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Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. It is the oldest organized sport in North America, with its origins in a tribal game played by eastern Woodlands indigenous peoples and by various Indigenous peoples of North America; the game was extensively modified reducing the violence by European colonizers to create its current collegiate and professional form. The modern sport is governed by World Lacrosse and is the only international sport organization to recognize First Nations bands and Native American tribes as sovereign nations; the organization hosts the World Lacrosse Championship for men, the Women's Lacrosse World Cup, the World Indoor Lacrosse Championship for box lacrosse, the Under-19 World Lacrosse Championships for both men and women. Each is held every four years. Lacrosse at the Summer Olympics has been contested at two editions of the Summer Olympic Games, 1904 and 1908, it was held as a demonstration event at the 1928, 1932, 1948 Summer Olympics.

Players use the head of the lacrosse stick to carry, pass and shoot the ball into the goal. The sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields and equipment: field lacrosse, women's lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse; the men's games, field lacrosse and box lacrosse, are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, shoulder pads, elbow pads. The women's game is played outdoors and does not allow body contact but does allow stick to stick contact; the only protective gear required for women players is eyegear, while goalies wear helmets and protective pads. Intercrosse is a mixed-gender non-contact sport played indoors that uses an all-plastic stick and a softer ball. Lacrosse is based on games played by various Native American communities as early as 1100 AD. By the 17th century, a version of lacrosse was well-established and was documented by Jesuit missionary priests in the territory of present-day Canada. In the traditional aboriginal Canadian version, each team consisted of about 100 to 1,000 men on a field several miles long.

These games lasted from sunup to sundown for two to three days straight and were played as part of ceremonial ritual, a kind of symbolic warfare, or to give thanks to the Creator or Master. Lacrosse played a significant role in the community and religious life of tribes across the continent for many years. Early lacrosse was characterized by deep spiritual involvement, befitting the spirit of combat in which it was undertaken; those who took part did so in the role of warriors, with the goal of bringing glory and honor to themselves and their tribes. The game was said to be played "for the Creator" or was referred to as "The Creator's Game." The French Jesuit missionary Jean de Brébeuf saw Huron tribesmen play the game during 1637 in present-day Ontario. He called it la "the stick" in French; the name seems to be originated from the French term for field hockey, le jeu de la crosse. James Smith described in some detail a game being played in 1757 by Mohawk people "wherein now they used a wooden ball, about 3 inches in diameter, the instrument they moved it with was a strong staff about 5 feet long, with a hoop net on the end of it, large enough to contain the ball."Anglophones from Montreal noticed the game being played by Mohawk people and started playing themselves in the 1830s.

In 1856, William George Beers, a Canadian dentist, founded the Montreal Lacrosse Club. In 1860, Beers codified the game, shortening the length of each game and reducing the number of players to 12 per team; the first game played under Beers's rules was at Upper Canada College in 1867. The new sport proved to be popular and spread across the English-speaking world; the women's game was introduced by Louisa Lumsden in Scotland in 1890. The first women's club in the United States was started by Rosabelle Sinclair at Bryn Mawr School in 1926. In the United States, lacrosse during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s was a regional sport centered around the Mid-Atlantic states New York and Maryland. However, in the last half of the 20th century, the sport spread outside this region, can be found in most of the United States. According to a survey conducted by US Lacrosse in 2016, there are over 825,000 lacrosse participants nationwide and lacrosse is the fastest-growing team sport among NFHS member schools.

Field lacrosse is the men's outdoor version of the sport. There are ten players on each team: three attackmen, three midfielders, three defensemen, one goalie; each player carries a lacrosse stick. A short stick is used by attackmen and midfielders. A maximum of four players on the field per team may carry a long stick, between 52 and 72 inches long and is used by the three defensemen and sometimes one defensive midfielder; the goalie uses a stick with a head as wide as 12 inches that can be between 72 inches long. The field of play is 110 by 60 yards; the goals are 80 yd apart. Each goal sits inside a circular "crease", measuring 18 ft in diameter; the goalie has special privileges within the crease to avoid opponents' stick checks. Offensive players or their sticks may not enter into the crease at any time; the mid-field line separates the field into an defensive zone for each team. Each team must keep four players in its defensive zone and three players in its offensive zone at all times, it does not matter which positional players satisfy the requirement, al

London Perrantes

London Tyus Perrantes is an American professional basketball player for the Capital City Go-Go of the NBA G League. He played college basketball for the Virginia Cavaliers. Perrantes attended Crespi Carmelite High School. Perrantes developed his signature calm, deliberate playing style after competing against older players, he was noticed by Washington State football player Nico Grasu, who alerted the university's basketball coach, Tony Bennett. When Bennett was hired by Virginia, Perrantes committed to play for him, turning down an offer from USC after Kevin O'Neill was released as coach; as a senior, he averaged 19.9 points and 5.8 assists per game and was named L. A. Daily News Player of the Year and L. A. Times All-Area First Team, he was ranked No. 86 on ESPN's Top 100 recruiting list for 2013. As a freshman, Perrantes led Virginia to the NCAA Tournament’s Sweet 16 for the first time in 19 years while starting 33 games and shooting 44% from behind the arc. On the season, he averaged a team-high 3.8 assists per game.

