The Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge is in the northwest United States, one of the Interstate 90 floating bridges that carries the eastbound lanes of Interstate 90 across Lake Washington from Seattle to Mercer Island, Washington. Westbound traffic is carried by the adjacent Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge; the Murrow Bridge is the second-longest floating bridge on Earth at 6,620 ft. The third-longest is the Hood Canal Bridge, about thirty miles to the northwest; the original Murrow Bridge was called the Lake Washington Floating Bridge. It was renamed the Lacey V. Morrow bridge in 1967; the original bridge closed in 1989. Along with the east portals of the Mount Baker Ridge Tunnel, the bridge is an official City of Seattle landmark. While the bridge had an opening span at the center of the bridge to allow a horizontal opening of 202 feet for major waterborne traffic, the only boat passages are elevated fixed spans at the termini with 29 feet of vertical clearance; the bridge was the brainchild of engineer Homer Hadley, who had made the first proposal in 1921.
The bridge came about after intensive lobbying by George Lightfoot, who came to be called the "father of the bridge." Lightfoot began campaigning for the bridge in 1930. Construction began January 1, 1939 and was completed in 1940; the construction cost for the project, including approaches, was $9 million. It was financed by a bond issue of $4.184 million. Tolls were removed in 1949; the bridge sank in a storm on November 1990 while it was undergoing refurbishing and repair. The current bridge was built in 1993; the eponymous Lacey V. Murrow was the second director of the Washington State Highway Department and a decorated U. S. Air Force officer who served as a bomber pilot in World War II and rose to the rank of brigadier general. A 1925 graduate of Washington State College in Pullman, he was the oldest brother of CBS commentator Edward R. Murrow; the original bridge was built under a 1 1⁄2-year contract awarded to the Puget Sound Bridge and Dredging Company in the amount of $3.254 million. It included a movable span that could be retracted into a pocket in the center of the fixed span to permit large boats to pass.
This design resulted in a roadway "bulge" that required vehicles to swerve twice across polished steel joints as they passed the bulge. A reversible lane system, indicated by lighted overhead lane control signals with arrow and'X' signs, compounded the hazard by putting one lane of traffic on the "wrong" side of the bulge at different times of day in an effort to alleviate rush-hour traffic into or out of Seattle. There were many serious collisions on the bridge; the problems grew worse as the traffic load increased over the years and far outstripped the designed capacity. Renovation or replacement was essential and a parallel bridge, the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge, was completed in 1989, named for Hadley in 1993. With the opening of the new bridge, the 49-year-old Murrow Bridge closed on June 23, 1989, for renovation work, projected to take three years. On November 25, 1990, while under re-construction, the original bridge sank because of a series of human errors and decisions; the process started because the bridge needed resurfacing and was to be widened by means of cantilevered additions in order to meet the necessary lane-width specifications of the Interstate Highway System.
The Washington State Department of Transportation decided to use hydrodemolition to remove unwanted material. Water from this hydrodemolition was considered contaminated under environmental law and could not be allowed to flow into Lake Washington. Engineers analyzed the pontoons of the bridge, realized that they were over-engineered and the water could be stored temporarily in the pontoons; the watertight doors for the pontoons were therefore removed. A large storm on November 22–24, filled some of the pontoons with rain and lake water. On Saturday, November 24, workers noticed that the bridge was about to sink, started pumping out some of the pontoons, it sank when one pontoon filled and dragged the rest down, because they were cabled together and there was no way to separate the sections under load. No one was hurt or killed, since the bridge was closed for renovation and the sinking took some time. All of the sinking was captured on film and shown on live TV; the cost of the disaster was $69 million in damages.
