In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos. Its function was to hold the Minotaur, the monster killed by the hero Theseus. Daedalus had so cunningly made the Labyrinth that he could escape it after he built it. Although early Cretan coins exhibit branching patterns, the single-path seven-course "Classical" design without branching or dead ends became associated with the Labyrinth on coins as early as 430 BC, similar non-branching patterns became used as visual representations of the Labyrinth – though both logic and literary descriptions make it clear that the Minotaur was trapped in a complex branching maze; as the designs became more elaborate, visual depictions of the mythological Labyrinth from Roman times until the Renaissance are invariably unicursal. Branching mazes were reintroduced only. In English, the term labyrinth is synonymous with maze; as a result of the long history of unicursal representation of the mythological Labyrinth, many contemporary scholars and enthusiasts observe a distinction between the two.
In this specialized usage maze refers to a complex branching multicursal puzzle with choices of path and direction, while a unicursal labyrinth has only a single path to the center. A labyrinth in this sense has an unambiguous route to the center and back and presents no navigational challenge. Unicursal labyrinths appeared as designs on pottery or basketry, as body art, in etchings on walls of caves or churches; the Romans created many decorative unicursal designs on walls and floors in tile or mosaic. Many labyrinths set in floors or on the ground are large enough. Unicursal patterns have been used both in group ritual and for private meditation, are found for therapeutic use in hospitals and hospices. Labyrinth is a word of pre-Greek origin, which the Greeks associated with the palace of Knossos in Crete, excavated by Arthur Evans early in the 20th century; the word appears in a Linear B inscription as da-pu-ri-to. As early as 1892 Maximilian Mayer suggested that labyrinthos might derive from labrys, a Lydian word for "double-bladed axe".
Evans suggested that the palace at Knossos was the original labyrinth, since the double axe motif appears in the palace ruins, he asserted that labyrinth could be understood to mean "the house of the double axe". This designation may not have been limited to Knossos, since the same symbols were discovered in other palaces in Crete; however Nilsson observes that in Crete the "double axe" is not a weapon and always accompanies goddesses or women and not a male god. Beekes finds the relation with labrys speculative, suggests instead the relation with lavra, narrow street; the original Minoan word appears to refer to labyrinthine grottoes, such as seen at Gortyn. Pliny the Elder's four examples of labyrinths are all complex underground structures, this appears to have been the standard Classical understanding of the word, it is possible that the word labyrinth is derived from the Egyptian loperohunt, meaning palace or temple by the lake. The Egyptian labyrinth near Lake Moeris is described by Strabo.
By the 4th century BC, Greek vase painters represented the Labyrinth by the familiar "Greek key" patterns of endlessly running meanders. When the Bronze Age site at Knossos was excavated by explorer Arthur Evans, the complexity of the architecture prompted him to suggest that the palace had been the Labyrinth of Daedalus. Evans found various bull motifs, including an image of a man leaping over the horns of a bull, as well as depictions of a labrys carved into the walls. On the strength of a passage in the Iliad, it has been suggested that the palace was the site of a dancing-ground made for Ariadne by the craftsman Daedalus, where young men and women, of the age of those sent to Crete as prey for the Minotaur, would dance together. By extension, in popular legend the palace is associated with the myth of the Minotaur. In the 2000s, archaeologists explored other potential sites of the labyrinth. Oxford University geographer Nicholas Howarth believes that'Evans's hypothesis that the palace of Knossos is the Labyrinth must be treated sceptically.'
Howarth and his team conducted a search of an underground complex known as the Skotino cave but concluded that it was formed naturally. Another contender is a series of tunnels at Gortyn, accessed by a narrow crack but expanding into interlinking caverns. Unlike the Skotino cave, these caverns have smooth walls and columns, appear to have been at least man-made; this site corresponds to an unusual labyrinth symbol on a 16th-century map of Crete contained in a book of maps in the library of Christ Church, Oxford. A map of the caves themselves was produced by the French in 1821; the site was used by German soldiers to store ammunition during the Second World War. Howarth's investigation was shown on a documentary produced for the National Geographic Channel. More labyrinth might be applied to any complicated maze-like structure. Herodotus, in Book II of his Histories, describes as a "labyrinth" a building complex in Egypt, "near the place called the City of Crocodiles," that he considered to surpass the pyramids: It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range fronting the gates of the other.
Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, the other half directly above them. I was taken through the rooms in
Jennifer "Jen" Lalor Nielsen, née Jennifer Lalor, is an American retired soccer midfielder and former member of the United States women's national soccer team. In 2012, she was nominated for entry into the National Soccer Hall of Fame. Born in Chula Vista, Lalor attended Bonita Vista High School and helped the soccer team to two undefeated seasons and clinch two Metro League titles, she opted not to play high school soccer during her junior and senior years and instead played for the Southern California Blues club team. Lalor attended Santa Clara University where she played for the Broncos from 1992-1996. In 1994, she led the team in assists with 20, she was named to the NSCAA All-American team in 1993, 1994 and 1996. Lalor played in two Final Fours with the Broncos and led the nation in assists in 1994 and 1996, she was a finalist for the Missouri Athletic Club Award and Hermann Trophy in 1993 and 1994. Lalor was the first player to receive a full scholarship for soccer to Santa Clara, she was inducted into the Santa Clara Hall of Fame in 2008.
Lalor now coaches at San Diego Soccer Club. From 1997–1998, Lalor played professionally in Japan for Shiroka Serena. In 1998, she played in Denmark for FB. In 1999, she played for Swedish club, Hammarby. Lalor was selected in the second round of the WUSA Inaugural Draft by the New York Power, she played for the Power from 2001–2002. In 2003, she played for the San Diego Spirit. Lalor was a member of the United States women's national soccer team player pool from 1987–1995, her first appearance for the senior team occurred on August 1992 in a match against Norway. She scored her first goal on August 1994 during a match against Mexico, she represented the United States on the U-16, U-19, U-20 levels. From 1987-1991, she played for the U. S. Under-16 and Under-19 National Team. In 1993, she competed with the U-20 National team in France, when the team won the International Women's Tournament. In 1995, she was part of the team, she returned to the national team player pool in 2001. "Coach Jen'Lalor' Nielsen".
San Diego Football Academy. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2013. CS1 maint: unfit url
Wang Hongyi was a secret police official during the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty. Wang Hongyi was born in 2007, he was known as a hoodlum in his youth, on one occasion, when he begged for melons from a farmer but the farmer refused, he falsely reported to the county magistrate that there was a white rabbit—then considered a sign of good virtue for the emperor—in the melon field. On another occasion, when he went through the region of Zhao and Bei, he happened to see the country people putting on a vegetarian feast for Buddhist monks, he falsely reported that they were plotting a rebellion. More than 200 people were killed; as of 690, Wu Zetian empress dowager and regent over her son Emperor Ruizong, was poised to take the throne herself, by that point, she had given Wang a general title, made him an assistant censor. On one occasion, when Wang Anren the commandant at Sheng Prefecture was accused of treason, Empress Dowager Wu sent Wang Hongyi to investigate. Wang Anren put himself in stocks to try to show his loyalty, but Wang Hongyi was not persuaded, had Wang Anren beheaded as he was in the stocks.
As he was returning to the eastern capital Luoyang, he went through Fen Prefecture, where the military advisor to the prefect, a man named Mao, held a feast for him. For reasons unknown, during the feast, he ordered Mao to leave the table and beheaded Mao, he put Mao's head on a spear and entered Luoyang with it, everyone who saw the sight shivered. At that time, the prison for political prisoners were inside the Lijing Gate, as political prisoners entering that gate would thus be able to leave alive, Wang jokingly referred to the Lijing Gate with two different characters, 例竟 pronounced Lijing but meaning "the end." In 692, Wang falsely implicated the chancellors Li Youdao, Wang Xuan, Yuan Zhihong, Cui Shenji, Li Yuansu, other officials Kong Siyuan and Ren Linghui, all of them were removed from their posts and exiled to the Lingnan region. In 694, Wang was exiled to Qiong Prefecture, he pretended to receive an edict from Wu Zetian recalling him to Luoyang, but as he reached the north bank of the Han River, he encountered the censor Hu Yuanli.
Hu found out that he falsely claimed to be recalled by edict. Unable to defend himself, Wang pleaded with Hu, stating, "I am but similar to you, sir." Hu responded, "When you, were a censor, I was the sheriff of Luoyang. I am now a censor and you are now a prisoner. Where is the similarity?" He had Wang caned to death. He had had brother Wang i have no idea killed