San Dimas, California
San Dimas is a city in the San Gabriel Valley of Los Angeles County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 33,371; the city took its name from San Dimas Canyon in the San Gabriel Mountains above the northern section of present-day San Dimas. San Dimas derives its name from the Spanish name for Saint Dismas; the first known European exploration of the area was in 1774, when Juan Bautista De Anza passed through on the first overland expedition of Las Californias, from New Spain-Mexico towards Monterey Bay. The area was developed in 1837 with the Mexican land grant from Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado to Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo Vejar for the Rancho San Jose in Alta California, it became known as La Cienega Mud Springs, so named because of local mud springs that created a riparian marsh and healing place. Palomares and Vejar conducted sheep and cattle operations on Rancho San Jose growing crops for consumption by the residents of the rancho. In the early 1860s, a severe drought decimated the ranch's population of sheep and cattle.
Ygnacio Palomares died in 1864, his widow began selling the ranch land in 1865. Vejar lost his share by foreclosure to two Los Angeles merchants, Isaac Schlesinger and Hyman Tischler, in 1864. In 1866, Schlesinger and Tischler sold the ranch to Louis Phillips, it was the arrival of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad in 1887 purchased by Santa Fe Railroad, that led to La Cienega Mud Springs being first mapped. The ensuing land boom resulted in the formation of the San Jose Ranch Company, which first laid out streets. Small businesses began to open soon thereafter, the city took on a new name: San Dimas. Growth was rapid, San Dimas soon became an agricultural community. Wheat and other Midwestern United States crops were planted first. At one time, four citrus packing houses and a marmalade factory were located in San Dimas; the Sunkist name originated here, first spelled "Sunkissed." Oranges were the major business in San Dimas until the mid-20th century. San Dimas incorporated as a city in 1960, is now known for its western art, small-town feel and equestrian qualities.
In the 1990s San Dimas was host to the Miss Rodeo California State Pageant, run by A. F. "Shorty" Feldbush and various other city volunteers. The week long pageant was held in conjunction with the city's Western Days and Rodeo, until the pageant moved to its new home in central California. In 1971, the San Dimas Golf Course was purchased. In 1972, San Dimas Community Hospital opened its 92-bed facility. In 1981, the San Dimas Swim and Racket Club was built next to San Dimas High School, according to the San Dimas Historical Society. In 1989 San Dimas was the setting for the film Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, for the 1991 sequel Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey. San Dimas is a suburb of Los Angeles nestled along the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, about 28 miles east/northeast of Downtown Los Angeles and north of the Pacific Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.4 sq. mi. of which 15.0 sq mi of it is land and 0.39 sq mi of it is water. Cinnamon Creek crosses the city parallel to the Arrow Highway, before reaching Cinnamon Falls near San Dimas Avenue.
San Dimas runs along and southward from historic U. S. Route 66, another part of its development in the earlier 20th century. Other major arteries include San Dimas Avenue; the Foothill Freeway connects the town to Pasadena and the San Fernando Valley, with California State Route 57 connecting to Orange County and the beaches. This region experiences hot and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen climate classification system, San Dimas has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Dimas had a population of 33,371. The population density was 2,163.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Dimas was 24,038 White with being non-Hispanic white 1,084 African American, 233 Native American, 3,496 Asian, 48 Pacific Islander, 2,828 from other races, 1,644 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,491 persons; the Census reported that 32,831 people lived in households, 320 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 220 were institutionalized.
