In Greek mythology Hemera was the personification of day and one of the Greek primordial deities. She is the goddess of the daytime and, according to the daughter of Erebus and Nyx. Hemera is remarked upon in Cicero's De Natura Deorum, where it is logically determined that Dies must be a god, if Uranus is a god; the poet Bacchylides states that Nyx and Chronos are the parents, but Hyginus in his preface to the Fabulae mentions Chaos as the mother/father and Nyx as her sister. Hemera was the female counterpart of her brother and consort, but neither of them figured in myth or cult. Hyginus lists their children as Uranus and Thalassa, while Hesiod only lists Thalassa as their child. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Hemera left Tartarus. Pausanias makes this identification with Eos upon looking at the tiling of the royal portico in Athens, where the myth of Eos and Kephalos is illustrated, he makes this identification again at Amyklai and at Olympia, upon looking at statues and illustrations where Eos is present.
Hesiod, Theogony from The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Marcus Tullius Cicero, Nature of the Gods from the Treatises of M. T. Cicero translated by Charles Duke Yonge, Bohn edition of 1878. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Natura Deorum. O. Plasberg. Leipzig. Teubner. 1917. Latin text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W. H. S. Jones, Litt. D. and H. A. Ormerod, M. A. in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library
In Greek mythology, Pontus was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, one of the Greek primordial deities. Pontus has no father. For Hesiod, Pontus seems little more than a personification of the sea, ho pontos, "the Road", by which Hellenes signified the Mediterranean Sea. With Gaia, he fathered Nereus, Thaumas and his sister-consort Ceto, the "Strong Goddess" Eurybia. With the sea goddess Thalassa, he fathered all sea life. In a Roman sculpture of the 2nd century AD, rising from seaweed, grasps a rudder with his right hand and leans on the prow of a ship, he wears a mural crown, accompanies Fortuna, whose draperies appear at the left, as twin patron deities of the Black Sea port of Tomis in Moesia. From Aether and Earth: Grief, Wrath, Falsehood, Vengeance, Altercation, Sloth, Pride, Combat, Themis, Pontus. Pontus Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
Hesiod, Theogony from The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website
Themis is an ancient Greek Titaness. She is described as " of good counsel", is the personification of divine order, law, natural law, custom, her symbols are the Scales of Justice, tools used to remain balanced and pragmatic. Themis means "divine law" rather than human ordinance "that, put in place", from the Greek verb títhēmi, meaning "to put". To the ancient Greeks she was the organizer of the "communal affairs of humans assemblies". Moses Finley remarked of themis, as the word was used by Homer in the 8th century BCE, to evoke the social order of the 10th- and 9th-century Greek Dark Ages: Themis is untranslatable. A gift of the gods and a mark of civilized existence, sometimes it means right custom, proper procedure, social order, sometimes the will of the gods with little of the idea of right. Finley adds, "There was themis—custom, folk-ways, whatever we may call it, the enormous power of'it is done'; the world of Odysseus had a developed sense of what was fitting and proper." The personification of abstract concepts is characteristic of the Greeks.
The ability of the goddess Themis to foresee the future enabled her to become one of the Oracles of Delphi, which in turn led to her establishment as the goddess of divine justice. Some classical representations of Themis showed her holding a sword, believed to represent her ability to cut fact from fiction. Themis was herself oracular. According to another legend, Themis received the Oracle at Delphi from Gaia and gave it to Phoebe; when Themis is disregarded, Nemesis brings just and wrathful retribution. Themis is not wrathful: she, "of the lovely cheeks", was the first to offer Hera a cup when she returned to Olympus distraught over threats from Zeus. Themis presided over the proper relation between man and woman, the basis of the rightly ordered family, judges were referred to as "themistopóloi"; such was the basis for order upon Olympus. Hera addressed her as "Lady Themis"; the name of Themis might be substituted for Adrasteia in telling of the birth of Zeus on Crete. Themis was present at Delos to witness the birth of Apollo.
