Berliner, or "midi", is a newspaper format with pages measuring about 315 by 470 millimetres. The Berliner format is taller and marginally wider than the tabloid/compact format; the Berliner format is an alternative to the broadsheet format. The name refers to the city of Berlin, was contrasted with "North German" and "French" sizes in the early 20th century; the Berliner format is used by many European newspapers, including dailies such as Le Monde in France, Oslobođenje in Bosnia, Le Temps in Switzerland, La Repubblica and La Stampa in Italy, De Morgen, Le Soir and Het Laatste Nieuws in Belgium, Mladá fronta Dnes and Lidové noviny in the Czech Republic, others such as Expresso in Portugal and Jurnalul Național or Evenimentul Zilei in Romania. The French business newspaper Les Échos changed to this format in September 2003, the largest daily papers in Croatia and Montenegro, are in this format. A recent European newspaper to join this trend is Het Financieele Dagblad, the daily Dutch newspaper, focused on business and financial matters on 26 March 2013.
Student publication The University Observer became Ireland's first Berliner-sized paper in September 2009. The Independent in London could not afford to buy new presses. Although the daily Berliner Zeitung is called Berliner, it is not printed in Berliner format. In fact, only two German national dailies use Berliner format: Die Tageszeitung; the majority of the national quality dailies use the larger broadsheet format known as "nordisch", measuring 570 mm × 400 mm. The daily Journal & Courier in Lafayette, Indiana was the first newspaper in North America to be produced in this format, making its debut on 31 July 2006; the Bucks County Herald in Lahaska, followed in 2009, The Chronicle in Laurel, Mississippi, in April 2012, commencing publication at that time. Major papers such as the Chicago Tribune and The Cincinnati Enquirer have tested the format. Since a number of broadsheet newspapers throughout the United States and Canada have adopted a page format similar to Berliner, though some may use a taller page.
In some instances, only the width has changed from the typical broadsheet page, the height has remained the same or close to it. For example, The New York Times used a 22-inch tall by 13.5-inch wide page, but in 2007 downsized to 22 by 12 in. It still refers to itself as a broadsheet though its size is closer to Berliner; the Indian business daily Mint, a collaboration with the Indian media house Hindustan Times Media Limited and The Wall Street Journal, was among the first newspapers to use the Berliner format, starting from 1 February 2007. In Nepal, the Nepali Times became the first and the only newspaper using this format. In Pakistan, the English daily Pakistan Today is published in the Berliner format; the Israeli newspaper Haaretz has been published in this format since 18 February 2007. Though rarely used in Metro Manila, the Berliner is the most popular format in the Philippines. In the Ilocandia, some of the well-known names are the Zigzag Weekly, the Northern Dispatch—commonly called as Nordis—and the Northern Philippine Times.
In the Visayas, the Panay News uses this format. Though not published for commercial purposes, the official publication of the Caritas Manila uses a narrower Berliner format. In March 2009, South Korea's JoongAng Ilbo adopted the Berliner format, becoming the first Korean newspaper to do so. In the same month, Turkey's Gazete Habertürk and Zaman adopted a variation of this format as 350 by 500 mm and become two of the first Turkish newspaper to do so; the format is called Ciner format in Turkey. On 1 June 2012, the UAE's leading English language newspaper, Gulf News, adopted the Berliner format, the first in the Middle East; some South American papers have dubbed the "compact" size as "Berliner". The former size is closer to tabloid; the Buenos Aires Herald, a daily Argentine newspaper founded in 1876, uses the Berliner format, used by La Nueva, a newspaper of the Buenos Aires province. Córdoba newspaper La Voz switched to Berliner from broadsheet in 2016; the Los Tiempos newspaper from Cochabamba releases its editions in Berliner with full color in all pages starting October 2017.
