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Laconic phrase

A laconic phrase or laconism is a concise or terse statement a blunt and elliptical rejoinder. It is named after Laconia, the region of Greece including the city of Sparta, whose ancient inhabitants had a reputation for verbal austerity and were famous for their blunt and pithy remarks. A laconic phrase may be used for efficiency, for emphasis, for philosophical reasons, or to deflate a pompous interlocutor. A prominent example involves Philip II of Macedon. After invading southern Greece and receiving the submission of other key city-states, he turned his attention to Sparta and asked menacingly whether he should come as friend or foe; the reply was "Neither."Losing patience, he sent the message: You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, raze your city. The Spartan ephors again replied with a single word: If. Subsequently, neither Philip nor his son Alexander; the Spartans were famous for their dry, understated wit, now known as "laconic humor".

This can be contrasted with the "Attic salt" or "Attic wit" – the refined, delicate humour of Sparta's chief rival, Athens. Various more recent groups have a reputation for laconic humor: Icelanders in the sagas, in the Anglophone world, American cowboys, New Englanders, people from the North of England. Spartans paid less attention than other ancient Greeks to the development of education and literature; some view this as having contributed to the characteristically blunt Laconian speech. However, Socrates, in Plato's dialogue Protagoras, appears to reject the idea that Spartans' economy with words was a consequence of poor literary education: "... they conceal their wisdom, pretend to be blockheads, so that they may seem to be superior only because of their prowess in battle... This is how you may know that I am speaking the truth and that the Spartans are the best educated in philosophy and speaking: if you talk to any ordinary Spartan, he seems to be stupid, but like an expert marksman, he shoots in some brief remark that proves you to be only a child".

Socrates was known to have admired Spartan laws, as did many other Athenians, but modern scholars have doubted the seriousness of his attribution of a secret love of philosophy to Spartans. Still, the Spartans Myson of Chenae and Chilon of Sparta have traditionally been counted among the Seven Sages of Greece. In general, Spartans were expected to be men of few words, to hold rhetoric in disdain, to stick to the point. Loquacity was considered unbecoming of sensible, down-to-earth Spartan peers. A Spartan youth was liable to have his thumb bitten as punishment for too verbose a response to a teacher's question. A witticism attributed to Lycurgus, the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, was a response to a proposal to set up a democracy there: "Begin with your own family." On another occasion, Lycurgus was asked the reason for the less-than-extravagant size of Sparta's sacrifices to the gods. He replied, "So that we may always have something to offer." When he was consulted on how Spartans might best forestall invasion of their homeland, Lycurgus advised, "By remaining poor, each man not desiring to possess more than his fellow."

When asked whether it would be prudent to build a defensive wall enclosing the city, Lycurgus answered, "A city is well-fortified which has a wall of men instead of brick." Responding to a visitor who questioned why they put their fields in the hands of the helots rather than cultivate them themselves, Anaxandridas explained, "It was by not taking care of the fields, but of ourselves, that we acquired those fields." King Demaratus, being pestered by someone with a question concerning who the most exemplary Spartan was, answered "He, least like you." On her husband Leonidas's departure for battle with the Persians at Thermopylae, Queen of Sparta asked what she should do. He advised her: "Marry a good man and bear good children." When Ben-Hadad I, king of Aram-Damascus, attacked Ahab, king of Israel, he sent a message: "May the gods deal with me, be it so if enough dust remains in Samaria to give each of my men a handful." Ahab replied, "One who puts on his armor should not boast like one who takes it off."

A traveler from Sybaris, a city in southern Italy infamous in the ancient world for its luxury and gluttony, was invited to eat in a Spartan mess hall and tasted their black broth. Disgusted, he remarked, "No wonder Spartans are the bravest of men. Anyone in their right mind would rather die a thousand times than live like this." When news of the death of Philip II reached Athens in 336 BC, the strategos Phocion banned all celebratory sacrifice, saying: "The army which defeated us at Chaeronea has lost just one man." The heavy price of defeating the Romans in the Battle of Asculum prompted Pyrrhus to respond to an offer of congratulations with "If we win one more battle we will be doomed". Aphorism One-line joke Quotations related to Laconic phrases at Wikiquote