According to Ovid, it was Themis rather than Zeus who told Deucalion to throw the bones of "his Mother" over his shoulder to create a new race of humankind after the deluge. Themis occurred in Hesiod's Theogony as the first recorded appearance of Justice as a divine personage. Drawing not only on the socio-religious consciousness of his time but on many of the earlier cult-religions, Hesiod described the forces of the universe as cosmic divinities. Hesiod portrayed Dike, as the daughter of Zeus and Themis. Dike executed the law of judgments and sentencing and, together with her mother Themis, she carried out the final decisions of Moirai. For Hesiod, Justice is at the center of religious and moral life who, independently of Zeus, is the embodiment of divine will; this personification of Dike stands in contrast to justice viewed as custom or law and as retribution or sentence. In the play Prometheus Bound, traditionally attributed to Aeschylus, Themis is the mother of Prometheus, gave him foreknowledge of what was to come.
It is said by Prometheus. In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions six daughters of Gaia and Uranus. Among these Titans of primordial myth, few were venerated at specific sanctuaries in classical times; the only consort for Themis mentioned in the sources below is Zeus. One of her few children was called the Greek goddess of the forest. With Zeus she more bore the Horae, those embodiments of the right moment – the rightness of order unfolding in time – and Astraea. First generation: Auxo Carpo Thallo Second generation: Dike Eirene Eunomia Followers of Zeus claimed that it was with him that Themis produced the Moirai, three Fates. A fragment of Pindar, tells that the Moirai were present at the nuptials of Zeus and Themis. To compliment Pindar, Hesiod tells us in the Theogony that the Moirai were bore from Nyx who lay with no one. Clotho Lachesis Atropos Themis had several temples in Greece, though they are not described in any great detail by ancient authors, she had temples at the oracular shrine of Zeus at Dodona, at Tanagra, in Athens, a Temple of Themis Ikhnaia in Phthiotis, Thessalia.
Pausanias describe her sanctuary in Thebes in somewhat more detail than what was the case and it may therefore have been of more importance: "Along the road from the Neistan gate are three sanctuaries. There is a sanctuary of Themis, with an image of white marble. Themis was sometimes depicted in the sanctuaries of other gods and may have shared temples with them and she is mentioned to have shared a temple with Aphrodite in Epidauros: "Within the grove [of the sanctuary of Asklepios (Asclepi
In Greek mythology, Eros is the Greek god of love. His Roman counterpart was Cupid, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares, with most of his siblings, was a part of group, consisting of winged love gods. However, sometimes he is described as one of the primordial gods, but he is most identified with Phanes; the Greek ἔρως, meaning "desire," comes from ἔραμαι "to love", of uncertain etymology. R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin. Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises. In the earliest sources, he is one of the primordial gods involved in the coming into being of the cosmos, but in sources, Eros is represented as the son of Aphrodite, whose mischievous interventions in the affairs of gods and mortals cause bonds of love to form illicitly. In the satirical poets, he is represented as a blindfolded child, the precursor to the chubby Renaissance Cupid, whereas in early Greek poetry and art, Eros was depicted as an adult male who embodies sexual power, a profound artist.
A cult of Eros existed in pre-classical Greece, but it was much less important than that of Aphrodite. However, in late antiquity, Eros was worshiped by a fertility cult in Thespiae. In Athens, he shared a popular cult with Aphrodite, the fourth day of every month was sacred to him. Eros was one of the Erotes, along with other figures such as Himeros and Pothos, who are sometimes considered patrons of homosexual love between males. Eros is part of a triad of gods that played roles in homoerotic relationships, along with Heracles and Hermes, who bestowed qualities of beauty and eloquence onto male lovers. According to Hesiod's Theogony, one of the most ancient of all Greek sources, Eros was the fourth god to come into existence, coming after Chaos and Tartarus. Homer does not mention Eros. However, one of the pre-Socratic philosophers, makes Eros the first of all the gods to come into existence; the Orphic and Eleusinian Mysteries featured Eros as a original god, but not quite primordial, since he was the child of Night.