He was suspended the first game of his sophomore season for violating undisclosed team rules. He scored a career-high 26 points in a match against Miami on January 1, 2015. Perrantes broke his nose and suffered a mild concussion after colliding with Malcolm Brogdon in a win against Florida State on February 22, he averaged 6.4 points and 4.6 assists per game as a sophomore, leading the Cavaliers to a 30-4 record and second straight Atlantic Coast Conference regular-season title. As a junior, Perrantes became more of a vocal leader on the team, identifying himself as the player who picked the team up when it was dragging, he hit a career-high seven three-pointers to go along with 22 points in a loss to Virginia Tech on January 4, 2016. Perrantes scored 16 points with four 3-pointers in a 73-65 win against Syracuse on January 24. Perrantes averaged 11.0 points, 4.4 assists and 3.0 rebounds per game, shooting 43.9 percent from the field, 48.8 percent from 3-point range and 80.3 percent from the free-throw line.

He was named honorable mention All-ACC by the coaches. "He just stirred the pot," coach Bennett said of Perrantes in 2016. "He made everything kind of work out. He got guys the ball, he understood it."As a senior, Perrantes was named to the Second Team All-Atlantic Coast Conference. His season ended with a 65-39 loss to Florida in the NCAA Tournament. Perrantes averaged 3.8 assists per game. He tied a program record with 138 games scored 1,225 points in his Virginia career. After going undrafted in the 2017 NBA Draft, Perrantes signed a summer league deal with the Miami Heat. On August 23, 2017, Perrantes signed with the San Antonio Spurs, he was waived before the season began on October 12, 2017. On October 18, 2017, Perrantes signed a two-way contract with the Cleveland Cavaliers; that meant throughout the rest of that season, he had split his playing time between the Cavaliers and their NBA G League affiliate, the Canton Charge. Perrantes would make his NBA debut on December 12, playing three minutes in a 123–114 win over the Atlanta Hawks.

The Cavaliers lost 4-0 to the Golden State Warriors. On June 12, 2018, Perrantes was waived by the Cavaliers. On July 23, 2018, Perrantes signed a one-year deal with French side Limoges. On November 16, 2018, Perrantes was released by Limoges CSP. On November 18, 2018, Perrantes joined Cholet Basket. On June 25, 2019, Perrantes joined the New Orleans Pelicans for the 2019 NBA Summer League. On September 12, 2019, Perrantes joined the Portland Trail Blazers for training camp, but was waived by the Portland Trail Blazers on October 18. On November 11, 2019, Perrantes joined the Bahçeşehir Basketbol. On January 21, 2020, the Capital City Go-Go announced that they had acquired Perrantes from Canton Charge in exchange for the returning right to Gabe York. Official website Virginia Cavaliers bio London Perrantes at

Black Unity

Black Unity is a composition and album by jazz saxophonist Pharoah Sanders and released in late 1971. The whole album consists of a single thirty-seven-minute track, described by critic Joe S. Harrington as "an exercise in sustained harmonic groove that cannot be beaten" when he listed it at #38 on his Top 100 Albums; the compact disc reissue of 1997 unites the two parts as a single track, timed at 37:21. Pharoah Sanders — soprano and tenor saxophone, balafon Marvin "Hannibal" Petersontrumpet Carlos Garnettflute, tenor saxophone Joe Bonnerpiano Stanley Clarke, Cecil McBeebass Norman Connors, Billy Hartdrums Lawrence Killianconga, talking drum, percussion Lee Young — producer Tony May — engineer Michael Cuscuna — reissue producer Erick Labson — remastering Hollis King — art direction Christine Lee — graphic design Chuck Stewart — photography

Serena Rothschild

Serena Mary Rothschild, Baroness Rothschild was a British Thoroughbred racehorse owner and the wife of Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild. Rothschild was the daughter of Sir Philip Gordon Dunn, Bt. and Lady Mary Sybil St. Clair-Erskine, her sister is the writer Nell Dunn. Her paternal grandfather was Bt. A prominent Canadian financier. Rothschild oversaw the management of Waddesdon Stud at Waddesdon Manor in Buckinghamshire. In November 2006, she paid 3 million guineas for the mare Spinning Queen a world record price of 4.6 million guineas when she purchased Magical Romance at the Tattersalls sale. In 2009, her colt Pounced, trained by John Gosden and ridden by Frankie Dettori, won the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Turf at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California. In 2011, her colt Nathaniel won the King Edward VII Stakes at Ascot and the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes at Ascot. In 2012, she won the Eclipse Stakes with Nathaniel, The Lancashire Oaks, the Irish Oaks with Great Heavens. On 20 October 1961, she married financier Jacob Rothschild, with whom she had four children, Beth and Nathaniel.