Long Biên Bridge

Long Biên Bridge is a historic cantilever bridge across the Red River that connects two districts, Hoan Kiem and Long Bien of the city of Hanoi, Vietnam. It was called Paul Doumer Bridge; the bridge was built in 1899-1902 by the architects Daydé & Pillé of Paris, opened in 1903. Before North Vietnam's independence in 1954, it was called Paul-Doumer Bridge, named after Paul Doumer - The Governor-General of French Indochina and French president. At 2.4 kilometres in length, it was, at that time, one of the longest bridges in Asia. For the French colonial government, the construction was of strategic importance in securing control of northern Vietnam. From 1899 to 1902, more than 3,000 Vietnamese took part in the construction, it was bombarded during Vietnam War due to its critical position. The first attack took place in 1967, the center span of the bridge was felled by an attack by 20 USAF F-105 fighter-bombers. CIA reports noted that the severing of the bridge did not appear to have caused as much disruption as had been expected.

The defence of Long Bien Bridge continues to play a large role in Hanoi’s self-image and is extolled in poetry and song. It was rendered unusable for a year when, in May 1972, it fell victim to one of the first co-ordinated attacks using laser-guided "smart bombs"; some parts of the original structure remain intact, while large sections have been built to repair the holes. Only half of the bridge retains its original shape. A project with support and loan from the French government is in progress to restore the bridge to its original appearance. Today trains, mopeds and pedestrians use the dilapidated bridge, while all other traffic is diverted to the nearby Chương Dương Bridge and some newly built bridges: Thanh Trì Bridge, Thăng Long Bridge, Vĩnh Tuy Bridge, Nhật Tân Bridge. Under the bridge, poor families live in boats on the Red River, coming from many rural areas of Vietnam

Black Hole (roller coaster)

Black Hole known as Black Hole II and New Black Hole, was an enclosed steel roller coaster at Alton Towers in Staffordshire, England. It operated from 1984 until 2005; the coaster was located within a huge black tent. The coaster itself was a Jet Star II, designed by Anton Schwarzkopf. During the time that the ride operated, the park operated a similar outdoor Jet Star III coaster, the Beast; the Black Hole was constructed in Fantasy Land for the 1984 season taking the place of the "Dinosaur Land" attraction, moved into storage. It was themed around space. In 1985, the bottom of the first drop was modified to make the ride run more smoothly. Lights were added to the lift so that riders were able to brace themselves for the first drop. For the 1988 season, the coaster was dismantled and transported to Europe, where it had an overhaul to accommodate dual-car trains; the reconstructed coaster reopened and was named "Black Hole II" "New Black Hole" in 1989, before reverting to the original name. The opening of Oblivion brought the redevelopment of Fantasy Land as X-Sector.

The Black Hole was integrated into the new themed area with another refurbishment. The colour scheme of the original tent was changed from yellow and green to deep blue, with a new entrance in the style of X-Sector. Inside, the ride received station with Jules Verne-style architecture. In years, the Black Hole became costly to maintain and the park decided to close the attraction in 2005; the coaster track was dismantled and sold in 2007. At the time, there were no confirmed plans to redevelop the empty building so it remained defunct for several years. During a one-off Q&A session held to celebrate the opening of Thirteen in 2010, it was confirmed by John Wardley and then-marketing director Morwenna Angove that preparation for a new rollercoaster in 2013 had started and that the former Black Hole area was a potential site. A planning application proposing a new rollercoaster on the Black Hole site was submitted in early 2012 and approved by Staffordshire Moorlands council; the large tent was dismantled in April 2012 to make way for The Smiler, marking the end of its stay at the park after 28 years.

During the park's annual Halloween Scarefest event in October 2011, the Black Hole building was used to house two temporary scare maze attractions. This was the first time the structure had been put to public use since the attraction's closure in March 2005. After a renovation from Gerstlauer, the ride reopened as Rocket at Furuvik Zoo in Sweden on 21 May 2011 Black Hole at Towers Almanac Black Hole at Towers Nerd Black Hole at Towers Times Rocket at Furuvik Zoo

Gu Yi

Gu Yi known as Sulaiman, is a Chinese student dissident and human rights activist. He was interrogated and reprimanded for discussing with Ilham Tohti and other Uyghur dissidents and criticizing China's unfair treatment of its minority citizens in Xinjiang in 2009, he went abroad to study Chemistry as a graduate student of Chemistry in the University of Georgia continuing his political activism in terms of writings and demonstrations. He was an enthusiastic supporter of 2014 Hong Kong protests. In May 2015, he became widely-known for authoring and organizing an open letter to fellow students in China on the 26th anniversary of the Tiananmen Crackdown. Gu was born in People's Republic of China and grew up with interest in politics and human rights in high school. In July 2015, as a student of University of Science and Technology of China, he was involved in online discussion with Uighur activists on websites like UighurOnline, where he condemned China's forced assimilation policies and violation of religious freedom in Xinjiang, which resulted in him being questioned and reprimanded by the Chinese government for accusation of inciting subversion of state power.

