Sept-Îles is a city in the Côte-Nord region of eastern Quebec, Canada. It is among the northernmost locales with a paved connection to the rest of Quebec's road network; the population was 25,686 as of the Canada 2011 Census. The town is called meaning "bay," in the Innu language; the city is well known for having major iron companies like Iron Ore Company of Canada and the Cliffs Natural Resources. The city relies on the iron industry. Sept-Îles is one of the large cities by area in the province of Québec more expansive than Montreal. Sept-Îles has among the highest average wage increases; the only settlements on the paved road network that are farther north are Fermont and Chisasibi, the latter two of which are in the extreme western part of the province at the north end of the James Bay Road. The only other settlements at higher latitudes in the province are isolated Cree, Innu, or Inuit villages, with access limited to seasonal gravel roads. Sept-Îles is the seat of the judicial district of Mingan.
The city is home to the most attended recreational sport events in the province: the Tournoi Orange. Volleyball tournament, which consists of 405 teams and close to 800 volleyball games; the first inhabitants of the area were varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The historic Montagnais or Innu people, who called it Uashat, lived there at the time of European encounter. Jacques Cartier sailed by the islands in 1535 and made the first written record of them, calling them the Ysles Rondes, he was not the first European in the area, as he encountered Basque fishermen who came annually from Europe for whaling and cod fishing. Early European economic activity in Sept-Îles was based on the fur trade. Louis Joliet established trading posts by 1679. Great Britain took over Canada from France in 1763 after its victory in the Seven Years' War. In 1842 the Hudson's Bay Company founded another post at this location; the village was incorporated into a municipality in 1885. Lacking road access at the time, the town got its first pier in 1908.
The City of Sept-Îles was incorporated in 1951, on the 300th anniversary of the first Catholic Mass held in the village. The modern Sept-Îles was built during the construction of the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway, the 357-mile railway link to the northern town of Schefferville; the railway was built between 1954 by the Iron Ore Company of Canada. Iron ore mined near Schefferville and Wabush, was transported on this railway and shipped from the Port of Sept-Îles. Shipment of the important new commodity resulted in investments. With the iron ore business, the Sept-Îles deep-water seaport was second in Canada only to Vancouver in terms of yearly tonnage; the huge engineering project led to a major increase in population, housing was built to accommodate them. The town grew from 2,000 inhabitants in 1951 to 14,000 in 1961, 31,000 in 1981; the decline in worldwide iron ore prices in recent decades has since caused employment and population to decrease. During the early 1990s, some new jobs accompanied the construction and operation of the new Aluminerie Alouette inc. aluminum processing plant.
Construction for Phase 1 began in September 1989, operation started in 1992. Construction of Phase 2 began in 2003. In 2002 the city amalgamated with the communities of Moisie; the city includes the neighbourhoods of Arnaud, Clarke, De Grasse, de la Pointe, de la Rivière, Ferland, La Boule, Lac Labrie, Plages, Pointe-Noire and Val-Marguerite. The Sept-Îles Airport has connections all over Labrador. General aviation seaplanes are served by Sept-Îles/Lac Rapides Water Aerodrome. Air Gaspé was based in Sept-Îles, but acquired by Quebecair in 1973. In the 1980s, continued airline restructuring led to Quebecair's being acquired by CP Air in 1986, which in turn was taken over by Canadian Airlines in 1987. Located on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, between the Sainte-Marguerite and Moisie rivers, Sept-Îles lies on the shore of a deep-water bay fronted by a seven-island archipelago, about 230 kilometres east of Baie-Comeau; the bay constitutes a 45 km² natural harbour. The seven islands are named: La Grosse Boule La Petite Boule La Grande Basque La Petite Basque Île Manowin Île du Corossol Îlets Dequen The archipelago is under provincial jurisdiction, with some parts administered by the federal government or by individuals.
