A trumpet is a brass instrument used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family. Trumpet-like instruments have been used as signaling devices in battle or hunting, with examples dating back to at least 1500 BC. Trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music, they are played by blowing air through nearly-closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have been constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded rectangular shape. There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments have three valves in order to change their pitch. There are eight combinations of three valves, making seven different tubing lengths, with the third valve sometimes used as an alternate fingering equivalent to the 1-2 combination.
Most trumpets have valves of the piston type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country; each valve, when engaged, increases the length of lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called trumpeter; the English word "trumpet" was first used in the late 14th century. The word came from Old French "trompette", a diminutive of trompe; the word "trump", meaning "trumpet," was first used in English in 1300. The word comes from Old French trompe "long, tube-like musical wind instrument", cognate with Provençal tromba, Italian tromba, all from a Germanic source, of imitative origin." The earliest trumpets date earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun's grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, metal trumpets from China date back to this period. Trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, considered a technical wonder.
The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth, made of metal, are both mentioned in the Bible. They were played in Solomon's Temple around 3000 years ago, they were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho. They are still used on certain religious days; the Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bronze. Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games; the Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD 300. The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance led to an increased usefulness of the trumpet as a musical instrument; the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series. Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument; the development of the upper, "clarino" register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era known as the "Golden Age of the natural trumpet."
During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters. The art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. Many modern players in Germany and the UK who perform Baroque music use a version of the natural trumpet fitted with three or four vent holes to aid in correcting out-of-tune notes in the harmonic series; the melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a secondary role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844: Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. Down to Beethoven and Weber, every composer – not excepting Mozart – persisted in confining it to the unworthy function of filling up, or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace rhythmical formulae; the attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, but this was a unsuccessful venture due to the poor quality of its sound.
Although the impetus for a tubular valve began as early as 1793, it was not until 1818 that Friedrich Bluhmel and Heinrich Stölzel made a joint patent application for the box valve as manufactured by W. Schuster; the symphonies of Mozart, as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets. Crooks and shanks as opposed to keys or valves were standard, notably in France, into the first part of the 20th century; as a consequence of this late development of the instrument's chromatic ability, the repertoire for the instrument is small compared to other instruments. The 20th century saw an explosion in the variety of music written for the trumpet; the trumpet is constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded oblong shape. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the mouthp
A death growl is a vocal style employed by death metal singers but used in other heavy metal styles, such as metalcore. Death growls are sometimes criticized for their "ugliness". However, the harshness of death growls is in keeping with death metal's abrasive music style and dark and obscene subject matter; the progressively more forceful enunciation of metal vocals has been noted from heavy metal to thrash metal to death metal. Death metal, in particular, is associated with growled vocals. Death metal, which tends to be lyrically and thematically darker and more morbid than other forms of metal, features vocals that attempt to evoke chaos and misery by being "usually deep and unintelligible". Natalie Purcell notes, "Although the vast majority of death metal bands use low, beast-like indiscernible growls as vocals, many have high and screechy or operatic vocals, or deep and forcefully sung vocals." Sociologist Deena Weinstein has noted of death metal: "Vocalists in this style have a distinctive sound and snarling rather than singing the words.
Making ample use of the voice distortion box." Death growls are known as death metal vocals, guttural vocals, death grunts, growled vocals, unclean vocals, harsh vocals, jocularly as Cookie Monster vocals. Voice teachers teach different techniques, but long-term use will still take its toll if done incorrectly – these techniques are designed to reduce rather than eliminate harm; however it has been shown by many vocalists that long-term use of these techniques can occur without causing harm to the voice. The techniques involve using the diaphragm and air pressure on the throat to form the sound, similar to forms of overtone singing; as a person tries to squeeze their throat, the sound gets less intense. Some vocalists tend to use too much pressure on their throats and thus have vocal cord problems/defects; the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in The Netherlands reported in June 2007 that, because of the increased popularity of growling in the region, it was treating several patients who had performed the techniques incorrectly for edema and polyps on the vocal folds.
Growled vocals may have been a part of Viking music. In the 10th century, Arab-Spanish Sefardi Jewish merchant Abraham ben Jacob visited Denmark and commented on the local music as follows: "Never before I have heard uglier songs than those of the Vikings in Slesvig; the growling sound coming from their throats reminds me of dogs howling, only more untamed."In Hildegard of Bingen's 12th-century allegorical morality play Ordo Virtutum, the role of the Devil uniquely does not employ melodic singing, but is performed in a manner which Hildegard specifies as strepitus diaboli and, taken to mean a low and growling voice. In 1966, The Who released the song "Boris the Spider", which featured death growls sung in basso profondo by bass player John Entwistle; this can be considered one of the first uses of death growl in popular music. The use of growling, "monstrous" vocals for ominous effect in rock music can be traced at least as far back as "I Put a Spell on You" by Screamin' Jay Hawkins in 1956.