He was pardoned and allowed to travel to the United States to continue his education. In May 2015, Gu, as a Chinese oversea student in University of Georgia, involved in the commemoration event for the 25th anniversary of Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 organised by Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars in front of Embassy of China in Washington, D. C.. In September 2014, Gu published an Article titled "Ilham's Sentence is Depressing" on The New York Times Chinese website, recalling his experience with Ilham Tohti, rebuke the arrest and sentence of Ilham Tohti conducted by Chinese government. In October 2014, Gu involved in demonstrations supporting 2014 Hong Kong protests in Washington, D. C.. In the interview of Voice of America and several other media, he said that his value is to fight for freedom and fight against oppression, he hoped everyone could live without threaten. Since 2015, Gu published several articles on websites such as Boxun, rebuking the oppression to minorities and activists conducted by Chinese Government.

He believed the political system in People's Republic of China is like ISIS. In May 2015, Gu initiated an open letter titled "On the 26th Anniversary of Tian’anmen Massacre – an Open Letter to Fellow Students in Mainland China", urging revealing the truth of Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. In the open letter, he expressed that Chinese communist tyranny authorities were not qualified to "redress" the victims of Tiananmen Square Massacre, "the state criminals must be sentenced", he further called for students in China to acknowledge the evil history of the Communist Party of China since 1921, to think about the fundamental causes of the suffers by Chinese nations. His open letter was signed by numerous oversea Chinese students such as Wu Lebao in Australia and Chen Bingxu in Michigan State University in United States. After the open letter was published, on 26 May, Global Times, an official media of Chinese Government, published an article titled "Oversea Forces are trying to incite young generations" criticising Gu's open letter.

However, the article was soon recalled by itself. That attracted more signatories to the open letter. In May 2016, Gu hosted an event in China in Perspective, a magazine affiliated with Princeton China Initiative, calling for essays about comments on Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 from new generations in China; the event got about 30 submissions. On 24 July 2015, Gu and Rose Tang initiated an open letter to International Olympic Committee against the bid of Beijing for the 2022 Winter Olympics. In the letter, he expressed "the pure Olympic dream should never serve political oppression by a host government", "under this government, any more Olympic games would go down in history as the Shame Games”, appealed International Olympic Committee vote to deny the bid of Beijing; the letter was supported by numerous Chinese dissidents and activists, such as Tony Chang, Chen Guangcheng, Fang Zheng, Hu Jia, Teng Biao and Wu Lebao. However, Hong Lei, the spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China claimed it was "with ulterior motives" and "will not enjoy popular support" in respond to the letter.

On 25 January 2016, Gu initiated an event supporting Zhang Haitao, a political prisoner, just sentenced 19 years imprisonment for "inciting subversion of state power" and "illegally providing state secrets overseas". He stated that himself was persecuted because of against the colonialism in Xinjiang conducted by Chinese Government, in the similar situation as Zhang Haitao. On 28 April 2016, Gu was invited by Voice of America to analyse the incident of Wu Wei, he believed that the protests by Chinese oversea student in The University of Sydney had "Chinese official backgrounds", argued that the so-called "little pinks" were the actual racist. He was against the statement of "independence of Taiwan", as he believed, the rebellion conducted by the Communist Party of China. On 1 September 2016, Kwon Pyong, a graduated student from Iowa State University was arrested by Chinese police in Yanji for planning wearing a T-shirt to protest against Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

After that, on 8 December, Gu, Tony Chang and Yi Songnan initiated an open letter to General Secretary Xi Jinping, urging Xi "stop the ongoing fascist persecution, release Kwon Pyong and all the other kidnapped citizens", challenging him "who will drive your tanks to crush us, the new generation of students after 1989", warning him "not draw for yo

Dieter Sattler

Dietler Sattler was a German architect who became involved in politics with respect to culture, the arts and foreign policy. Between 1966 and 1968 he served as the West German ambassador to the Holy See. Dieter Sattler was born in the second of his parents' four children, his father was the architect Carl Sattler. His paternal grandfather, Ernst Sattler, was a painter, his mother was born Eva Hildebrand. His maternal grandfather was the sculptor Adolf von Hildebrand. There had been close links between the Sattler and Hildebrand families since at least as far back as 1848. In 1933 Dieter Sattler married Maria Clara Schiedges, they met at a Theology seminar. She came from Düsseldorf; that marriage resulted in six recorded children. These included Birgit Albrecht who worked as a librarian, Monika Schätz, a book dealer, Christoph Sattler, a Munich-based architect, Florian Sattler, a Communications Chief for the city of Munich, Martin Sattler, a Law Professor Emeritus at Heidelberg and Stephan Sattler, a prominent arts journalist.