A dozen anchoring cables for the new Hadley bridge were severed, it was closed for a short time afterward. Westbound traffic was allowed on Tuesday, eastbound traffic was resumed in early December; the disaster delayed the bridge's reopening by 14 months, to September 12, 1993. WSDOT had lost another floating bridge, the Hood Canal Bridge, in February 1979 under similar circumstances, it is now known that the other major floating bridge in Washington, the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, was under-engineered for local environmental conditions. Transport portal Engineering portal United States portal List of bridges in Seattle Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge Lacey V. Murrow Floating Bridge at Structurae Bridge Camera, includes some weather information HAER Survey num
The St. Louis Cardinals 2003 season was the team's 122nd season in St. Louis and the 112th season in the National League; the Cardinals went 85-77 during the season and finished 3rd in the National League Central division, three games behind the Chicago Cubs, who won the NL Central at 88-74, two behind the NL Central runners-up, the Houston Astros. Catcher Mike Matheny, shortstop Édgar Rentería, third baseman Scott Rolen, outfielder Jim Edmonds won Gold Gloves this year. December 13, 2002: Chris Carpenter was signed as a Free Agent with the St. Louis Cardinals. Jim Edmonds Eli Marrero Tino Martinez Mike Matheny Matt Morris Albert Pujols Édgar Rentería Scott Rolen Fernando Viña May 27, 2003: Scott Seabol was signed as a Free Agent with the St. Louis Cardinals. Note: G = Games played. = Batting average. = Batting average.
A handle is a part of, or attachment to, an object that can be moved or used by hand. The design of each type of handle involves substantial ergonomic issues where these are dealt with intuitively or by following tradition. Handles for tools are an important part of their function, enabling the user to exploit the tools to maximum effect. Package handles allow for convenient carrying of packages; the three nearly universal requirements of are: Sufficient strength to support the object, or to otherwise transmit the force involved in the task the handle serves. Sufficient length to permit the hand or hands gripping it to reliably exert that force. Sufficiently small circumference to permit the hand or hands to surround it far enough to grip it as solidly as needed to exert that force. Other requirements may apply to specific handles: A sheath or coating on the handle that provides friction against the hand, reducing the gripping force needed to achieve a reliable grip. Designs such as recessed car-door handles, reducing the chance of accidental operation, or the inconvenience of "snagging" the handle.
Sufficient circumference to safely over the hand. An example where this requirement is the sole purpose for a handle's existence is the handle that consists of two pieces: a hollow wooden cylinder about the diameter of a finger and a bit longer than one hand-width, a stiff wire that passes through the center of the cylinder, has two right angles, is shaped into a hook at each end; this handle permits comfortable carrying, with otherwise bare hands, of a heavy package, suspended on a tight string that passes around the top and bottom of it: the string is strong enough to support it, but the pressure the string would exert on fingers that grasped it directly would be unacceptable. Design to thwart unwanted access, for example, by thieves. In these cases many of the other requirements may have reduced importance. For example, a child-proof doorknob can be difficult for an adult to use. One major category of handles are pull handles, where one or more hands grip the handle or handles, exert force to shorten the distance between the hands and their corresponding shoulders.
The three criteria stated above are universal for pull handles. Many pull handles are for lifting on objects to be carried. Horizontal pull handles are widespread, including drawer pulls, handles on latchless doors and the outside of car doors; the inside controls for opening car doors from inside are pull handles, although their function of permitting the door to be pushed open is accomplished by an internal unlatching linkage. Pull handles are a frequent host of common door handle bacteria such as e-coli, fungal or other viral infections. Two kinds of pull handles may involve motion in addition to the hand-focused motions described: Pulling the starting cord on a small internal-combustion engine may, besides moving the hand toward the shoulder exploit pushing a wheeled vehicle away with the other hand, stepping away from the engine, and/or standing from a squat; some throwing motions, as in a track-and-field hammer throw, involve pulling on a handle against centrifugal force, in the course of accelerating the thrown object by forcing it into circular motion.
Another category of hand-operated device requires grasping and rotating the hand and either the lower arm or the whole arm, about their axis. When the grip required is a fist grip, as with a door handle that has an arm rather than a knob to twist, the term "handle" unambiguously applies. Another clear case is a rarer device seen on mechanically complicated doors like those of airliners, where the axis of rotation is between the thumb and the outermost fingers, so the thumb moves up if the outer fingers move down; the handles of bicycle grips, club-style weapons and spades, hammers and hatchets, baseball bats, golf clubs, croquet mallets involve a greater range of ergonomic issues
MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most used to store video and audio, but it can be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images. Like most modern container formats, it allows streaming over the Internet; the only official filename extension for MPEG-4 Part 14 files is.mp4. MPEG-4 Part 14 is a standard specified as a part of MPEG-4. Portable media players are sometimes advertised as "MP4 Players", although some are MP3 Players that play AMV video or some other video format, do not play the MPEG-4 Part 14 format. MPEG-4 Part 14 is an instance of the more general ISO/IEC 14496-12:2004, directly based upon the QuickTime File Format. MPEG-4 Part 14 is identical to the QuickTime file format, but formally specifies support for Initial Object Descriptors and other MPEG features. MPEG-4 Part 14 revises and replaces Clause 13 of ISO/IEC 14496-1, in which the file format for MPEG-4 content was specified; the MPEG-4 file format specification was based on the QuickTime format, published in 2001.
