Labor Day

Labor Day in the United States of America is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. It honors the American labor movement and the power of collective action by laborers, who are essential for the workings of society, it is the Monday of the long weekend known as Labor Day Weekend. It is recognized as a federal holiday. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, trade unionists proposed that a day be set aside to celebrate labor. "Labor Day" was promoted by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, which organized the first parade in New York City. In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty states in the United States celebrated Labor Day. Canada's Labour Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September. More than 80 countries celebrate International Workers' Day on May 1 – the ancient European holiday of May Day.

Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, different groups of trade unionists chose a variety of days on which to celebrate labor. In the United States, a September holiday called. Alternate stories of the event's origination exist. According to one early history of Labor Day, the event originated in connection with a General Assembly of the Knights of Labor convened in New York City in September 1882. In connection with this clandestine Knights assembly, a public parade of various labor organizations was held on September 5 under the auspices of the Central Labor Union of New York. Secretary of the CLU Matthew Maguire is credited for first proposing that a national Labor Day holiday subsequently be held on the first Monday of each September in the aftermath of this successful public demonstration. An alternative thesis maintains that the idea of Labor Day was the brainchild of Peter J. McGuire, a vice president of the American Federation of Labor, who put forward the initial proposal in the spring of 1882.

According to McGuire, on May 8, 1882, he made a proposition to the fledgling Central Labor Union in New York City that a day be set aside for a "general holiday for the laboring classes". According to McGuire he further recommended that the event should begin with a street parade as a public demonstration of organized labor's solidarity and strength, with the march followed by a picnic, to which participating local unions could sell tickets as a fundraiser. According to McGuire he suggested the first Monday in September as an ideal date for such a public celebration, owing to optimum weather and the date's place on the calendar, sitting midway between the Fourth of July and Thanksgiving public holidays. Labor Day picnics and other public gatherings featured speeches by prominent labor leaders. In 1909 the American Federation of Labor convention designated the Sunday preceding Labor Day as "Labor Sunday", to be dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement; this secondary date failed to gain significant traction in popular culture.

In 1887 Oregon became the first state of the United States to make Labor Day an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty U. S. states celebrated Labor Day. The federal law, only made it a holiday for federal workers; as late as the 1930s, unions were encouraging workers to strike to make sure. All U. S. states, the District of Columbia, the United States territories have subsequently made Labor Day a statutory holiday. The date of May 1 emerged in 1886 as an alternative holiday for the celebration of labor becoming known as International Workers' Day; the date had its origins at the 1885 convention of the American Federation of Labor, which passed a resolution calling for adoption of the eight-hour day effective May 1, 1886. While negotiation was envisioned for achievement of the shortened work day, use of the strike to enforce this demand was recognized, with May 1 advocated as a date for coordinated strike action; the proximity of the date to the bloody Haymarket affair of May 4, 1886, further accentuated May First's radical reputation.

There was disagreement among labor unions at this time about when a holiday celebrating workers should be, with some advocating for continued emphasis of the September march-and-picnic date while others sought the designation of the more politically-charged date of May 1. Conservative Democratic President Grover Cleveland was one of those concerned that a labor holiday on May 1 would tend to become a commemoration of the Haymarket Affair and would strengthen socialist and anarchist movements that backed the May 1 commemoration around the globe. In 1887, he publicly supported the September Labor Day holiday as a less inflammatory alternative; the date was formally adopted as a United States federal holiday in 1894. Since the mid-1950s, the United States has celebrated Loyalty Day and Law Day on May 1. Labor Day is called the "unofficial end of summer" because it marks the end of the cultural summer season. Many take their two-week vacations during the two weeks ending Labor Day weekend. Many fall activities, such as school and sports, begin about this time.

In the United States, many school districts resume classes around the Labor Day holiday weekend. Some begin the week before, making Labor Day weekend the first three-day weekend of the school calendar, while others return the Tuesday following Labor Day. Many districts across the Midwest are opting t


Sōke, pronounced, is a Japanese term that means "the head family." In the realm of Japanese traditional arts, it is used synonymously with the term iemoto. Thus, it is used to indicate "headmaster" The English translation of sōke as "grand master" is not a literal translation but it does see use by some Japanese sources, it can mean one, the leader of any school or the master of a style, but it is most used as a highest level Japanese title, referring to the singular leader of a school or style of martial art. The term, however, is not limited to the genre of martial arts. Sōke is sometimes mistakenly believed to mean "founder of a style" because many modern sōke are the first generation headmasters of their art, are thus both sōke and founder. However, the successors to the shodai sōke are sōke themselves. Sōke are considered the ultimate authority within their art, have final discretion and authority regarding promotions, curriculum and disciplinary actions. A sōke has the authority to issue a menkyo kaiden certificate indicating that someone has mastered all aspects of his style.

In some schools such as Kashima-Shinryu there is a related position called Shihanke meaning "Instructor Line" that fills a similar role. A Shihanke is a second training lineage that exists autonomously from the Sōke. In arts where there is a Shihanke and a Sōke it is possible for the position of Sōke to be a hereditary honorary title in the Iemoto system while the Shihanke is responsible for the actual teaching and operation of the school; the widespread use of the term "sōke" is controversial in the martial arts community. Traditionally it was used rarely in Japan only for old martial arts, although it has become a somewhat common term for headmasters of schools created in the last few decades that attempt to reconstruct or emulate older styles of martial arts; some modern western sōke have used the title Sōke-dai as a title for their assistant as the leader of their school. The Japanese character dai used in this context translates as "in place of." Thus, a shihan-dai, sōke-dai, or sōke-dairi means "someone who teaches in temporary place of" the main instructor, for reasons such as the incapacity of the sōke due to injuries or illnesses.

Doshu Grandmaster Sensei


Gassnova SF is the Norwegian state enterprise for carbon capture and storage. Gassnova stimulates technology research and demonstration and contributes to the realisation of technology in industrial, full-scale pioneer plants. Furthermore, Gassnova provides advice to the authorities in matters relating to carbon capture and storage. On January 1, 2005, the Government established the company Gassnova to be the publicly funded spearhead in the general investment in developing technology for gas-fired power with CCS. Gassnova and The Research Council of Norway have jointly established the Climit program, which covers the entire innovation chain from research to technology development to pilot and demonstration projects. Gassnova acts as advisor to the Norwegian Ministry of Energy. Main Efforts include support of research and technology development to ensure access to energy through fossil fuel power without CO2 emissions. A primary focus is to contribute to reduced costs and reduced technological an economical risk through building and operating large-scale facilities for carbon capture and storage.

The objective of Gassnova is to manage Norwegian governmental interests to help cope with the challenge of climate change, within the area of capture and geological storage of the greenhouse gas CO2. The Norwegian government established Gassnova to spearhead the mission of shepherding these technologies to market. Bjørn-Erik Haugan is the Managing Director. CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad Large-scale transport and geological storage of CO2 from Mongstad Full-scale CO2-capture at Mongstad combined heat and power plant PCC development in Norway by Bjørn-Erik Haugan Current CCS projects in Norway by Bjørn-Erik Haugan What does it take to demonstrate CCS? by Bjørn-Erik Haugan Gassnova - Statens foretak for CO2-håndtering CO2 Capture & Storage CLIMIT - Programme for Power Generation with Carbon Capture and Storage CO2 Technology Centre Mongstad Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy Scandinavian Oil-Gas Online