Aristophanes, influenced by Orphism, relates the birth of Eros: "At the beginning there was only Chaos, Night and the Abyss. Earth, the Air and Heaven had no existence. Firstly, blackwinged Night laid a germless egg in the bosom of the infinite deeps of Darkness, from this, after the revolution of long ages, sprang the graceful Love with his glittering golden wings, swift as the whirlwinds of the tempest, he mated in the deep Abyss with dark Chaos, winged like himself, thus hatched forth our race, the first to see the light." In myths, he was the son of the deities Aphrodite and Ares: it is the Eros of these myths, one of the erotes. Eros was associated with athleticism, with statues erected in gymnasia, "was regarded as the protector of homosexual love between men." Eros was depicted as carrying a lyre or bow and arrow. He was depicted accompanied by dolphins, roosters and torches. “We must have a word with Aphrodite. Let us go together and ask her to persuade her boy, if, possible, to loose an arrow at Aeetes’ daughter, Medea of the many spells, make her fall in love with Jason...”
"He smites maids’ breasts with unknown heat, bids the gods leave heaven and dwell on earth in borrowed forms." "Once, when Venus’ son was kissing her, his quiver dangling down, a jutting arrow, had grazed her breast. She pushed the boy away. In fact the wound was deeper. Enraptured by the beauty of a man." "Eros drove Dionysos mad for the girl with the delicious wound of his arrow curving his wings flew to Olympus. And the god roamed over the hills scourged with a greater fire.” The story of Eros and Psyche has a longstanding tradition as a folktale of the ancient Greco-Roman world long before it was committed to literature in Apuleius' Latin novel, The Golden Ass. The novel itself is written in a picaresque Roman style. Eros and Aphrodite are called by their Latin names, Cupid is depicted as a young adult, rather than a child; the story tells of the struggle for trust between Eros and Psyche. Aphrodite was jealous of the beauty of mortal princess Psyche, as men were leaving her altars barren to worship a mere human woman instead, so she commanded her son Eros, the god of love, to cause Psyche to fall in love with the ugliest creature on earth.
But instead, Eros falls in love with Psyche himself and spirits her away to his home. Their fragile peace is ruined by a visit from Psyche's jealous sisters, who cause Psyche to betray the trust of her husband. Wounded, Eros leaves his wife, Psyche wanders the Earth, looking for her lost love, she approaches Aphrodite and asks for her help. Aphrodite imposes a series of difficult tasks on Psyche, which she is able to achieve by means of supernatural assistance. After completing these tasks, Aphrodite relents and Psyche becomes immortal to live alongside her husband Eros. Together they had a daughter, Voluptas or Hedone (meaning phys
In Greek mythology, Thalassa was the primeval spirit of the sea. Beekes suggested. Gaius Julius Hyginus described her in the preface to his Fabulae as daughter of Hemera. With her male counterpart Pontus, she spawned the tribes of fish; the couple were replaced by the other marine pairs and Tethys, Poseidon and Amphitrite. Fables were devoted to her by Aesop and she was to be depicted in both artistic and literary works during the Common Era; some rare sources attribute to her the sea-nymph Halia and the goddess Aphrodite after the severed member of Ouranos was cast into the sea. Two rather similar fables are recorded by Babrius. In one, numbered 168 in the Perry Index, a farmer witnesses a shipwreck and reproaches the sea for being “an enemy of mankind”. Assuming the form of a woman, she answers by blaming the winds for her turbulence. Otherwise “I am gentler than that dry land of yours.” In the other, a survivor from a shipwreck receives the same excuse. But for the winds, “by nature I am as calm and safe as the land.”In yet another fable, Perry’s number 412 and only recorded by Syntipas, the rivers complain to the sea that their sweet water is turned undrinkably salty by contact with her.
The sea replies. The commentary suggests that the tale may be applied to people who criticize someone inappropriately though they may be helping them. In the 2nd century AD, Lucian represented Thalassa in a comic dialogue with Xanthus, the god of the River Scamander, attacked by a rival Greek deity for complaining that his course was being choked with dead bodies during the Trojan War. In this case he asks her to soothe his wounds. While the sea-divinities Tethys and Oceanus were represented in Roman-era mosaics, they were replaced at a period by the figure of Thalassa in Western Asia. There she was depicted as a woman clothed in bands of seaweed and half submerged in the sea, with the crab-claw horns that were an attribute of Oceanus now transferred to her head. In one hand she holds a ship's oar, in the other a dolphin. In 2011, Swoon created a site-specific installation depicting the goddess in the atrium of the New Orleans Museum of Art. In fall 2016, the installation was erected once more in the atrium of the Detroit Institute of Arts.
