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Labia minora

The labia minora known as the inner labia, inner lips, vaginal lips or nymphae, are two flaps of skin on either side of the human vaginal opening in the vulva, situated between the labia majora. The labia minora vary in size and shape from individual to individual; the labia minora are homologous to the male urethral surface of the penis. The labia minora extend from the clitoris obliquely downward and backward on either side of the vulval vestibule, ending between the bottom of the vulval vestibule and the labia majora; the posterior ends of the labia minora are joined across the middle line by a fold of skin, named the frenulum of labia minora or fourchette. On the front, each lip forks dividing into two portions surrounding the clitoris; the upper part of each lip passes above the clitoris to meet the upper part of the other lip—which will be a little larger or smaller—forming a fold which overhangs the glans clitoridis. The lower part passes beneath the glans clitoridis and becomes united to its under surface, with the inner lip of the opposite side, the frenulum clitoridis.

The clitoral hood, analogously to the foreskin of the penis in men and termed, like the latter, by the Latin word prepuce, serves to cover most of the time the shaft and sometimes the glans to protect the clitoris from mechanical irritation and from dryness. Yet the hood is movable and can slide during clitoral erection or be pulled upwards a little for greater exposure of the clitoris to sexual stimulation; the frenulum is an elastic band of tissue attached by its one end to the clitoral shaft and glans and by its other end to the prepuce. It allows two-way shifting of the clitoral hood: firstly, it can extend to let the hood be moved upwards to expose the glans for stimulation or hygienic cleansing, secondly, it contracts to pull the hood back to protect it. On the opposed surfaces of the labia minora are numerous sebaceous glands not associated with hair follicles, they are lined by stratified squamous epithelium on those surfaces. Like the whole area of the vulval vestibule, the mucus secreted by those glands protects the labia from dryness and mechanical irritation.

Being thinner than the outer labia, the inner labia can be more narrow than the former, or wider than labia majora, thus protruding in the pudendal cleft and making the term minora inapplicable in these cases. The reception of wider and/or longer labia varies between different people, with some men and women stressing the beauty of bigger labia while other women who have such ones complain of some discomfort either from mechanical irritation by their tighter clothes or from their own or their peers' negative attitude to the image of less compact female genitalia than is stereotypical for them, they can be smooth or frilled, the latter being more typical of longer or wider inner labia. From 2003 to 2004, researchers from the Department of Gynaecology, Elizabeth Garret Anderson Hospital in London, measured the labia and other genital structures of 50 women from the age of 18 to 50, with a mean age of 35.6. The results were: Due to the frequent portrayal of the pudendal cleft without protrusion in art and pornography, there has been a rise in the popularity of labiaplasty, surgery to alter the labia - to make them smaller.

On the other hand, there is an opposite movement of labia stretching. Its proponents stress the beauty of long labia and their positive role in sexual stimulation of both partners. Labiaplasty is sometimes sought by women who have asymmetrical labia minora to adjust the shape of the structures towards identical size. Labia stretching has traditionally been practiced in some African nations; the inner lips serve to protect from mechanical irritation and infections the sensitive area of the vulval vestibule with vaginal and urethral openings in it between them. During vaginal sexual intercourse they may contribute to stimulation of the whole vestibule area, the clitoris and the vagina of the woman and the penis of her partner. Stimulation of the clitoris may occur through tension of the clitoral hood and its frenulum by inner labia pulling at them. During sexual arousal they are lubricated by the mucus secreted in the vagina and around it to make penetration painless and protect them from irritation.

As the female external urethral opening is situated between labia minora, they may play a role in guiding the stream of the urine during female urination. Being sensitive by their structure to any irritation, situated in the excretion area where traces of urine, vaginal discharge and feces may be present, the inner lips may be susceptible to inflammatory infections of the vulva such as vulvitis; the likelihood of inflammation may be reduced through appropriate regular hygienic cleansing of the whole vulval vestibule, using water and medically tested cleansing agents designed for vulvas. To avoid contamination of the vulva with fecal bacteria, it is recommended that the vulva is washed only from front to back, from mons pubis to the perineum and anus. Apart from water and special liquid cleansing agents, there are commercially available wet wipes for female intimate hygiene; some women wipe the vulval vestibule dry with toilet tissue after urination to avoid irritation and infections from residual drops of the urine in the area.

However, incorrect choice of cleansing agents, or their incorrect application, may itself cause labial irritation and require medical attention. Over-vigorous rubbing

Henry II, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg

Henry II, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg was a son of Engelbert I and his wife Johanna van Polanen. In 1442, he succeeded his father as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, jointly with his brother John IV. In 1435, he married Countess Genoveva of Virneburg, the daughter of Count Rupert IV of Virneburg and Countess Agnes of Solms-Braunfels. After Genoveva's death, he married Irmgard of Schleiden-Junkerath, the daughter of Lord John III of Schleiden-Junkerath and Countess Joanna of Blankenheim. Henry II died on 8 June 1451 in San Quirico d'Orcia, on the way back from the 1450 jubilee in Rome. From his first marriage, he had a daughter: Ottillie, married:Count Philip II "the Younger" of Katzenelnbogen, son of Philipp I, Count of Katzenelnbogen Count Oswald I of Tierstein, he was a governor in the Alsace and Breisgau and councillor in Lorraine and Cologne

Heymeric de Campo

Heymeric de Campo was a Dutch theologian and scholastic philosopher. He was a prominent Albertist, forerunner of Nicholas of Cusa, he studied at the University of Paris, taught at Cologne, Leuven. His Tractatus Problematicus began a series of polemical exchanges between the Albertists and the Thomists; the first part deals with universals, following John de Nova Domo, Heymeric's teacher. A belated reply was made on behalf of the Thomists by Gerard de Monte, he wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse. Maarten Hoenen and Intellectual Life in the Low Countries: The University Career of Heymeric de Campo, Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 61, 173–209 Hoenen, Denys the Carthusian and Heymeric de Campo on the Pilgrimages of Children to Mont-Saint-Michel, Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du moyen âge 61, 387–418 Anna Fredriksson Adman, Heymericus de Campo: Dyalogus Super Reuelacionibus Beate Birgitte: A Critical Edition with an Introduction Florian Hamann, Das Siegel der Ewigkeit.

Universalwissenschaft und Konziliarismus bei Heymericus de Campo Andrea Fiamma, Nicola Cusano ed Eimerico da Campo: gli anni coloniensi, Medioevo. Rivista di storia della filosofia medievale 41, 217-257 Cecilia Rusconi, / Klaus Reinhardt: "Die dem Cusanus zugeschriebenen Glossen zu den Theoremata totius universi fundamentaliter doctrinalia des Heymericus de Campo“, in: Reinhardt, K. Schwaetzer, H. Stammkötter, F.-B. Heymericus de Campo. Philosophie und Theologie im 15. Jahrhundert, Regensburg, 53-75. Cecilia Rusconi / Klaus Reinhardt †, "Heymericus de Campo: Tractatus de philosophica interpretatione Sacrae Scripturae" Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis 292A