There are two First Nations reserves in the area: Uashat in the western city proper, Maliotenam in the east near the Moisie River. In the urban area of Sept-Îles, 2.7% of the population reported English only as mother tongue, 86.2% reported French only, 10.3% reported only a non-official language, in 2011. In comparison, the provincial / territorial percentages were 7.7% for English only, 78.1% for French only and 12.3% for only non-official languages. Sept-Îles has a subarctic climate bordering on a humid continental climate despite being located at around only 50 degrees latitude; the two main seasons are summer and winter, as spring and autumn are short transition seasons lasting only a few weeks. Winters are long and snowy, lasting from l
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai
A Masonic lodge termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. It is commonly used as a term for a building in which such a unit meets; every new lodge must be warranted or chartered by a Grand Lodge, but is subject to its direction only in enforcing the published constitution of the jurisdiction. By exception the three surviving lodges that formed the world's first known grand lodge in London have the unique privilege to operate as time immemorial, i.e. without such warrant. A Freemason is entitled to visit any Lodge in any jurisdiction in amity with his own. In some jurisdictions this privilege is restricted to Master Masons, he is first required to check, certify, the regularity of the relationship of the Lodge – and be able to satisfy that Lodge of his regularity of membership. Freemasons gather together as a Lodge to work the three basic Degrees of Entered Apprentice and Master Mason. Technically, Freemasons meet as a lodge not in a lodge. In this context, the word "lodge" refers to a local chapter of Freemasons.
However, the term is misused to refer to the buildings or rooms that Masons meet in. Masonic premises are sometimes referred to as temples. In many countries Masonic centre or Masonic hall has now replaced these terms to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. Several different lodges, or other Masonic organisations use the same premises at different times. Blue lodges, craft lodges or ancient craft lodges refer to the lodges that work the first three Masonic degrees, rather than the appendant Masonic orders such as York Rite and Scottish Rite; the term "craft lodge" is used in Great Britain. The blue lodge is said to refer to the traditional colour of regalia in lodges derived from English or Irish Freemasonry. Although the term was frowned upon, it has gained widespread and mainstream usage in America in recent times. Research lodges have the purpose of furthering Masonic scholarship. Quatuor Coronati Lodge is an example of a research lodge. Many jurisdictions have well-established research lodges, which meet less than blue lodges and do not confer degrees.
In Great Britain, a lodge of instruction may be associated with a Lodge, but is not constituted separately. The lodge of instruction provides the officers and those who wish to become officers an opportunity to rehearse ritual under the guidance of an experienced brother. In some jurisdictions in the United States, the lodge of instruction serves as a warranted lodge for candidate instruction in other aspects of Freemasonry besides ritual rehearsal, as well as hosting a speaker on topics both Masonic and non-Masonic. In Great Britain, the term mother lodge is used to identify the particular Lodge where the individual was first "made a Mason".'Mother lodge' may refer to a lodge which sponsors the creation of a new lodge, the daughter lodge, to be warranted under the jurisdiction of the same grand lodge. Lodge Mother Kilwinning No 0 in the Grand Lodge of Scotland is known as the Mother Lodge of Scotland, having been referred to in the Schaw Statutes of 1598 and 1599, having itself warranted other lodges at a time when it did not subscribe to a grand lodge.
Lodges are governed by national, state or provincial authorities called Grand Lodges or Grand Orients, whose published constitutions define the structure of freemasonry under their authority, which appoint Grand Officers from their senior masons. Provincial Grand Lodges exercise an intermediate authority, appoint Provincial Grand Officers. Different grand lodges and their regions show subtleties of tradition and variation in the degrees and practice. In any case, Grand Lodges have limited jurisdiction over their member Lodges, where there is no prescribed ritual Lodges may thus have considerable freedom of practice. Despite these minor differences, fraternal relations exist between Lodges of corresponding degrees under different Grand Lodges. To be accepted for initiation as a regular Freemason, a candidate must: Be a man who comes of his own free will by his own initiative or by invitation in some jurisdictions. Believe in some kind of Supreme Being. Be of good morals and financially supporting himself and family.
Be at least 21 years old. Live in the jurisdiction Be able to pass interviews and pass the Investigation Committee's inquiries about his past with people who have known him, which can take up to 2 years. Be of sound mind and body.. Be a "Free Man"; this may have arisen from the refusal of operative masons to pass their secr
The snowy owl is a large, white owl of the typical owl family. Snowy owls are native to Arctic regions in North Eurasia. Males are all white, while females have more flecks of black plumage. Juvenile snowy owls have black feathers; the snowy owl is a ground nester that hunts rodents and waterfowl, opportunistically eats carrion. Most owls sleep during the day and hunt at night, but the snowy owl is active during the day in the summertime; the snowy owl was one of the many bird species described by Linnaeus in the landmark 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae, where it was given the binomial name of Strix scandiaca. The genus name Bubo is Latin for the Eurasian eagle-owl and scandiaca is New Latin for Scandinavia; until the snowy owl was regarded as the sole member of a distinct genus, as Nyctea scandiaca, but mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data shows that it is closely related to the horned owls in the genus Bubo. However, some authorities debate this classification; this yellow-eyed, black-beaked white bird is recognisable.
