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Orlando Philharmonic Orchestra

The Orlando Philharmonic Orchestra is Central Florida's resident professional orchestra, appearing in more than 125 performances each season. Founded in 1993, the orchestra's mission is to foster and promote symphonic music through excellence in performance and cultural leadership; the Orlando Philharmonic has balanced its budget every year of its existence. At over $4 million, the Orlando Philharmonic has the largest endowment of any arts institution in Central Florida; the Orlando Philharmonic entered its 23rd anniversary in the 2015-2016 season, led by Eric Jacobsen in his inaugural season as Music Director. The Orlando Philharmonic is Central Florida's resident professional orchestra, composed of accomplished musicians recruited from around the world; the orchestra presents several different types of programming. The Super Series, which runs September through April, comprises ten concerts, including five classical concerts and five "pops" concerts; the 2015-2016 classical series includes guest artists such as conductor JoAnn Falletta and pianist Stuart Goodyear.

The pops series features music from the cinema and popular music. All super series concerts are performed at the Bob Carr Performing Arts Centre in Orlando, FL; the Philharmonic performs several chamber music concerts each year at The Plaza Live Theatre in Orlando, FL as part of its Focus Series. A summer version of this series, the Sounds of Summer Series, takes place during June and August, featuring programs compiled by the orchestra's own musicians. Additionally, the Orlando Philharmonic performs numerous full-orchestra outdoor fall and spring community pops concerts, performed in partnerships with municipalities throughout the region and offered free to the public; when the Orlando Opera closed its doors in 2009, the Philharmonic took on the responsibility of keeping opera alive in the Central Florida community. In 2010, the Philharmonic performed two Concert Operas and Porgy and Bess. In 2011, the orchestra performed La Bohème. In 2012, the Philharmonic performed Rigoletto; the Orlando Philharmonic annually performs 30 Young People's Concerts for over 60,000 Orange and Volusia County Public School and home school students at the Bob Carr Theater.

The Philharmonic initiates many community collaborations. Since its inception, the orchestra has partnered with the Orlando Opera, Orlando Ballet, the Florida Symphony Youth Orchestra, Florida Young Artists Orchestra, the Orlando Museum of Art, the Orlando Science Center, Bethune-Cookman University, the University of Central Florida, Stetson University, the "Negro Spiritual" Scholarship Foundation, Mad Cow Theatre, the Bach Festival Society of Winter Park, the Orange County Regional History Center and many other area organizations. Official website

Johnson's parabolic formula

The Johnson formula is an empirically based formula relating the slenderness ratio to the stress illustrating the critical load required to buckle a column. The formula is based on empirical results by J. B. Johnson from around 1900 as an alternative to Euler's critical load formula under low slenderness ratio conditions. Buckling refers to a mode of failure, it is caused by a lack of structural stiffness. Placing a load on a long slender bar will cause a buckling failure before the specimen can fail by compression. One way to calculate buckling is to utilize Euler's formula, which produces a critical stress vs. slenderness curve such as the one illustrated to the right. However, depending on the geometry of the structure under stress, this equation is not always applicable, the Johnson parabola should be used. Euler's formula is displayed as such: σ c r = P c r A = π 2 E I A L e 2 = π 2 E 2 where σ c r = critical stress, P c r = critical force, A = area of cross section, L e = Effective length of the rod, E = modulus of elasticity, I = area moment of inertia of the cross section of the rod, l k = slenderness ratio.

Euler's equation is useful in situations such as an ideal pinned-pinned column, or in cases in which the effective length can be used to adjust the existing formula. However, certain geometries are not represented by the Euler formula. One of the variables in the above equation that reflects the geometry of the specimen is the slenderness ratio, the column's length divided by the radius of gyration; the slenderness ratio of the member can be found with = L e A I while the critical slenderness ratio is c r = 2 π 2 E σ y In practical terms, the slenderness ratio is an indicator of the specimen's resistance to bending and buckling, due to its length and cross section. If the slenderness ratio is less than the critical slenderness ratio, the column is considered to be a short column. In these cases, the Johnson parabola is more applicable than the Euler formula. Johnson's formula rounds out the function given by Euler's formula, it creates a new failure border by fitting a parabola to the graph of failure for Euler buckling.

Σ c r = σ y − 1 E 2 2 There is a transition point on the graph of the Euler curve, located at the critical slenderness ratio. At slenderness values lower than this point, the graph will follow the Johnson parabola. One common material in aerospace applications is Al 2024. Certain material properties of Al 2024 have been determined experimentally, such as the tensile yield strength and the modulus of elasticity; the Euler formula could be used to plot a failure curve, but it would not be accurate below a certain l k value, the critical slenderness ratio. C r = 2 π 2 E σ y = 2 π 2 ⋅ 73.1 ⋅ 10 9 324 ⋅ 10 6 = 66.7 Therefore, the Euler equation is applicable for values of l k greater than 66.7. Euler: σ c r = π 2 E ( l k

We, the Navigators

We, the Navigators, The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific is a 1972 book by the British-born New Zealand doctor David Lewis, which explains the principles of Micronesian and Polynesian navigation through his experience of placing his boat under control of several traditional navigators on long ocean voyages. David Lewis, after circumnavigating the world in a catamaran, decided to test his understanding of Polynesian navigation techniques by sailing the 2200 miles from Tahiti to New Zealand without any modern instruments. After arriving with a landfall only 26 miles in error, he learned that there were contemporary sailors in the Santa Cruz and Caroline Islands who still sailed large distances by the traditional methods and obtained support from the Australian National University to visit and sail with them, he did this in a 39-foot gaff ketch, which he placed under the direction of the navigators Tevake and Hipour. These navigators spoke little English, were illiterate and did not understand maps but were able to take him on a 450-mile trip from Puluwat to Saipan and to return and teach him many of their techniques.