Mike Oldfield's "Tubular Bells, Part Two," from 1973, contains a section from 11:55 to 16:30 featuring extensive use of guttural vocals which are close in style to the modern "death growl", however this effect was created by manipulating tape speed. In 1969 and the early 1970s, the song "21st Century Schizoid Man" by King Crimson is notable for its distorted vocals sung by Greg Lake; the songs "Iron Man" by Black Sabbath and "One of These Days" by Pink Floyd both contain brief passages of ominously growled, low-pitched vocals against a heavy background of rock riffs. Other examples are Roger Waters' screams in some Pink Floyd songs, such as "Take Up Thy Stethoscope and Walk", "Careful with That Axe, Eugene". Punk rock bands like The Clash, Stiff Little Fingers, 999 regularly employed gruff sounding vocals, however nothing like the death growl common in metal music today. On the other hand, the low, aggressive pitch of Lemmy from Motörhead was not unlike the growl and can be thought to presage the current style.
Kate Bush employed raspy guttural vocals on the track Get Out of My House from her 1982 album The Dreaming The advent of the growl as it is used today coincided with the gradual emergence of death metal, it is thus difficult to pinpoint a specific individual as the inventor of the technique. Different vocalists developed the style over time; the band Death with its two vocalists—initially Kam Lee and subsequently Chuck Schuldiner—have been cited as among the first. Possessed are considered by some to be one of the earliest bands to employ growls, as are Necrophagia and Master. Around the same time, bands such as Hellhammer, with Tom G. Warrior on vocals, seminal act Massacre employed a variation of the growl. Massacre vocalist Kam Lee's growls were guttural, low pitched and unintelligible compared to other death metal vocalists of the mid 1980s; this influenced the British Grindcore band Napalm Death. The vocalists from Napalm Death—consecutively Nic Bullen, Lee Dorrian and Mark "Barney" Greenway—further developed the style in the late 1980s, adding more aggression and deeper guttural elements to it, while speeding up delivery of the lyrics.
Another vocalist who deepened his voice into the growling used today on death metal and grindcore was Chris Barnes, ori
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Industrial music is a genre of experimental music which draws on harsh, transgressive or provocative sounds and themes. AllMusic defines industrial music as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music", "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments and punk provocation"; the term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by members of Throbbing Gristle and Monte Cazazza. While the genre name originated with Throbbing Gristle's emergence in the United Kingdom, concentrations of artists and labels vital to the genre emerged in Chicago; the first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics and visually, such as fascism, sexual perversion, the occult. Prominent industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Monte Cazazza, SPK, Boyd Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, Z'EV. On Throbbing Gristle's 1977 debut album The Second Annual Report, they coined the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". Chicago-based independent label Wax Trax Records featured a heavy roster of industrial music acts.
The precursors that influenced the development of the genre included acts such as electronic music group Kraftwerk, experimental rock acts such as Pink Floyd and Frank Zappa, psychedelic rock artists such as Jimi Hendrix, composers such as John Cage. Musicians cite writers such as William S. Burroughs, philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche as influences. While the term was self-applied by a small coterie of groups and individuals associated with Industrial Records in the late 1970s, it was broadened to include artists influenced by the original movement or using an "industrial" aesthetic. A few years in the 1980s, artists on Chicago-based Wax Trax Records such as Front 242, KMFDM, Front Line Assembly and Sister Machine Gun gained prominence on the industrial music scene. Over time, the genre's influence blended with styles including ambient and rock. Electro-industrial music is a primary subgenre; the two other most notable hybrid genres are industrial rock and industrial metal, which include bands such as Nine Inch Nails and Ministry, both of which released platinum-selling albums in the 1990s.
These distinct genres are referred to as industrial. Industrial music drew from a broad range of predecessors. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the genre was first named in 1942 when The Musical Quarterly called Dmitri Shostakovich's 1927 Symphony No. 2 "the high tide of'industrial music'." In 1972 The New York Times described works by Ferde Grofé as a part of "his'industrial music' genre called on such instruments as four pairs of shoes, two brooms, a locomotive bell, a pneumatric drill and a compressed-air tank". Though these compositions are not directly tied to what the genre would become, they are early examples of music designed to mimic machinery noise and factory atmosphere. In his book Interrogation Machine: Laibach and NSK, Alexei Monroe argues that Kraftwerk were significant in the development of industrial music, as the "first successful artists to incorporate representations of industrial sounds into nonacademic electronic music." Industrial music was created by using mechanical and electric machinery, advanced synthesizers and electronic percussion as the technology developed.
Monroe argues for Suicide as an influential contemporary of the industrial musicians. Groups cited as inspirational by the founders of industrial music include The Velvet Underground, Joy Division, Martin Denny. Genesis P-Orridge of Throbbing Gristle had a cassette library including recordings by the Master Musicians of Jajouka, Charles Manson, William S. Burroughs. P-Orridge credited 1960s rock such as The Doors, Pearls Before Swine, The Fugs, Captain Beefheart, Frank Zappa in a 1979 interview. Chris Carter enjoyed and found inspiration in Pink Floyd and Tangerine Dream. Boyd Rice was influenced by the music of tiki culture. Z'EV cited Christopher Tree, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Tim Buckley, Jimi Hendrix, Captain Beefheart, among others together with Tibetan, Javanese and African music as influential in his artistic life. Cabaret Voltaire cited Roxy Music as their initial forerunners, as well as Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express. Cabaret Voltaire recorded pieces reminiscent of musique concrète and composers such as Morton Subotnick.