It is 52–71 cm long, with a 125–150 cm wingspan. These owls can weigh anywhere from 1.6 to 3 kg. The average lifespan in the wild is ten years, it is one of the largest species of owl and, in North America, is on average the heaviest owl species. The adult male is pure white, but females and young birds have some dark spots, its thick plumage feathered taloned feet, colouration render the snowy owl well-adapted for life north of the Arctic Circle. Snowy owl calls are varied, but the alarm call is a barking quacking krek-krek; the song is a deep repeated gahw. They may clap their beak in response to threats or annoyances. While called clapping, it is believed this sound may be a clicking of the tongue, not the beak; the snowy owl is found in the northern circumpolar region, where it makes its summer home north of latitude 60° north. However, it is a nomadic bird, because population fluctuations in its prey species can force it to relocate, it has been known to breed at more southerly latitudes. During the last glacial period, there was a Central European subspecies, Bubo scandiacus gallicus, but no modern subspecies are recognized.
Snowy owls nest in the Arctic tundra of the northernmost stretches of Alaska, Northern Canada, Eurasia. They winter south through Canada and northern Eurasia, with irruptions occurring further south in some years. Snowy owls are attracted to open areas like coastal dunes and prairies that appear somewhat similar to tundra. During irruption years when they are found in the Northeastern US, juveniles frequent developed areas, as well as the expected grassland/agricultural areas that older birds utilize. All ages spend a fair amount of their time over water in the Great Lakes and Atlantic Ocean on ice floes, they have been reported as far south as the American Gulf Coast states, southernmost Russia, northern China. In the Late Pleistocene the range expanded southward to Bulgaria, much of the Italian Peninsula. In February 1886, a snowy owl landed on the rigging of the Nova Scotia steamship Ulunda on the edge of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, over 600 km from the nearest land, it was captured and preserved at the Nova Scotia Museum.
Between 1967 and 1975, snowy owls bred on the remote island of Fetlar in the Shetland Isles north of Scotland. Females summered as as 1993, but their status in the British Isles is now that of a rare winter visitor to Shetland, the Outer Hebrides and the Cairngorms. In January 2009, a snowy owl appeared in Spring Hill, the first reported sighting in the state since 1987. Notable is the mass southern migration in the winter of 2011/2012, when thousands of snowy owls were spotted in various locations across the United States; this was followed by an larger mass southern migration in 2013/2014 with the first snowy owls seen in Florida for decades. When perched Snowy owls face the sun, suggested to represent a visual display across long distances in open habitats. However, snowy owls appear to orient themselves into the sun or wind depending on prevailing weather conditions, therefore it is that wind and sun-orientating are associated with thermoregulation; this species of owl nests on the ground, building a scrape on top of a boulder.
A site with good visibility is chosen, such as the top of a mound with ready access to hunting areas and a lack of snow. Gravel bars and abandoned eagle nests may be used; the female scrapes a small hollow before laying the eggs. Breeding occurs in May to June, depending on the amount of prey available, clutch sizes range from 3 to 11 eggs, which are laid singly every other day over the course of several days. Hatching takes place five weeks after laying, the pure white young are cared for by both parents. Although the young hatch asynchronously, with the largest in the brood sometimes 10 to 15 times as heavy as the smallest, there is little sibling conflict and no evidence of siblicide. Both the male and the female defend the nest and their young from predators, sometimes by distraction displays. Males may mate with two females; some individuals stay on the breeding grounds. This powerful bird relies on lemmings and other small rodents for food during the breeding season, but at times of low prey density, or du
The Trans-Labrador Highway is a highway located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is the primary public road in Labrador, its total length is 774.66 mi. Due to the harsh winters and sparse population in most of Labrador, long parts of the road are a well-packed asphalt/gravel surface, re-graded annually. There are plans to complete the paving of the highway by 2021. In addition to weather-related hazards, drivers should be sure to plan out their petrol stops and be vigilant for moose along most stretches of the roadway; the original western/central portion of the TLH is designated as Route 500 and measures 543 km divided as follows: Quebec - Labrador boundary to Labrador City/Wabush: Labrador City/Wabush to Churchill Falls: Churchill Falls to Happy Valley-Goose Bay: Heading southeast is Route 510, the north portion of the TLH, designated Labrador Coastal Drive and measures 606 km divided as follows: Happy Valley-Goose Bay to Cartwright Junction Cartwright Junction to Port Hope Simpson.