The newspaper was published in broadsheet. Jornal do Brasil, a daily Brazilian newspaper founded in 1891, was published in Berliner from 16 April 2006 until 31 August 2010, when the newspaper ceased to publish its physical issue and transferred all activities to the internet. Only the newsstand edition was in that format, but its success made the format switch extend to the subscriber's edition, which until remained in broadsheet format. In 2008, Salvador-based Correio* switched to Berliner from broadsheet. After being sold by Organizações Globo to J. Hawilla's Grupo Traffic, Diário de S. Paulo, a broadsheet, switched to Berliner, bringing it in line with its sister publications under Rede Bom Dia. In 2003, national newspaper La Tercera switched from tabloid to Berliner. Local papers around Chile have adopte
Catalan nationalism is the ideology asserting that the Catalans are a nation. Intellectually, Catalan nationalism can be said to have commenced as a political philosophy in the unsuccessful attempts to establish a federal state in Spain in the context of the First Republic. Valentí Almirall i Llozer and other intellectuals that participated in this process set up a new political ideology in the 19th century, to restore self-government, as well as to obtain recognition for the Catalan language; these demands were summarized in the so-called Bases de Manresa in 1892. It met little support at first, but after the Spanish–American War in which the United States invaded and annexed the last of the Spanish colonies, these early stages of Catalanism grew in support because of the weakened Spanish international position after the war and the loss of the two main destinations for Catalan exports. Being a broad movement, it can be found in several manifestations in the current political scene. Most of the main Catalan political parties—Catalan European Democratic Party, Republican Left of Catalonia, Socialists' Party of Catalonia, En Comú Podem and Popular Unity Candidature —adhere to Catalanism to varying degrees.
The scope of their national objectives diverges. While some restrict them to Catalonia-proper alone, others seek the acknowledgment of the political personality of the so-called Catalan Countries, the Catalan-speaking territories as a whole; such claims, which can be seen as a form of Pan-nationalism, can be read in official documents of CiU, ERC and Popular Unity Candidates. Besides Catalonia, the main Catalan-speaking regions have their own nationalist parties and coalitions which support, to varying degrees, the demands for the building of a national identity for the Catalan Countries: Valencian Nationalist Bloc in the Valencian Community, Bloc Nacional i d'Esquerres, PSM and Majorcan Union in the Balearic Islands. Other nationalist parties have existed with additional affiliations such as PSC - Reagrupament whose leader Josep Pallach i Carolà died in 1977; the two main Catalan nationalist parties have shown their commitment to the idea of the Catalan Countries in different ways and with different intensities.
For CiU, this issue is not among the main items in their agenda. The CiU has enjoyed a long term collaboration with the Valencian party BNV and with the Majorcan parties UM and the Socialist Party of Majorca. In contrast, Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya has taken more substantial steps in that direction by expanding the party to Roussillon, Balearic Islands and—as Republican Left of the Valencian Country —the Valencian Community. During the first centuries of the Reconquista, the Franks drove the Muslims south of the Pyrenees. To prevent future incursions, Charlemagne created the Marca Hispanica in 790 CE, which consisted of a series of petty kingdoms serving as buffer states between the Frankish kingdom and Al-Andalus. Between 878 and 988 CE, the area became a hotbed of Frankish-Muslim conflict. However, as the Frankish monarchy and the Caliphate of Córdoba both weakened during the 11th century, the resulting impasse allowed for a process of consolidation throughout the region's many earldoms, resulting in their combination into the County of Barcelona, which became the embryo of today's Catalonia.
By 1070, Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona, had subordinated other Catalan Counts and intransigent nobles as vassals. His action sowed the seeds of Catalan identity. According to several scholars, the term "Catalan" and "Catalonia" emerged near the end of the 11th century and appeared in the Usatges of 1150. Two factors fostered this identity: stable institutions and cultural prosperity. While the temporary lack of foreign invasions contributed to Catalonia's stability, it was not a major cause. Rather, it provided a zone for sociopolitical development. For example, after the County of Barcelona signed an agreement with the Kingdom of Aragon, to create the Crown of Aragon in 1137 through a dynastic union, the system was designed to mutually check both the king's and the nobility's powers, while the small but growing numbers of free citizens and bourgeoisie would tactically take sides with the king in order to diminish feudal institutions. By 1150, the king approved a series of pacts, called the Usatges, which "explicitly acknowledged legal equality between burghers … and nobility".
In addition, the Aragonese gentry established the Corts, a representative body of nobles and abbots that counterbalanced the King's authority. By the end of the 13th century, "the monarch needed the consent of the Corts to approve laws or collect revenue". Soon after, the Corts elected a standing body called the Diputació del General or the Generalitat, which included the rising upper bourgeoisie; the first Catalan constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of Barcelona in 1283, following the Roman tradition of the Codex. In the 13th century, King James I of Aragon conquered the Balearic Islands. Subsequent conquests expanded into the Mediterranean, reaching Sardinia, Sicily and Greece, so by 1350 the Crown of Aragon "presided over one of the most extensive and powerful mercantile empires of the Mediterranean during this period". Catalonia's economic success formed a powerful merchant class, which wielded the Corts as its political weapon, it produced a smaller middle class, or menestralia, "composed of artisans and workshop owners".