Dieter Sattler was father-in-law to the historian Dieter Albrecht. Both Dieter Sattler's parents had been born in Florence where their own parents spent time as members of the expatriate artistic community. Dieter Sattler spent several months each year in Florence while a small child, but this routine came to an end in 1914, the year war broke out, in 1915 he started to attend his secondary school in Munich, his parents separated in 1921. The children remained with their mother whose conversion to Roman Catholicism, had been a reason for the break-up, he passed his School Final Exams at the city's prestigious Wilhelmsgymnasium in 1924. Dieter Sattler himself would convert to Catholicism only in 1932, his decision to do so influenced both by the woman who shortly afterwards became his wife and by his intellectually formidable maternal uncle, Dietrich von Hildebrand, whose own conversion to Catholicism had taken place in 1914, he attended the Technical University of Munich between 1924 and 1929, studying Architecture and also Economics.

He received his first degree in 1929 and a doctorate of engineering in 1931. His dissertation topic was the sculptor Adolf von Hildebrand, it was his intention to progress to a habilitation which would have opened the way to a lifelong university career, but after 1933 this option was blocked to him. One source states that he worked as a freelance architect in Munich and in Berlin between 1929 and 1939, with a particular focus on residential development projects. Elsewhere it is stated that he began to work as an architect in Munich only in 1932. Either way, after receiving his doctorate in 1931 it seems that he found time for several lengthy visits abroad, becoming fluent in English and Italian. Dietrich von Hildebrand's influence extended beyond the narrow issue of a religious denomination. Sattler came to share his uncle's hostility to the Nazi party which took power in January 1933 and spent the next few months transforming the country into a one-party dictatorship. Dieter Sattler's marriage to Maria Clara Schiedges took place on 19 May 1933 in Salzburg, at that stage still just across the border from Nazi Germany, in Austria.

In 1932 Sattler had acquired a property at Grendach near Taching am See, close to Salzburg but on the German side of the frontier. The region was far off the beaten track, but his brother, the landscape painter Berhard Sattler lived in an adjacent hamlet. Bernhard had "discovered" the region for its visual and artistic beauty. Dieter Sattler caused a unprecedented surge in employment opportunities for the small holders in the village by having the former cowshed on his property converted into a family home. At this stage, after the marriage the Sattler couple settled in Berlin where Sattler still hoped to continue with his studies and obtain a habilitation, he was supervised for his studies by a professor who shortly after this had his teaching permit withdrawn because, according to the authorities, he was Jewish. After this Sattler found his will to join the nation's academic establishment had disappeared. While pursuing his career as an architect he continued to take an active interest in other matters.

For example, there were still lengthy trips abroad, he organised at least one concert tour by the brilliant Russian pianist, Vladimir Horowitz. During the twelve Nazi years Sattler made no secret of his dislike for the régime, retaining his belief in Catholic Conservatism and sustaining loose links with more active Christian opponents of Nazism, but he never himself participated in opposition activism, he was never identified as Jewish and he was not a communist. Unlike his more outspoken uncle he never found it necessary permanently to escape from Germany. At the same time, sources hint that he received few architectural commissions at his Berlin office, spent the 1930s keeping out of the way at his Grendach property near Taching am See. In 1940 he was conscripted into the army: that summer he participated in the invasion of France. After eight months in the army in France, in December 1940 he was taken off the frontline and switched to an "emergency" building project involving Linz; the Linz scheme was dear to the leader's heart.