Port Hope Simpson to Mary's Harbour. Mary's Harbour to Lodge Bay. Lodge Bay to Red Bay. Red Bay to Quebec - Labrador boundary via Blanc-Sablon; the TLH runs through dense wilderness for most of its length with no roadside services between communities. The TLH/Labrador Coastal Drive connects with Quebec Route 389, which runs 567 km through wilderness north from Baie-Comeau to the Quebec - Labrador boundary; the original TLH from Labrador West to Happy Valley-Goose Bay was completed in 1992. Some sections were poorly built or in need of upgrades due to increased traffic use the section between Churchill Falls and Happy Valley-Goose Bay. In the summer of 1999, $60 million was allocated to upgrade the highway as part of the "Labrador Transportation Initiative"; the Phase I section of the TLH began undergoing paving operations in 2009. The entire Phase I section of the TLH was completed in 2014. In 1997 the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador committed to building an extension of the TLH, connecting Happy Valley-Goose Bay with an existing isolated road network serving coastal communities on the Strait of Belle Isle.
The impetus for this project was the federal government's desire to cut costs and remove itself from subsidizing coastal ferry service to Labrador outports, being provided by the federal Crown corporation Marine Atlantic. These federal cuts were completed in 1997, under the moniker Labrador Transportation Initiative, when an agreement was signed which saw the federal government transfer ownership and operation of two ferry vessels, along with C$340 million for extending Labrador's road network. A key component to this plan was $150 million to upgrade coastal Labrador marine services, including a newer high-capacity ferry for the St. Barbe-Blanc Sablon service across the Strait of Belle Isle. Phase II of new construction, costing $130 million, began in 1999 and saw Route 510 extended 323 km over four years from its terminus in Red Bay northeast to the port of Cartwright; when this southern portion of the TLH was completed in 2002, the Labrador coastal ferry services were transferred from Lewisporte on Newfoundland to Cartwright.
The section from Red Bay to Charlottetown is being paved, to be completed in 2017. The southern TLH runs 409 km, divided as follows: The Phase II section of the southern portion of the TLH between Red Bay and Mary's Harbour experiences extreme winter driving conditions: pictures of heavy snow-removal equipment battling snow drifts dozens of feet deep have become famous around the world; the poor winter driving conditions result in this section of the TLH being impassable for weeks. Phase III is a 250 km section of Route 510 built for $130 million south of Lake Melville/Hamilton Inlet to connect Cartwright Junction with Happy Valley-Goose Bay, completed sufficiently to open to traffic on 16 December 2009. During 2010, two permanent bridges, road surface work and guardrails were completed at a cost of $15 million. Phase II north from Cartwright Junction is Route 516, a ferry service connects Cartwright with Happy Valley-Goose Bay, intended to be removed after the highway is completed, achieved in mid-December 2009.
Transportation Minister Tom Hedderson had made the announcement of the impending completion of the highway connection between Cartwright and Happy Valley-Goose Bay on Tuesday, December 8, 2009 in the legislature. "We indicated that we'd do everything possible to get it done in this time period of 2009," Hedderson said, "and... we are very close in a sense that the crew has indeed connected up both sides." Hedderson said some final work has to be done on that portion of the highway, but he said it would open to the public soon. 80 km of this route have been paved in 2015. Phase II involved completion of highway north to Cartwright from Red Bay, was opened in 2002. Although the entire route was designated as Route 510, upon completion of Phase III, the northern 94 km from Cartwright Junction was designate
Wabush Airport is 1 nautical mile northeast of Wabush and Labrador, Canada. It serves Labrador West as well as Quebec. Wabush Water Aerodrome Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Wabush Airport from Nav Canada as available
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula; the province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador; the name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII in reference to the land explored by the Cabots. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which means "new land", the French name for the Province's island region; the name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island. The influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Labrador's name in the Inuttitut language is Nunatsuak, meaning "the big land". Newfoundland's Inuttitut name is Ikkarumikluak meaning "place of many shoals".
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, is at the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, a large area of mainland Canada, Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean; the province includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is triangular; each side is about 400 km long, its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands have an area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area is 294,330 km2. Together and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area, with a total area of 405,720 km2.
Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, as such has been designated a World Heritage Site; the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate: cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather, due to its geography; the island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.
The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Monthly average temperatures and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada; the data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground; this distinction is important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.