Media related to Thalassa at Wikimedia Commons
In ancient Greek religion, Ananke, is a personification of inevitability and necessity. She was depicted as holding a spindle. One of the Greek primordial deities or Greek primordial deities, the birth of Ananke marked the beginning of the cosmos, along with that of her brother and consort, Chronos. Ananke was considered as the most powerful dictator of circumstance; some times considered the mother of the Fates, she was thought to be the only being to have control over their decisions. According to the ancient Greek traveller Pausanias, there was a temple in ancient Corinth where the goddesses Ananke and Bia were worshiped together in the same shrine. Ananke who represents Fate or Necessity or Force is identified or associated with Aphrodite Aphrodite Ourania who represents celestial Love, as the two are considered two sides of the same power that dictates life, her Roman counterpart is Necessitas. "Ananke" is derived from the common Ancient Greek noun ἀνάγκη, meaning "force, constraint or necessity."
The common noun itself is of uncertain etymology. Homer refers to her being as necessity abstracted in modern translation or force. In Ancient Greek literature the word is used meaning "fate" or "destiny", by extension "compulsion or torture by a superior." She appears in poetry, as Simonides does: "Even the gods don’t fight against ananke". The pre-modern is carried over and translated into a more modern philosophical sense as "necessity", "logical necessity" or "laws of nature". In Orphic mythology, Ananke is a self-formed being who emerged at the dawn of creation with an incorporeal, serpentine form, her outstretched arms encompassing the cosmos. Ananke and Chronos are mates. Together they have crushed the primal egg of creation of which constituent parts became earth and sea to form the ordered universe. Ananke was the mother of the distributor of rewards and punishments; the Greek philosopher, Plato in his Republic discussed the parentage of the Moirai or the Fates in the following lines:And there were another three who sat round about at equal intervals, each one on her throne, the Moirai, daughters of Ananke, clad in white vestments with filleted heads and Klotho, Atropos, who sang in unison with the music of the Seirenes, Lakhesis singing the things that were, Klotho the things that are, Atropos the things that are to be...
Lakhesis, the maiden daughter of Ananke. While Aeschylus, the famous tragedian gave us an account in his Prometheus Bound where the Moirai were called the helmsman of the goddess Ananke along with the three Erinyes:Prometheus: Not in this way is Moira, who brings all to fulfillment, destined to complete this course. Only when I have been bent by pangs and tortures infinite am I to escape my bondage. Skill is weaker by far than Ananke. Chorus: Who is the helmsman of Ananke? Prometheus: The three-shaped Moirai and mindful Erinyes. Chorus: Can it be that Zeus has less power than they do? Prometheus: Yes, in that he cannot escape what is foretold. Chorus: Why, what is fated for Zeus except to hold eternal sway? Prometheus: This you must not learn yet. Chorus: It is some solemn secret that you enshroud in mystery. In the Timaeus, Plato has the speaker Timaeus argue that in the creation of the universe, there is a uniting of opposing elements and necessity, as elsewhere Plato blends abstraction with his own myth making: "For this ordered world is of a mixed birth: it is the offspring of a union of Necessity and Intellect.
Intellect prevailing over Necessity by persuading it to direct most of the things that come to be toward what is best, the result of this subjugation of Necessity to wise persuasion was the initial formation of the universe". The word "Ananke" is featured in Victor Hugo's novel Notre-Dame of Paris, written upon a wall of Notre-Dame by the hand of Dom Claude Frollo. In his Toute la Lyre, Hugo mentions Ananke as a symbol of love. Here is what Hugo had to write about it in 1866. Religion, nature; these three conflicts are, at the same time, his three needs: it is necessary for him to believe, hence the temple. But these three solutions contain three conflicts; the mysterious difficulty of life springs from all three. Man has to deal with obstacles under the form of superstition, under the form of prejudice, under the form of the elements. A triple "ananke" weighs upon us, the "ananke" of dogmas, the "ananke" of laws, the "ananke" of things. In Notre Dame de Paris the author has denounced the first.