There were 12,030 households, out of which 3,877 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,604 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,462 had a female householder with no husband present, 613 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 542 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 91 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,668 households were made up of individuals and 1,270 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73. There were 8,679 families; the population was spread out with 6,989 people under the age of 18, 3,277 people aged 18 to 24, 7,536 people aged 25 to 44, 10,386 people aged 45 to 64, 5,183 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.8 males. There were 12,506 housing units at an average density of 810.6 per square mile, of which 8,757 were owner-oc
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
La Casa Primera de Rancho San Jose
La Casa Primera de Rancho San Jose is a historic adobe structure built in 1837 in Pomona, California. It is the oldest home located in the old Rancho San Jose land grant, it was declared a historic landmark in 1954 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in April 1975. The Rancho San Jose was created out of land seized from the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in 1834 as part of the Mexican government's decree of secularization. In 1837, Mexican Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado granted the land to Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo Vejar; the Rancho, covering 15,000 acres to 22,000 acres and much of eastern Los Angeles County, was operated by Palomares and Vejar as a sheep and cattle ranch. After receiving the land grant, Palomares built his initial adobe homestead in 1837 on land, now part of Pomona; the simple five-room adobe, known as the Casa Primera, was the first home in the Pomona Valley and was built in the Mexican adobe style with thick walls made of adobe brick. Palomares and his family lived at the Casa Primera for seventeen years.
Between 1850 and 1855, Palomares built a much larger adobe home for himself, known as the Ygnacio Palomares Adobe. In 1867, Palomares' son, Francisco Palomares, moved into the Casa Primera with his wife, Lujardo Alvarado. Francisco discovered an artesian well on the grounds of the adobe, the first such well discovered in the Pomona Valley; the well provided an ample supply of water, allowing Francisco to plant the area with orange trees, some of which were still thriving in the 1970s. Taking advantage of the area's water resources and his partners formed the Old Settlement Water Company in 1874. Portions of an old stone-lined canal built by the water company can still be seen in the area. Francisco Palomares lived in the Casa Primera until he died in 1882. After Francisco's death, the Casa Primera was purchased by Dr. Benjamin S. Nichols, who acquired the nearby La Casa Alvarado. Nichols, who had moved to Pomona from New York, became the President of the Pomona Land and Water Company. In 1947, Roscoe Hart purchased the property and remained the owner until 1972.
In 1972, Hart sold the Casa Primera at a public auction. He told the Los Angeles Times that "the work of keeping it up became too much." At that time, the home consisted of four bedrooms, two baths, a dining room, three fireplaces and a pool on 1.7 acres. Hoping to preserve the Casa Primera, the Historical Society of Pomona Valley raised funds to purchase the property for a price up to $80,000; when the bidding went above $80,000, the auctioneer halted the bidding for two minutes to allow Historical Society representatives to confer. The Historical Society placed the winning bid, purchasing the home for $85,000. Another bidder said afterward she had been prepared to go to $100,000 but agreed not to raise the bid on learning she was bidding against the Historical Society. After acquiring the Casa Primera, the Historical Society restored it with period furniture and opened it to the public as a historic museum. Since 1973, it has been a frequent location for traditional Mexican and Spanish folklorico celebrations, including Spanish shawl displays and dancing.
In 1987, a celebration was held at the Casa Primera celebrating the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Rancho San Jose land grant. The celebration included Mexican dancers, strolling musicians, a parade of the descendants of early Mexican families, a staged wedding ceremony with the principals and guests dressed in period costume; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. The building is operated as a museum by the Historical Society of Pomona Valley. List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles County, California Rancho San Jose Ygnacio Palomares Adobe La Casa Alvarado La Casa Primera - Pomona Historical Society
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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San Gabriel Mountains
The San Gabriel Mountains are a mountain range located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, United States. The mountain range is part of the Transverse Ranges and lies between the Los Angeles Basin and the Mojave Desert, with Interstate 5 to the west and Interstate 15 to the east; this range lies in, is surrounded by, the Angeles National Forest, with the San Andreas Fault as the northern border of the range. The highest peak in the range is Mount San Antonio referred to as Mt. Baldy. Mount Wilson is another famous peak, famed for the Mount Wilson Observatory and the antenna farm that houses many of the transmitters for local media; the observatory may be visited by the public. On October 10, 2014, President Obama designated the area the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument. To date, The Trust for Public Land has protected more than 3,800 acres of land in the San Gabriel Mountains, its foothills and the Angeles National Forest. Much of the range features rolling peaks.
