Wright County, Missouri
Wright County is a county located in the southern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,815, its county seat is Hartville. The county was organized on January 29, 1841, is named after Silas Wright, a former Congressman, U. S. Senator and Governor of New York. Wright County is bordered by Laclede County on the north, Texas County on the east, Douglas County on the south, Webster County on the west, it is in the part of the state considered Southwest Missouri. Formed from part of Pulaski County on January 29, 1841, Wright County was named in honor of Silas Wright, a prominent New York Democrat; the county seat of Hartville was named after pioneer settler Isaac Hart. Wright County lost part of its land in 1845 to Texas County, in 1849 to Laclede, in 1855 a big chunk to Webster, it appears there were no Native American settlements early in the area, although the wandering Delawares and Piankashaws did come through. Early white settlers were in the county in 1836 and were hunters.
Earliest known settlers were Samuel Thompson, Robert Moore, John W. Burns and Robert Montgomery, Benjamin Stephens, James Young, William Franklin, Isham Pool, the Tuckers, according to Goodspeed; the county has been devastated several times by storms. A tornado that swept through Southwest Missouri that devastated Webster County on April 18, 1880. A flood occurred April 22–23, 1885. Another tornado on May 8, 1888, did considerable damage, as did a hailstorm near the same time that left hail 3-4 inches deep and in drifts 5–8 feet high, after falling for two hours. Goodspeed gives great accounts of these storms, as well as others. A good-sized portion of the county is located in the Mark Twain National Forest; the Gasconade River and its tributaries flow through the county, as well allowing for great recreational opportunities. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 683 square miles, of which 682 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. Wright County lies within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozarks.
The bulk of the county is drained by the north flowing its tributary streams. The southern edge of the county is drained by the south flowing headwaters of North Fork River; the terrain is moderately hilly. Laclede County Webster County Douglas County Texas County U. S. Route 60 Route 5 Route 38 Route 95 Mark Twain National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 17,955 people, 7,081 households, 5,020 families residing in the county; the population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 7,957 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.61% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 1.04% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,081 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.50% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families.
26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.20% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 16.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,685, the median income for a family was $37,139. Males had a median income of $24,876 versus $17,608 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,319. About 17.30% of families and 21.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.10% of those under age 18 and 17.60% of those age 65 or over. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Wright County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion.
The most predominant denominations among residents in Wright County who adhere to a religion are Southern Baptists, National Association of Free Will Baptists, Pentecostals. Of adults 25 years of age and older in Wright County, 71.1% possesses a high school diploma or higher while 9.8% holds a bachelor's degree or higher as their highest educational attainment. Hartville R-II School District - Hartville Grovespring Elementary School - Grovespring - Hartville Elementary School Hartville High School Mansfield R-IV School District - Mansfield Wilder Elementary School Mansfield Jr. High School Mansfield High School Mountain Grove R-III School District - Mountain Grove Mountain Grove Elementary School Mountain Grove Middle School Mountain Grove High School Norwood R-I School District - Norwood Norwood Elementary School Norwood Middle School Norwood High School Manes R-V School District - Manes Manes Elementary School Mountain Grove Christian Academy - Mountain Grove - - Non-denominational Christian Liberty Faith Christian Academy - Norwood - - Non-denominational Christian Ozark Mountain Technical Center - Mountain Grove - - Vocational/Technical Ozark Regional Juvenile Detention Center - Mountain Grove - - Juvenile Hall Skyview State School - Mountain Grove - - A school for handicapped students and those with other special needs.
Camden County, Missouri
Camden County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 44,002, its county seat is Camdenton. The county was organized January 29, 1841 as Kinderhook County and renamed in 1843 for Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom, leader of the Whig Party. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 709 square miles, of which 656 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water. Morgan County Miller County Pulaski County Laclede County Dallas County Hickory County Benton County U. S. Route 54 Route 5 Route 7 Fire Towers Include: Branch Fire Tower Climax Springs Fire Tower Hurricane Deck Fire Tower As of the census of 2000, there were 37,051 people, 15,779 households, 11,297 families residing in the county; the population density was 57 people per square mile. There were 33,470 housing units at an average density of 51 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.68% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races.
0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,779 households out of which 23.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.80% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.68. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.30% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 23.30% from 25 to 44, 31.40% from 45 to 64, 19.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 100.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,840, the median income for a family was $40,695. Males had a median income of $28,020 versus $20,825 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,197.
About 8.00% of families and 11.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.00% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over. Camdenton R-III School District – Camdenton Dogwood Elementary School Hawthorne Elementary School Osage Beach Elementary School Hurricane Deck Elementary School Oak Ridge Intermediate School Camdenton Middle School Camdenton High School Climax Springs R-IV School District – Climax Springs Climax Springs Elementary School Climax Springs High School Macks Creek R-V School District – Macks Creek Macks Creek Elementary School Macks Creek High School Stoutland R-II School District – Stoutland Stoutland Elementary School Stoutland High School Camden Christian School – Camdenton – Baptist Camden County Library District The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Camden County. Republicans hold all but one of the elected positions in the county. Camden County is divided into two legislative districts that elect members of the Missouri House of Representatives, both of which are represented by Republicans.