The book is based on these voyages, but there are extensive references to the literature. "Captain Cook in 1775 was uniquely fortunate in encountering Tupaia, a dispossessed high chief and navigator-priest of Raiatea, the only qualified Polynesian navigator, interviewed at length by Europeans." But the idea that people without instruments, charts or writing, could have developed an elaborate and effective art of navigation was so utterly foreign as not to enter the minds of most Europeans. Since there have been the traditionalists such as Percy Smith who have uncritically accepted the migration legends of the Polynesians as literal history and those, such as Thor Heyerdahl, who dismissed these and emphasised drifting and one-way voyages. Although the distances involved are thousands of miles, it's possible to traverse the whole ocean with voyages of not more than 310 miles with a few exceptions; the islands of the Pacific can further be grouped into "contact zones" in which the maximum distances are 50–200 miles.

However, computer simulations have shown that pure drifting cannot explain the distribution of humans across the whole area. "The most accurate direction indicators for Pacific Islanders, still used in many parts of Oceania, are stars low in the sky that have either just risen or are about to set, horizon or guiding stars... Although stars rise four minutes earlier each night... the points on the horizon where they rise and set remain the same throughout the year." Thirty-two such stars were used to form a "sidereal compass" by. Those in the east–west direction which rise in a nearly vertical direction are the easiest to use. Other stars with the same declination must be memorised in order to continue throughout the night. In practice it is rare to require more than ten guide stars for a night's sailing—roughly twelve hours in the tropics—and less for an east–west course. On a cloudy night an experienced navigator can orient himself using only a few stars, it is harder to use the sun during the day because of the changes in its position during the seasons, it is necessary to use the swell of the ocean as an aid.

E.g. in the Santa Cruz group, three swells are considered to be present all round the year: the'long swell' from the south east, the'sea swell' from east-north-east and the'hoahuadelahu' from the north-west. The helmsman detects the most reliable using balance. For accurate navigation it is essential to compensate for the effect of currents and leeway. Although there are swift currents around islands, the major currents take over more than 5–6 miles from land; the major currents are east to west in most parts of Polynesia and Micronesia, but there is a narrow band of the equatorial counter current going west to east. These can make a difference of 40 miles per day; the prime method of coping with currents is by taking backsights on the land when leaving so as to be able to estimate the current and the leeway. On many islands, leading marks are set up to aid in this; the course is adjusted to suit the conditions. There can be daily fluctuations in current but these are random and do not accumulate.

Expert navigators can detect currents from the shape of the waves, if the current is confined to the top layers of the water. Their estimates of distance made good seems to be intuitive, based on long experience, their sense of position derives from keeping in mind where'home' and other islands are, which can be maintained when blown far in a gale, they use the stellar bearings of intermediate islands to judge their progress when these are out of sight. The memory of the relative position of islands is passed down the generations using the star compass so that a grandson might use a course that hasn't been followed since his grandfather used it; the navigation accuracy required to find an island in the Pacific by sight may be better than 1° and other methods are necessary to make the approach to an island. The basic technique is to "enlarge" the island by identifying signs of approaching land. Observing the behaviour of seabirds which fly out to their feeding grounds in the morning and return in the evening is one of the most well-known of the techniques.

For example, boobies fly 30 miles from an island to forage and some varieties go to 50 miles. In the Gilbert Islands, characteristic cloud patterns are the preferred means of l

Fowlersville Covered Bridge

The Fowlersville Covered Bridge is a historic wooden covered bridge located in North Centre Township in Columbia County, Pennsylvania. It is a 40-foot-long, Queen Post Truss bridge with board-and-batten siding constructed in 1886, it crossed West Branch Briar Creek. In 1986 the bridge was moved to Briar Creek Park in North Centre Township. Coodinates the bridge's current location appear at the end of the article, it is one of 28 historic covered bridges in Montour Counties. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979; the coordinates above refer to the bridge's original location, its new location is 41°03′39″N 76°17′01″W

2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup squads

This article shows the rosters of all participating teams at the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup in Japan. The following is the Argentine roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Marcelo Méndez The following is the Australian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Mark Lebedew The following is the Brazilian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Renan Dal Zotto The following is the Canadian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Daniel Lewis The following is the Egyptian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head Coach: Gido Vermeulen The following is the Iranian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Igor Kolaković The following is the Italian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Gianlorenzo Blengini The following is the Japanese roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Yuichi Nakagaichi The following is the Polish roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup.

Head coach: Vital Heynen The following is the Russian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: Tuomas Sammelvuo The following is the Tunisian roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head Coach: Antonio Giaccobe The following is the American roster in the 2019 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Cup. Head coach: John Speraw 2019 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Cup squads Official website