the silver gate lifted. The gules tower and the wall are placed on a vert hill with three peaks: the castle was built by Bishop Bruno von Kirchberg in the second half of the 13th century; the castle appeared on the coat of arms for the first time in the second half of the 15th century. The emblem was adopted in 1931. Due to its high elevation, with a mean height of around 830 metres above sea level, the town of Bruneck has a warm-summer humid continental climate, with warm summers and chilly winters in Italian standards, its alpine geography contributes to its weather, as it brings large diurnal temperature variations. After the war, industrial zones and department stores were built, permitting the town considerable economic and geographic growth.
In the 1960s, tourism was important to the town, resulting in the building of numerous new hotels and guest houses. Bruneck is characterized by the service industries. Important tourist centers are found all around Bruneck. Worthy of mention is the ski resort on Kronplatz mountain; as of 22 October 2001, the day of the Italian population and employment census, Bruneck had 10,692 employed persons in 1,678 workplaces, making it the second-largest employer of the province. It lay only just after Brixen. Five companies in the town employ more than 250 people each, five more companies employ more than 100 people each. All year round festivals take place here. For example, the popular Stegener Market at the end of October, the largest market in Tyrol. Hotel Petrus, Skiing & Wellness Hotel at the Kronplatz in Bruneck Hotel Mühlgarten, Fit- & Wellness Hotel at the Kronplatz Bruneck is twinned with: The locality is home to
Italian National Institute of Statistics
The Italian National Institute of Statistics is the main producer of official statistics in Italy. Its activities include the census of population, economic censuses and a number of social and environmental surveys and analyses. Istat is by far the largest producer of statistical information in Italy, is an active member of the European Statistical System, coordinated by Eurostat, its publications are released under creative commons "Attribution" license. Istat was created in 1926 as "Central Institute of Statistics", to collect and organize essential data about the nation, it took its current denomination with the reform of 1989. This gave Istat statutory responsibility for the coordination and standardization of official statistics collected or published under the aegis of the national statistical system SISTAN, whose membership includes the statistical offices of ministries, national agencies, provinces, chambers of commerce, similar bodies. Since 4 August 2009, Enrico Giovannini, former Chief statistician of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has been the President of the institute.
Istituto Centrale di Statistica: Alberto Canaletti Gaudenti Lanfranco Maroi Giuseppe De Meo Guido Maria Rey Istituto Nazionale di Statistica: Guido Maria Rey Alberto Zuliani Luigi Biggeri Enrico Giovannini Antonio Golini Giorgio Alleva Istat has 18 regional offices which host public access points named Centri di informazione statistica, in English Statistical information centers. The center in Rome offers data from Eurostat; the library, established in 1926, is open to the public and contains Istat publications and international works on statistical and socioeconomics subjects, journals from other national statistical institutes and international organizations. The library collection receives about 2800 periodical journals. There are 1500 volumes printed prior to 1900. Official Website SISTAN
San Martin de Tor
San Martin de Tor is a comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 45 kilometres northeast of the city of Bolzano. As of 30 November 2010, it had a population of 1,726 and an area of 76.5 square kilometres. San Martin is home the Istitut Ladin Micurà de Rü, tasked to preserve and promote the Ladin culture and language. San Martin borders the following municipalities: Badia, Corvara, La Val, Lüsen, Santa Cristina Gherdëina, Sëlva and Villnöß; the municipality of San Martin contains the frazioni Antermëia, Lungiarü, Picolin. The shield is party per cross: the first quarter represents an argent tower with azure roof on sable; the third part of vert and the fourth of sable. The tower resumes the insignia of a noble family. According to the 2011 census, 96.71% of the population speak Ladin, 1.82% German and 1.47% Italian as first language. Homepage of the municipality Media related to San Martin de Tor at Wikimedia Commons