With these three fatalities which envelop man is mingled the interior fatality, that supreme ananke, the
Aion is a Hellenistic deity associated with time, the orb or circle encompassing the universe, the zodiac. The "time" represented by Aion is unbounded, in contrast to Chronos as empirical time divided into past and future, he is thus a god of the ages, associated with mystery religions concerned with the afterlife, such as the mysteries of Cybele, Dionysus and Mithras. In Latin the concept of the deity may appear as Saeculum, he is in the company of an earth or mother goddess such as Tellus or Cybele, as on the Parabiago plate. Aion is identified as the nude or seminude young man within a circle representing the zodiac, or eternal and cyclical time. Examples include two Roman mosaics from Sentinum and Hippo Regius in Roman Africa, the Parabiago plate, but because he represents time as a cycle, he may be imagined as an old man. In the Dionysiaca, Nonnus associates Aion with the Horae and says that he:changes the burden of old age like a snake who sloughs off the coils of the useless old scales, rejuvenescing while washing in the swells of the laws.
The imagery of the twining serpent is connected to the hoop or wheel through the ouroboros, a ring formed by a snake holding the tip of its tail in its mouth. The 4th-century AD Latin commentator Servius notes that the image of a snake biting its tail represents the cyclical nature of the year. In his 5th-century work on hieroglyphics, Horapollo makes a further distinction between a serpent that hides its tail under the rest of its body, which represents Aion, the ouroboros that represents the kosmos, the serpent devouring its tail. Martianus Capella identified Aion with Cronus, whose name caused him to be theologically conflated with Chronos, in the way that the Greek ruler of the underworld Plouton was conflated with Ploutos. Martianus presents Cronus-Aion as the consort of Rhea. In his speculative reconstruction of Mithraic cosmogony, Franz Cumont positioned Aion as Unlimited Time as the god who emerged from primordial Chaos, who in turn generated Heaven and Earth; this deity is represented as the leontocephaline, the winged lion-headed male figure whose nude torso is entwined by a serpent.
He holds a sceptre, keys, or a thunderbolt. The figure of Time "played a considerable, though to us obscure, role" in Mithraic theology. Aion is identified with Dionysus in Christian and Neoplatonic writers, but there are no references to Dionysus as Aion before the Christian era. Euripides, calls Aion the son of Zeus; the Suda identifies Aion with Osiris. In Ptolemaic Alexandria, at the site of a dream oracle, the Hellenistic syncretic god Serapis was identified as Aion Plutonius; the epithet Plutonius marks functional aspects shared with Pluto, consort of Persephone and ruler of the underworld in the Eleusinian tradition. Epiphanius says that at Alexandria Aion's birth from Kore the Virgin was celebrated January 6: "On this day and at this hour the Virgin gave birth to Aion." The date, which coincides with Epiphany, brought new year's celebrations to a close, completing the cycle of time that Aion embodies. The Alexandrian Aion may be a form of Osiris-Dionysus, reborn annually, his image was marked with crosses on his hands and forehead.
Gilles Quispel conjectured that the figure resulted from integrating the Orphic Phanes, who like Aion is associated with a coiling serpent, into Mithraic religion at Alexandria, that he "assures the eternity of the city." This syncretic Aion became a symbol and guarantor of the perpetuity of Roman rule, emperors such as Antoninus Pius issued coins with the legend Aion, whose female Roman counterpart was Aeternitas. Roman coins associate both Aion and Aeternitas with the phoenix as a symbol of rebirth and cyclical renewal. Aion was among the virtues and divine personifications that were part of late Hellenic discourse, in which they figure as "creative agents in grand cosmological schemes." The significance of Aion lies in his malleability: he is a "fluid conception" through which various ideas about time and divinity converge in the Hellenistic era, in the context of monotheistic tendencies. Kákosy, László. "Osiris-Aion". Oriens Antiquus 3. Nock, Arthur Darby. "A Vision of Mandulis Aion". The Harvard Theological Review 27.
Zuntz, Günther. Aion, Gott des Römerreichs. Carl Winter Universitatsverlag. ISBN 3533041700. Zuntz, Günther. AIΩN in der Literatur der Kaiserzeit. Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 3700119666. Suda On Line, entries naming Aion Views of the Aion mosaic at Munich Glyptothek Images of Aion in the Warburg Institute Iconographic Database