The MPEG-4 file format, version 1 was published in 2001 as ISO/IEC 14496-1:2001, a revision of the MPEG-4 Part 1: Systems specification published in 1999. In 2003, the first version of the MP4 file format was revised and replaced by MPEG-4 Part 14: MP4 file format named as MPEG-4 file format version 2; the MP4 file format was generalized into the ISO Base Media File format ISO/IEC 14496-12:2004, which defines a general structure for time-based media files. It in turn is used as the basis for other file formats in the family; the MP4 file format defined some extensions over the ISO Base Media File Format to support MPEG-4 visual/audio codecs and various MPEG-4 Systems features such as object descriptors and scene descriptions. Some of these extensions are used by other formats based on ISO base media file format. A list of all registered extensions for ISO Base Media File Format is published on the official registration authority website; the registration authority for code-points in "MP4 Family" files is Apple Inc. and it is named in Annex D in MPEG-4 Part 12.
Codec designers should register the codes they invent, but the registration is not mandatory and some invented and used code-points are not registered. When someone is creating a new specification derived from the ISO Base Media File Format, all the existing specifications should be used both as examples and a source of definitions and technology. If an existing specification covers how a particular media type is stored in the file format, that definition should be used and a new one should not be invented. While the only official filename extension defined by the standard is.mp4, various filename extensions are used to indicate intended content: MPEG-4 files with audio and video use the standard.mp4 extension. Audio-only MPEG-4 files have a.m4a extension. This is true of unprotected content. MPEG-4 files with audio streams encrypted by FairPlay Digital Rights Management as were sold through the iTunes Store use the.m4p extension. ITunes Plus tracks, that the iTunes Store sells, are unencrypted and use.m4a accordingly.
Audiobook and podcast files, which contain metadata including chapter markers and hyperlinks, can use the extension.m4a, but more use the.m4b extension. An.m4a audio file cannot "bookmark", whereas.m4b extension files can. The Apple iPhone uses MPEG-4 audio for its ringtones but uses the.m4r extension rather than the.m4a extension. Raw MPEG-4 Visual bitstreams are named.m4v but this extension is sometimes used for video in MP4 container format. Mobile phones use 3GP, an implementation of MPEG-4 Part 12, similar to MP4, it uses.3gp and.3g2 extensions. These files store non-MPEG-4 data. In practice, most low end phones and feature phones record in this format, as most other mobile phones and smartphones record MP4 files using the.mp4 file extension, some high end phones can record in.raw. Most kinds of data can be embedded in MPEG-4 Part 14 files through private streams. A separate hint track is used to include streaming information in the file; the registered codecs for MPEG-4 Part 12-based files are published on the website of MP4 Registration authority, but most of them are not supported by MP4 players.
The supported codecs and additional data streams are: Video: MPEG-H Part 2, MPEG-4 Part 10 and MPEG-4 Part 2Other compression formats are less used: MPEG-2 and MPEG-1Audio: Advanced Audio CodingAlso MPEG-4 Part 3 audio objects, such as Audio Lossless Coding, Scalable Lossless Coding, MP3, MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, CELP, HVXC, TwinVQ, Text To Speech Interface and Structured Audio Orchestra Language Other compression formats are less used: Apple Lossless and Free Lossless Audio Codec Subtitles: MPEG-4 Timed Text. Nero Digital uses DVD Video subtitles in MP4 files MP4 files can contain metadata as defined by the format standard, in addition, can contain Extensible Metadata Platform metadata. Comparison of container formats List of multimedia codecs List of open source codecs Comparison of video codecs Comparison of audio coding formats Audio coding format Video coding
Claude Wilson Osteen, nicknamed "Gomer" because of his resemblance to television character Gomer Pyle, is an American former professional baseball left-handed pitcher, who played in Major League Baseball for the Cincinnati Redlegs/Reds, Washington Senators, Los Angeles Dodgers, Houston Astros, St. Louis Cardinals, Chicago White Sox; the most significant portion of Osteen's career was spent with the Dodgers. A "Bonus Baby" who never received a season-long chance to start in Cincinnati, he was traded on Sept. 16, 1961, from Cincinnati to the Washington Senators for pitcher Dave Sisler. With the Senators, Osteen got a chance to start in the big leagues, albeit with a sub-.500 team. After posting a winning record in 1964, he was in much demand that winter. On December 4, 1964, Osteen was traded by the Senators to the Dodgers in a 7-player deal, with five players going to the Senators. Osteen developed into one of the game's better starters in Los Angeles. After two years with an earned run average under 3.00, Osteen was considered a top-notch starter and a workhorse.