The range lacks craggy features, but contains a large number of canyons and is very rugged and difficult to traverse. The San Gabriel Mountains are in effect a large fault block, uplifted and dissected by numerous rivers and washes; the highest elevation, Mount San Antonio at 10,064 feet, rises towards the eastern extremity of the range which extends from the Cajon Pass on the east, where the San Gabriel Mountain Range meets the San Bernardino Mountain Range, westward to meet the Santa Susanna range at Newhall Pass. North of San Fernando, the San Gabriel Mountains crest abruptly up to 4,000 feet. Pacoima and Big Tujunga Canyons cut through the range just east of San Fernando, carrying runoff into the San Fernando Valley. Little Tujunga Canyon Road bridges the range in this area, connecting the San Fernando Valley to the Santa Clara River valley in the north. Towering over Big Tujunga Canyon north of Big Tujunga Reservoir is Mount Gleason, which at 6,502 feet, is the highest in this region of the San Gabriels.
South of the gorge are the southern "foothills" of the mountains, which rise abruptly 4,000 feet above the Los Angeles Basin and give rise to the Arroyo Seco, a tributary of the Los Angeles River. Southeast of Big Tujunga Canyon, the southern front range of the San Gabriels grows in elevation, culminating in notable peaks such as Mount Wilson at 5,710 feet. On the north the range is abruptly dissected by the canyon of the West Fork San Gabriel River. Further north the range slopes up into the towering main crest of the San Gabriels, a sweeping arc-shaped massif 30 miles in length that includes most of the highest peaks in the range: Waterman Mountain, at 8,038 feet. On the north slopes of the San Gabriel crest, the northern ranks of mountains drop down incrementally to the floor of the Mojave Desert in a much more gradual manner than the sheer southern flank; the Angeles Crest Highway, one of the main routes across the San Gabriels, runs through this area from west to east. Little Rock, Big Rock and Sheep Creeks drain off the northern part of the mountains, forming large alluvial fans as they descend into the Mojave.
To the east, the San Andreas Fault cuts across the range, forming a series of long and narrow depressions, including Swarthout Valley and Lone Pine Canyon. South of Mount San Antonio, San Antonio Creek drains the mountains, cutting the deep San Antonio Canyon. East of San Antonio Canyon, the range loses elevation, the highest peaks in this section of the mountain range are in the south, rising above the Inland Empire cities of Claremont and Rancho Cucamonga. However, there are still several notable peaks in this region, including Telegraph Peak, at 8,985 feet, Cucamonga Peak, at 8,859 feet, Ontario Peak, rising 8,693 feet. Lytle Creek, flowing southeast, drains most of the extreme eastern San Gabriels; the range terminates at Cajon Pass, through which runs Interstate 15, beyond which rise the higher San Bernardino Mountains. The Range is bound on the north by the Antelope Valley and the Mojave Desert and to the south by the communities of greater Los Angeles area. In the western portion of the San Gabriel Mountain Range, the Sierra Pelona Ridge stretches from Soledad Canyon, formed by the Santa Clara River.
The Sierra Pelona Ridge includes Liebre Mountain, Sawmill Mountain, Grass Mountain, Redrock Peak, Burnt Peak, most of, part of the Angeles National Forest, but features several rural communities. Melting snow and rain runoff on the south side of the San Gabriels' highest mountains give rise to its largest river, the San Gabriel River. Just to the west of Mount Hawkins, a north-south divide separates water running down the two main forks of the river and their tributaries; the West Fork, beginning at Red Box Saddle, runs 14 miles eastward, the East Fork, starting north of Mount San Antonio, flows 18 miles south and west through a steep and precipitous gorge. The two meet at San Gabriel Reservoir, turn south, boring through the southern portion of the San Gabriels, emptying out of the mountains near Azusa into the urban San Gabriel Valley, to the Pacific Ocean near Seal Beach. San Gabriel Mountains peaks within the Angeles National Forest include: Mount San Antonio, 10,064 ft Pine Mountain, 9,648 ft Dawson Peak, 9,575 ft
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820