Over the 13th and 14th centuries, these merchants accrued so much wealth and political sway that they were able to place a significant check on the power of the Aragonese
El País is a Spanish-language daily newspaper in Spain. According to the Office of Justification of Dissemination it is the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain as of December 2017. It's by the number sales in 2018 were, on average, 60.000 according to internal audits, more than 70% less than a decade prior. The current editor, Soledad Gallego Díaz, has been brought to court after dismissing five employees for what the accusers mainatin are political and ideological reasons. El País is the most read newspaper in Spanish online and the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain, one of three Madrid dailies considered to be national newspapers of record for Spain. El País, based in Madrid, is owned by the Spanish media conglomerate PRISA. PRISA is owned by Banco Santander, Telefónica and the Liberty vulture fund. PRISA's debt of 988 million euros is bigger than the company's value, its headquarters and central editorial staff are located in Madrid, although there are regional offices in the principal Spanish cities where regional were produced until 2015.
El País produces a world edition in Madrid, available online in Brazil and Hispanic America. An English edition began as a print edition in 2001, available as a supplement in what was the International Herald Tribune The Global New York Times. Since 2014, it has been an digital project. In 2018, the newspaper changed editors one week after a vote of no confidence forced a change of premiership in Parliament, sparking doubts about the political independence of the parent company. Since the newspaper has engaged in a radical change of editorial line, going from a politically independent position to defending the socialist minority government; the current newspaper's editor in America, Javier Moreno, managing editor, Jan Martinez Ahrens, were responsible for publishing a false picture of a dying Hugo Chávez in 2013. The publication of such photo in the front page was a major blow to the newspaper's credibility and standing in Latin America. El País was founded in May 1976 by a team at PRISA which included Jesus de Polanco, José Ortega Spottorno and Carlos Mendo.
The paper was designed by Julio Alonso. It was first published on 4 May 1976, six months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, at the beginning of the Spanish transition to democracy; the first editor-in-chief of the daily was Juan Luis Cebrián. El País was the first pro-democracy newspaper within a context where all the other Spanish newspapers were influenced by Franco's ideology; the circulation of the paper was 116,600 copies in its first year. It rose to 137,562 copies in 1977. El País filled a gap in the market and became the newspaper of Spanish democracy, for which role El País was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and the Humanities in 1983, at a time when the transition from Franco's dictatorship to democracy was still developing; the paper's first Director was Juan Luis Cebrián. Like many other Spanish journalists of the time he had worked for Diario Pueblo, a mouthpiece for the Francoist sindicato vertical, its reputation as a bastion of Spanish democracy was established during the attempted coup d'état by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero of the Guardia Civil on 23 February 1981.
During the uncertain situation of the night of 23 February 1981, with all the members of parliament held hostage in the Congress building and with tanks on the streets of Valencia, before the state television station could transmit a speech by King Juan Carlos I condemning the coup, El País published a special edition of the newspaper called'El País, for the Constitution'. It was the first daily paper on the streets that night with a clear pro-democracy position calling on citizens to demonstrate in favour of democracy, it was discussed in the news media that the director of El País, Juan Luis Cebrián, telephoned the director of Diario 16, Pedro J. Ramírez, in order to propose that both newspapers work on a joint publication in defence of democracy and Ramírez refused, claiming that he would prefer to wait a few hours to see how the situation developed. Diario 16 was not published until after a television broadcast by the king. Along with its commitment to democracy before the attempted coup of 23 February 1981, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's election victory in 1982 with an absolute majority and its open support for the government of Felipe González, meant that El País consolidated its position during the 1980s as the Spanish newspaper with the most sales ahead of the conservative leaning ABC.