In those two years and the Dodgers reached two straight World Series. In the 1965 World Series, the Dodgers went on to beat the Minnesota Twins in 7 games, with Osteen pitching brilliantly, he had a 0.64 ERA in the Series, with a 1–1 record including a shutout, which came after teammates Don Drysdale and Sandy Koufax had lost their respective games. In the 1966 World Series, the Dodgers were beaten by the Baltimore Orioles in four games. Osteen was charged with the loss, in a 1–0 pitcher's duel with Wally Bunker in Game 3, despite giving up only three hits in seven innings. Osteen's final postseason statistics include a 0.86 ERA with seven strikeouts in 21 innings pitched. In 1967, Osteen reached his first All-Star game, his season totals included going 17 -- 17, in 288 1/3 innings pitched. He hurled 14 complete games, with five shutouts. In 1968, Osteen was one of the game's consistent hard-luck losers; the 12 victories would be his fewest in a season from 1964–1973. In 1969, Osteen won 20 games for the first time and set a number of career highs, including 321 innings pitched, 183 strikeouts, 16 complete games, 7 shutouts.
In the 1970s, Osteen was still pitching an average of 260 innings a year. In the 1970 All-Star game, Osteen pitched three shutout innings, notching the win, in a game most remembered for the play in which Pete Rose barreled into Ray Fosse to score the winning run in the 12th inning. Coincidentally, like Osteen, the pitcher and hitter involved in the walk-off single were Tennessee natives: Jim Hickman collected the hit off losing pitcher Clyde Wright. In 1972, Osteen had a strong year, finishing with 7 complete game victories in his last 9 starts; that year, he was 20 -- 11, in 252 innings pitched. Osteen made his 3rd and final All-Star team in 1973, in what would prove to be his last real quality MLB campaign — and his last season with the Dodgers; that year, while pitching for a 2nd-place Dodger team, Osteen went 16–11 and posted a 3.31 ERA, while logging 33 starts, 12 complete games, 3 shutouts. He had achieved double-figure wins each year, for 10 consecutive seasons. Prior to the 1974 season, the Dodgers traded Osteen to the Houston Astros for outfielder Jimmy Wynn.
Wynn helped. After the Astros released Osteen in April 1975, he was signed by the Chicago White Sox, for whom he played his final game on September 27, 1975; that following spring, when Osteen no longer fit in the ChiSox’ future plans, the team released him. Over the course of an 18-year professional career, Osteen compiled 196 wins, 1,612 strikeouts, a 3.30 ERA. As a batter, Osteen had a lifetime.188 batting average, with 8 home runs, 76 runs batted in. He was used as pinch hitter on a number of occasions. Beginning in 1977, Osteen became a big league pitching coach for the Cardinals, Philadelphia Phillies, Texas Rangers, Dodgers, he coached various minor league teams. 3-time All-Star Top 10 in the league in games started, 10 times 2nd in the league in shutouts 3 times.
Wyndham Street is a one-way street in Central, Hong Kong. It is one of the earliest colonial streets, once known as Pedder Hill, it starts at the junction with Hollywood Road and Arbuthnot Road, near the Central Police Station, heads downhill to terminate at Queen's Road Central, near the Entertainment Building. Lieutenant William Pedder the first lieutenant of the Nemesis was the first harbour master of Hong Kong, established Pedder Street as the centre of Victoria City's commerce in the early colonial days. Pedder had his office built on the rocks above. For many years, the site on the top was known as Pedder's Hill. In the early 20th century, Wyndham Street was nicknamed "Flower Street" because of the numerous stalls selling flowers. In 1928, the flower stalls were moved to D'Aguilar Street and the "Flower Street" name became attached to the new location. On 18 August 1997, a Mitsubishi Lancer crashed on Wyndham Street, resulting in the death of 3 people and injuring 10 others. List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google Maps of Wyndham Street