District 123 — Diane Franklin. Consists of the southern half of the county, including the communities of Camdenton, Linn Creek, Macks Creek, Richland and Stoutland. District 124 — Rocky Miller. Consists of the northern half of the county, including the communities of Climax Springs, Lake Ozark, Osage Beach, Sunrise Beach, Village of Four Seasons. All of Camden County is a part of Missouri’s 16th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Dan Brown. Most of Camden County is included in Missouri's 3rd Congressional District and is represented by Blaine Luetkemeyer in the U. S. House of Representatives. Part of Camden County is included in Missouri’s 4th Congressional District and is represented by Vicky Hartzler in the U. S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 2,794, than any candidate from either party in Camden County during the 2008 presidential primary. Camdenton Lake Ozark Linn Creek Osage Beach Richland Stoutland Sunrise Beach Village of Four Seasons Climax Springs Macks Creek Montreal Branch Hurricane Deck Kaiser National Register of Historic Places listings in Camden County, Missouri History of Laclede, Dallas, Wright, Pulaski and Dent counties, Missouri full text Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Camden County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Webster County, Missouri
Webster County is a county located in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,202, its county seat is Marshfield. The county was organized in 1855 and named for U. S. Senator and U. S. Secretary of State Daniel Webster. Webster County is part of MO Metropolitan Statistical Area. Webster County was organized on March 3, 1855 and encompasses 590 miles of the highest extensive upland area of Missouri’s Ozarks; the judicial seat is Marshfield. Webster County is the highest county seat in the state of Missouri. Pioneer Legislator John F. McMahan named the county and county seat for Daniel Webster, his Marshfield, Massachusetts home. Marshfield was laid out in 1856 by R. H. Pitts, on land, given by C. F. Dryden and W. T. and B. F. T. Burford; until a courthouse was built, the county business was conducted at Hazelwood where Joseph W. McClurg Governor of Missouri, operated a general store. Today's Carthage Marble courthouse is the county's third. During the U. S. Civil War, a small force of pro-Southern troops was driven out of Marshfield in February 1862, ten months a body of Confederates was routed east of town.
On January 9, 1863, General Joseph O. Shelby’s troops burned the stoutly built Union fortification at Marshfield and at Sand Springs, evacuated earlier. By 1862, the telegraph line passed near Marshfield on a route called the “Old Wire Road.”A part of the 1808 Osage Native American land cession, the county was settled in the early 1830s by pioneers from Kentucky and Tennessee. A Native American trail crossed many prehistoric mounds are in the area; the railroad-building boom of the post Civil War period stimulated the county’s growth as a dairy and livestock producer. The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad was built through Marshfield in 1872, by 1883 the Kansas City and Memphis crossed the county. Seymour, Rogersville and Niangua grew up along the railroad routes. Early schools in the county were Marshfield Academy, chartered in 1860. On April 18, 1880, an intense tornado measuring F4 on the Fujita scale struck Marshfield, its damage path was 64 miles long. The tornado killed 99 people and injured 100, it is said that 10% of Marshfield's residents were killed and all but 15 of its buildings were destroyed.
The composition “Marshfield Cyclone” by the African-American musician John W. Boone gave wide publicity to the cyclone, still listed as one of the top ten natural disasters in the history of the nation. Astronomer Edwin P. Hubble was born in Marshfield and attended through the third grade in the public school system. A replica of the Hubble telescope sits in the courthouse yard and the Marshfield stretch of I-44 was named in his honor. Marshfield holds claim to the oldest Independence Day parade west of the Mississippi River. Former President George Herbert Walker Bush and wife Barbara visited the parade on July 4, 1991, while campaigning for the presidency through Missouri. Webster County boasts the longest continuous county fair in the state of Missouri; the annual Seymour Apple Festival, established in 1973, has grown to one of Missouri's largest free celebrations, with estimated crowds of more than 30,000 congregating on the Seymour public square each second weekend of September. The festival pays tribute to Seymour's apple industry, which began in the 1840s, with Seymour being called "The Land Of The Big Red Apple" around the turn of the 20th century, when Webster County produced more than 50 percent of the state's apple crop.
Webster County straddles the drainage divide between the Missouri and Arkansas rivers and the headwaters of the James, Niangua and Pomme de Terre rivers arise in Webster County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 594 square miles, of which 593 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. Dallas County Laclede County Wright County Douglas County Christian County Greene County Interstate 44 U. S. Route 60 Route 38 As of the census of 2000, there were 31,045 people, 11,073 households, 8,437 families residing in the county; the population density was 52 people per square mile. There were 12,052 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.20% White, 1.16% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. 1.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,073 households out of which 37.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.00% were married couples living together, 8.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.80% were non-families.
20.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.90% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,948, the median income for a family was $46,941. Males had a median income of $28,168 versus $20,768 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,948. About 9.60% of families and 14.80% o
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820