Nurse with Wound cited a long list of obscure free improvisation and Krautrock as recommended listening. 23 Skidoo borrowed from Fela Kuti and Miles Davis's On the Corner. Many industrial groups, including Einstürzende Neubauten, took inspiration from world music. Many of the initial industrial musicians preferred to cite artists or thinkers, rather than musicians, as their inspiration. Simon Reynolds declares that "Being a Throbbing Gristle fan was like enrolling in a university course of cultural extremism." John Cage was an initial inspiration for Throbbing Gristle. SPK appreciated Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, Walter Benjamin, Marshall McLuhan, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gilles Deleuze. Cabaret Voltaire took conceptual cues from Burroughs, J. G. Ballard, Tristan Tzara. Whitehouse and Nurse with Wound dedicated some of their work to the Marquis de Sade. Another influence on the industrial aesthetic was Lou Reed's Metal Machine Music. Pitchfork Music cites this album as "inspiring, in part, much of the contemporary avant-garde music scene—noise, in particular."
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Revolution (Lacrimosa album)
Revolution is the 11th studio album by the German gothic rock duo Lacrimosa. It was released on 7 September 2012 by Hall of Sermon; the album provides a mix of musical styles like female-fronted metal, classical instrumentation and aggressive rock. In an announcement for their'Tip of the Week', the Sonic Seducer magazine noted a "remarkably broad spectrum" of styles typical for Lacrimosa, remarked a sometimes "unpolished" sound. A more detailed review by Powermetal.de wrote that the album's content was unusually direct for a work by Lacrimosa. The reviewer noted the guitar play of guest musician Mille Petrozza but was critical of singer Tilo Wolff's English language skills in the song "This Is The Night", he wrote however that the "true revolution" of the album was offering music for a broad audience while not denying Lacrimosa's musical roots and ideals. The cover art for the album was interpreted in this review as a reference to the album's name: the band's mascot, a harlequin, is standing above the debris of the revolution, waving a flag.
The Orkus magazine selected Revolution as'album of the month' in the October 2012 issue. The review noted a contrast between a familiar sound by Lacrimosa and the new roughness and direct lyrics of the album; the album peaked at position 35 in the German album charts. Revolution features a mix of orchestral sounds; the title track "Revolution" has been noted as an exceptionally hard and aggressive track while "If The World" is inspired by female-fronted metal. The album was recorded with the help of two guest musicians: guitarist Mille Petrozza from Kreator and drummer Stefan Schwarzmann of Accept
Echos (Lacrimosa album)
Echos is the eighth studio album by Switzerland-based Gothic rock band Lacrimosa. It features classically influenced Gothic-themed rock music; the title is German for "echoes". The record was released on 27 January 2003 by Hall Of Sermon. Echos begins with an orchestral overture of 13 minutes length and continues with a mix of symphonic elements and hard rock, typical of Lacrimosa; however the entire album is oriented towards classical instruments rather than hard electric guitars. Singer Anne Nurmi's only solo track; the album has been seen as a typical work by Lacrimosa. The album received positive reviews from the critics and stayed in the German charts for four weeks peaking at position 13; the single "Durch Nacht und Flut" reached position 52 in the German charts. Allmusic lauded the subtlety of the songs while the German Laut magazine was positive about Lacrimosa following their own concept instead of being influenced by expectations from the fans. While writing a positive review, the German Powermetal magazine still marked that producer and composer Tilo Wolff's musical concept had begun to become too abstract and demanding for a broad audience to comprehend.
There is "Special edition", released by'Scarecrow Records' at the same time and only released in Mexico, it contains a bonus track, "Road to Pain", a different Digipack which contains a second booklet with the Spanish translation of the lyrics. Cello, Violin – V. Sondeckis Choir – Rosenberg Ensemble Choir – Melanie Kirschke, Uli Brandt, Ursula Ritter Choir – Frederick Martin, Joachim Gebardt* Choir – Bettina Hunold, Catharina Boutari, Raphaela Mayhaus Choir – Klaus Bülow, Olaf Senkbeil, Yenz Leonhard* Concertmaster – Ludgar Hendrich Conductor – Günter Joseck Conductor – Christopher Clayton Design – Tilo Wolff Design – Stelio Diamantopoulos Double Bass – Katharina Bunners Drums – Manne Uhlig, Thomas Nack Electric Guitar, Acoustic Guitar, Electric Bass, Acoustic Bass, Mellotron – Jay P. Keyboards, Voice – Anne Nurmi Orchestra – Deutsches Filmorchester Babelsberg Spielmann-Schnyder Philharmonie* Performer – Lacrimosa Piano, Programmed By, Voice – Tilo Wolff Viola – Sebastian Marock Violin – Stefan Pintev Violin – Rodrigo ReichelWritten, arranged, produced by Tilo Wolff Mastered by Herge Halvé Photography – Burgis Wehry