The couple made their home at Pewsey and maintained a villa on the Greek island of Corfu. She and her husband were involved in a number of charitable and humanitarian organizations, she was a Vice President of the Wiltshire Blind Association. Lady Rothschild died in a London hospital on 13 January 2019 following a short illness, she was 83


LuLuCa is a rechargeable contactless smart card ticketing system for public transport in Shizuoka, introduced by Shizuoka Railway group, from March, 2006. The card is called SHIZUTETSU CARD LuLuCa. Just like JR East's Suica or JR West's ICOCA, the card uses RFID technology developed by Sony corporation known as FeliCa. Shizutetsu group introduced PiTaPa and ICOCA from September 2007 for their lines. Although normal LuLuCa cards cannot be used on regular PiTaPa or ICOCA systems, ten of the most popular IC cards in Japan can be used on LuLuCa, as of 2013. Shizutetsu Justline. Shizuoka Railway. Other facilities of Shizutetsu group, including Shinshizuoka-Center and Shizutetsu Store. LuLuCa POINT: A simple loyalty card of Shizutetsu Stores. Not a smart card. LuLuCa PASAR+POINT: A smart card for public transport, as well as the above function. All day adult card Special discount card: For handicapped customers only. Child younger. Student older. LuLuCa+: A credit card for The Shizuoka Bank, as well as the above two functions.

LuLuCa+PiTaPa: The card usable in PiTaPa accepting area, with the above functions. Official website by Shizuoka Railway


Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2Si6O18. Well-known varieties of beryl include aquamarine. Occurring, hexagonal crystals of beryl can be up to several meters in size, but terminated crystals are rare. Pure beryl is colorless, but it is tinted by impurities. Beryl is an ore source of beryllium; the name "beryl" is derived from Greek βήρυλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone". The term was adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively; when the first eyeglasses were constructed in 13th century Italy, the lenses were made of beryl as glass could not be made clear enough. Glasses were named Brillen in German. Beryl of various colors is found most in granitic pegmatites, but occurs in mica schists in the Ural Mountains, limestone in Colombia. Beryl is associated with tin and tungsten ore bodies. Beryl is found in Europe in Norway, Germany, Sweden and Russia, as well as Brazil, Madagascar, Pakistan, South Africa, the United States, Zambia.

US beryl locations are in California, Connecticut, Idaho, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, South Dakota and Utah. New England's pegmatites have produced some of the largest beryls found, including one massive crystal from the Bumpus Quarry in Albany, Maine with dimensions 5.5 by 1.2 m with a mass of around 18 metric tons. As of 1999, the world's largest known occurring crystal of any mineral is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina, Madagascar, 18 m long and 3.5 m in diameter, weighing 380,000 kg. Beryl belongs to the hexagonal crystal system. Beryl forms hexagonal columns but can occur in massive habits; as a cyclosilicate beryl incorporates rings of silicate tetrahedra of Si 6 O 18 that are arranged in columns along the C axis and as parallel layers perpendicular to the C axis, forming channels along the C axis. These channels permit a variety of ions, neutral atoms, molecules to be incorporated into the crystal thus disrupting the overall charge of the crystal permitting further substitutions in Aluminium and Beryllium sites in the crystal structure.

These impurities give rise to the variety of colors of beryl. Increasing alkali content within the silicate ring channels causes increases to the refractive indices and birefringence. Beryl is a beryllium compound, a known carcinogen with acute toxic effects leading to pneumonitis when inhaled. Care must thus be used when mining and refining these gems. Aquamarine is a cyan variety of beryl, it occurs at most localities. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Green-yellow beryl, such as that occurring in Brazil, is sometimes called chrysolite aquamarine; the deep blue version of aquamarine is called maxixe. Maxixe is found in the country of Madagascar, its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment, though the color returns with irradiation. The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe2+. Fe3+ ions produce golden-yellow color, when both Fe2+ and Fe3+ are present, the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Decoloration of maxixe by light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer between Fe3+ and Fe2+.

Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green, pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles. In the United States, aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. In Wyoming, aquamarine has been discovered near Powder River Pass. Another location within the United States is the Sawtooth Range near Stanley, although the minerals are within a wilderness area which prevents collecting. In Brazil, there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Bahia, minorly in Rio Grande do Norte; the mines of Colombia, Madagascar, Malawi and Kenya produce aquamarine. The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality mined was found in Marambaia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1910, it weighed over 110 kg, its dimensions were 48.5 cm long and 42 cm in diameter. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History; the ancient Romans believed that aquamarine would protect against any dangers while travelling at sea, that it provided energy and cured laziness.

Emerald is green beryl, sometimes vanadium. Most emeralds are included, so their brittleness is classified as poor; the modern English word "emerald" comes via Middle English Emeraude, imported from modern French via Old French Ésmeraude and Medieval Latin Esmaraldus, from Latin smaragdus, from Greek σμάραγδος smaragdos meaning ‘green gem’, from Hebrew ברקת bareket, meaning ‘lightning flash’, referring to ‘emerald’, relating to Akkadian baraqtu, meaning ‘emerald’, relating to the Sanskrit word मरकत marakata, meaning ‘green’. The Semitic word אזמרגד