In 1986 El País was the recipient of the Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Speech by the Roosevelt Institute. In 1987 El País received the largest amount of the state aid. Both the rigorous journalistic standards and the fact that it was the first Spanish newspaper to establish internal quality control standards have increased the standing of El País, it was the first Spanish daily to create the role of "Reader's Advocate" and the first to publish a "Style Guide", that has become a benchmark for quality amongst journalists. El País has established a number of collaborative agreements with other European newspapers with a social democrat viewpoint. In 1989, El País participated in the creation of a common network of information resources with La Repubblica in Italy and Le Monde in France. At the beginning of the 1990s, El País had to face a new journalistic challenge; the increasing political tensions caused by corru
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Pedro Madueño Palma is a Spanish photographer. Graphic reporter for newspaper La Vanguardia since 1983-2015. In 2015 he is appointed Deputy to the Director of La Vanguardia with responsibility for the image area of this newspaper. President of the jury of the Godó Prize for Photojournalism of the Conde de Barcelona Foundation, he has been associate professor at the University Pompeu Fabra, since 2008 he teaches graduate students at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. He is the author of the official image of Prince Felipe de Borbón y Grecia between 2002–2010, he is the author in 2010 of the official image of the President of the Generalitat de Catalunya, Artur Mas, he photographed Salvador Dalí during the last three years of the artist’s life. His career as a photographer started in 1975, his mentors were Eugeni Madueño. He first published, he has contributed to barcelonan newspapers such as Tele/exprés, Mundo Diario, El Noticiero Universal, El Periódico de Catalunya and Diario de Barcelona.
He created what has become known as the photo of consensus, now an established tradition in the Catalan press. Since 1984, on the eve of elections in Catalonia, Pedro Madueño and La Vanguardia have managed to join together candidates from all political parties for a group photo. 1990 Barcelona-90. In collaboration with Matías Briansó, Paco Elvira, Pepe Encinas, Antonio Espejo and Avelino Pi. Lunwerg publishers, Barcelona. 1995 Barcelona Retrat. Text by Eugeni Madueño. FAVB. 2006 Barcelona a vista de pájaro. Foreword by Quim Monzó. Text by Tate Cabré, Eugeni Casanova and Jordi Rovira. La Vanguardia Publishing house. 2010 Monzó- How to succeed in life. Julià Guillamón Galàxia Gutenberg - Cercle de Lectors Publishing house. 2010 Cultura. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament of Culture and Mass Media. 2011 Gestos. Crònica fotogràfica. Tres dècadas rere el president Jordi Pujol. Sol90 Publishing house. 2012 Matador. Magazine cover. Portrait of Ferran Adrià. La Fábrica books. ISSN 1135-1772 - D. L: M-13686-1995 2012 Pedro Madueño.
Retrats periodístics. 1977-2012. Catalogue exhibition. Author: Julià Guillamon. Edited by "la Caixa" Foundation. ISBN 978-84-9900-059-6 DL: B-6418-2012 2012 Pedro Madueño. Seqüències. Exhibition catalogue. Texts of Juan José Caballero. Can Framis. Barcelona. Edited by Vila Casas Foundation. D. L. B-14237-2012-ISBN 978-84-615-7719-4 2013 Agua, aguas. Félix de Azua, Patricio Court, Albert Espinosa, Marcos Giralt, Pedro Madueño, Din Matamoro, Pepe Moll, Quim Monzó, Nicanor Parra, M. Luisa Rojo, A. Sánchez Robayna, Suso de Toro. Edited by Agbar Foundation. Barcelona. D. L. B-8341-2013 2015 Five minutes. Pedro Madueño. Journalistic portraits. Edited by Valid editions. ISBN 978-84-938868-2-0- Legal Deposit: B 6369-2015. 1985 First prize Fotopres in Portrait category. La Caixa Foundation. 1988 First prize Fotopres in Nature category. La Caixa Foundation. 1988 Second prize Fotopres in Portrait category. La Caixa Foundation. 1990 Third prize Fotopres in Portrait category. La Caixa Foundation. 1991 Third prize Fotopres in Portrait category.