Sattler was assigned to it for most of the rest of the war

AFC West

The American Football ConferenceWestern Division or AFC West is one of the four divisions of the American Football Conference in the National Football League. The division comprises the Denver Broncos, Kansas City Chiefs, Las Vegas Raiders, Los Angeles Chargers; the division has sent teams to the Super Bowl sixteen times beginning with Super Bowl I vs. Green Bay; as of the 2017 season, the Broncos and Raiders were tied with the most Super Bowl wins within the division with 3 each. The Chiefs are 2–1 in the Super Bowl, while the Chargers lost their lone Super Bowl appearance in Super Bowl XXIX; the division was formed in 1960 as the American Football League's Western Division. In 1970, as part of the new NFL's two-conference, six-division alignment, the AFL West entered the merged league more or less intact as the AFC West; the original AFL West had four members – the Dallas Texans, Denver Broncos, Los Angeles Chargers and Oakland Raiders. These four teams have remained in the AFL/AFC West since its inception, are the only teams in the division.

Because of this, the fact they have played each other twice a year for over half a century, the entire division is considered one large and heated rivalry. The Cincinnati Bengals played the last two AFL seasons in the AFL West despite being further east than Houston, where the Houston Oilers played at the time and were members of the AFC East; the Bengals moved to the AFC Central in 1970 forming rivalries with the Cleveland Browns and the Pittsburgh Steelers. In 1977, the Seattle Seahawks were added to the AFC West after spending their expansion season in the NFC West; the first-year Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 1976 played as a member of the AFC West before being aligned into the NFC Central in 1977. Each of the four AFC West teams won a division title in the first four years of the realignment – Oakland in 2002, Kansas City in 2003, San Diego in 2004 and Denver in 2005, it is the only one of the eight NFL divisions to have all of its teams win titles in the first four seasons of the North-East-West-South format.

In the early and mid-2000s, the division was cited as one of the NFL's "Toughest Divisions" due to the home-field advantages of Empower Field at Mile High, Arrowhead Stadium, Qualcomm Stadium and the Oakland Coliseum, although in 2008 the division was the NFL's weakest since the AFC Central in 1985 by sending the San Diego Chargers to the playoffs as division winners with an 8–8 record while the New England Patriots missed out at 11–5 after losing out on tiebreakers for both the AFC East and the wild-card. In 2010, the Raiders swept the entire division, going 6-0, but failed to qualify for the playoffs as they only won two non-divisional games; the division was weak in 2011 as well, when a loss by the Raiders in the last game of the season gave the Broncos the division title with only an 8-8 record. Only the NFC West in 2010 and the NFC South in 2014 have sent a worse division winner to the playoffs, when the Seahawks won that division with a 7-9 record and the Panthers won the NFC South division with a 7–8–1 record.

Along with the AFC East, the AFC West is the oldest NFL division in terms of creation date. Place cursor over year for division champ or Super Bowl team. A Dallas Texans moved to Kansas City and were subsequently renamed the Kansas City Chiefs B Los Angeles Chargers moved to San Diego but moved back in 2017. C Oakland Raiders moved to Los Angeles; the team returned to Oakland for the 1995 season. D Cincinnati Bengals enfranchised. After 1970 merger with NFL, the team moved to the AFC Central. E Tampa Bay was enfranchised in 1976; the Buccaneers moved to the NFC Central after their inaugural season, departed for the newly formed NFC South after the 2001 season. F Seattle Seahawks moved from the NFC West division. In 2002 they moved back to the NFC West. G Oakland Raiders moved to the Las Vegas area.! The Oakland Raiders and Kansas City Chiefs tied for the regular season division title at 12–2; the Raiders won the ensuing playoff game to represent the West in the AFL Championship Game. #A players' strike in 1982 reduced the regular season to nine games.

Thus, the league used a special 16-team playoff tournament just for this year. Division standings were ignored, the Los Angeles Raiders had the best record of the division teams. # In 1969, The Western Division 2nd place team played the Eastern Division 1st place team in an Interdivisional game. A players' strike in 1982 reduced the regular season to nine games. Thus, the league used a special 16-team playoff tournament just for this year. Division standings were ignored, the Los Angeles Raiders had the best record of the division teams. Updated through the 2019–20 NFL playoffs *Combines AFC Championships and AFL Championships won between 1966 and 1969†AFL Championships won prior to Super Bowl I ‡Combined Super Bowl championships and AFL Championships won prior to Super Bowl I in 1967 Former division membersThe table below reflects division titles and playoff appearances from former members of the AFL/AFC West while still in the division. Broncos–Chargers rivalry Broncos–Chiefs rivalry Broncos–Raiders rivalry Chargers–Chiefs rivalry Chargers–Raiders rivalry Chiefs–Raiders rivalry