La Caixa Foundation. 1991 Second prize Fotopres in Snapshot category. La Caixa Foundation. 1993 First prize Fotopres in Portrait category. La Caixa Foundation. 1993 First prize Benestar Social. Barcelona City Council. 1993 Golden Laus in photography. ADG-FAD. 1994 Award of Excellence Society of Newspaper Design. 1996 Godó photojournalism prize. Fundación Conde de Barcelona. 2011 Vila Casas first prize photography. Work "Ággelos" Vila Casas Foundation. 1994 Urban Portraits. Sala Arcs. Photographic Spring. Barcelona. 1997 Face to face. Can Sisteré. Santa Coloma de Gramenet. Barcelona. 2000 Collective Exhibition History of the photography in Catalonia. National Museum of Art of Catalonia. Barcelona. 2000 Collective Exhibition History of the Photography in Catalonia. Civic museum di Monza. Monza-Brianza. Italy. 2009 Collaborated in the exhibition Monzó - How to succeed in life in the Centre d'Arts Santa Mònica of Barcelona. Exhibition organised by the Department of Culture and Media of Generalitat de Catalunya and la Institució de les Lletres Catalanes.
2012 Pedro Madueño. Retrats periodístics.1977-2012. Retrospective exhibition. CaixaForum Barcelona. Commissary Julià Guillamon. 2012 Exhibition. Seqüències. Commissioner: Juan José Caballero. Museum Can Framis. Vila Casas Foundation. Barcelona. 2013 Collective exhibition. Agua, aguas. Commissioner Andrés Sánchez Robayna; the Museu Agbar de les Aigües. Cornellà. Barcelona 2014 Collective exhibition A cop d’ull. Curated by Alex Brahim and Manuel Segade; the Virreina Palace. Barcelona. 2015 Collective exhibition Not Yet. On the Reinvention of Documentary and the Critique of Modernism". Curated by Jorge Ribalta. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. 2015 Pedro Madueño. Journalistic Portraits.1977-2015. Exhibition at CaixaForum Palma de Mallorca. Curated by Julia Guillamon. 2015 Pedro Madueño. Journalistic Portraits.1977-2015. Exhibition at CaixaForum Madrid. Curated by Julia Guillamon. 2000 Martí i Pol - 1994. Hubert de Wangen collection - Kowasa. Barcelona 2004 Henri Cartier-Bresson - 2003. Hubert de Wangen collection - Kowasa.
Barcelona 2010 Creative Hand - 2008. Antoni Tàpies. Documentary fund of the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. Madrid 2010 José Tomás - 2009. Series of six photographs. Art collection of the Vila Casas Foundation. Barcelona 2014 Aggelos - 2011. Art collection. Vila Casas Foundation 2014 Ocrus - 2014. Art collection. Vila Casas Foundation Web oficial de Pedro Madueño Fundación Vila Casas Fotografíes de Pedro Madueño a l'hemeroteca de La Vanguardia Representation. Galeria VALID FOTO Exhibition "Agua,aguas" http://www.museoreinasofia.es/exposiciones/aun-no-sobre-la-reinve
La Vanguardia (Argentina)
La Vanguardia is an Argentine newspaper, founded by Socialist Party leader Juan B. Justo in 1894. La Vanguardia was founded by Juan B. Justo, Esteban Jiménez, Augusto Kühn, Isidro Salomó, Juan Fernández, its first issue was published on April 7, 1894, Jiménez served as its first typographer. The paper's first editorial was titled "This country is transformed" and analyzed the prevailing economic and social policy from a Marxist perspective; the newspaper, printed in a San Telmo neighborhood boarding house, became a gathering point for socialists active in Argentina in the late nineteenth century. These meetings would result in the establishment of the Socialist Party in 1896, La Vanguardia became the party's official journal. Co-operative movement leader Nicolás Repetto succeeded Justo as its editor-in-chief in 1901, in 1905, was first sold on street corners; the paper's Mexico Street offices in the Constitución ward were destroyed by arson during the Centennial celebrations of 1910, however. Enrique del Valle Iberlucea, a Spanish Argentine lawyer, became its director in 1916.
He had founded Revista Socialista Internacional with Alicia Moreau in 1908. Justo, in 1914. Disaffected member of the party, including Augusto Kühn and Rodolfo Ghioldi, established a rival publication, Adelante, in 1916, though without success; the Socialist Party grew in Buenos Aires and Mar del Plata following the 1912 enactment of the Sáenz Peña Law guaranteeing a secret ballot and universal suffrage. The party split, during their 1927 convention, Senator Justo died in January 1928. Two socialist tickets thus competed in the 1928 elections, La Vanguardia, edited since 1925 by Américo Ghioldi, would endorse the Authentic Socialist Party, led by Congressman Mario Bravo; the prominence the party had earned, allowed them to inaugurate a landmark Rivadavia Avenue headquarters in 1927, from which La Vanguardia would be published. Ghioldi and Bravo led the publication during Argentina's "Infamous Decade," when the right-wing Concordance regime that took power in fraudulent elections held in 1931 perpetuated itself by the same tactics.
Censorship made La Vanguardia's publication more intermittent in the ensuing years. It was suspended four times in 1942, following a coup d'état in 1943, an edict mandating that all newspaper articles carry their writers' full names in their bylines forced it to shut down again; the election of populist leader Juan Perón in 1946 had been opposed by most Socialists. Its readership, despite of ongoing intimidation, reached a historic high of 280,000 copies daily during the mid-1940s. Using a noise ordinance as a pretext, its presses were shut down by a municipal order on August 27, 1947. Led by Luis Pan, its editors opened a clandestine press in Ranelagh, a southern suburb of Buenos Aires, though this facility was discovered by police, La Vanguardia continued to appear as a weekly newspaper. Much of the Socialist Party's leadership, as well as its journal's staff, would be imprisoned during Perón's successful 1951 re-election campaign, only the willingness of El Sol editor-in-chief Emilio Frugoni to include La Vanguardia as a last-page supplement kept the periodical in publication.
The following year, its remaining staff created an international edition of La Vanguardia printed in Montevideo, Uruguay, on Bible paper to facilitate its distribution abroad. A Peronist riot on April 15, 1953, triggered by bombs detonated at the Plaza de Mayo during a mass gathering resulted in the destruction of the Casa del Pueblo; the building survived initially. Its interiors, including a 70,000-volume library and the editorial bureau of La Vanguardia, were destroyed, however; the paper's Montevideo edition responded by applauding the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo as a "historic day against the tyranny of an arrogant man." President Perón was overthrown in 1955, La Vanguardia resumed its regular edition with a circulation of 200,000. The Socialist Party, suffered a new schism ahead of the 1958 elections; the two factions would each publish separate editions of La Vanguardia, with Juan Antonio Solari and Alicia Moreau de Justo as editors of each. The absorption of the Argentine Socialist Party into the Popular Socialist Party in 1972 made the leader of the PSP, Guillermo Estévez Boero, director of La Vanguardia Popular.
The ongoing division of both the party and the journal precluded any refurbishment of the derelict Casa del Pueblo, in 1974, the once-grand neo-classical building was demolished. The reunification of the Socialist Party in 2002 restored the ailing La Vanguardia as the party's sole official publication; the journal would be published irregularly, with an average of one issue every four months. Its director, Américo Schvartzman and edited El Miércoles, a socialist weekly in Concepción del Uruguay, Entre Ríos, from 2000 to 2007. Http://www.vanguardiaps.blogspot.com/ http://www.lavanguardiadigital.com.ar/
Fernando Krahn was a Chilean cartoonist and plastic artist. A celebrated cartoonist, his works were published in Esquire, The New Yorker, The Atlantic and The Reporter. In 1973 he was forced to flee his native country Chile to escape persecution after the 1973 Chilean coup d'état. Upon moving to Spain, he had over 40 children's books published, which earned him the SM Ediciones' International Illustration Prize in 2001. Krahn was born in Santiago de Chile, his first drawings date from the period between 1952 and 1956, but his professional career, as a cartoonist and artist, did not start until 1961, in New York City, where he lived until 1969. After receiving a fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, he was able to produce his first animated film, El crimen perfecto, in 1976. In 1984, he began to work for the Barcelona's newspaper La Vanguardia, where he would publish cartoons and works of animation for the rest of his life. Krahn contributed to newspapers such as El País, International Herald Tribune, Die Zeit and La Repubblica.
He authored and illustrated more than forty children's books published in the United States, Spain and Venezuela. Besides his work as an illustrator, he led Krahnfactory, an animated motion studio where he acted as scriptwriter and producer. There have been a few exhibitions devoted to his work: in 2006 Sabadell held one, focused on his early work and Lleida hosted another one in 2008. Fernando had a daughter, called Fernanda, two sons Santiago and Matias and he was married to Chilean writer María de la Luz Uribe, who died in 1994; some of his wife's books were illustrated by him and her death is said to have influenced his work. Krahn died in Barcelona on 18 February 2010 of an intestinal ischemia. Fernando Krahn's animation studio's official website Works by Fernando Krahn in LaVanguardia.es