Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. This designation was used regardless of whether the entire engine was behind the front axle line. In recent times, the manufacturers of some cars have added to the designation with the term front-mid which describes a car where the engine is in front of the passenger compartment but behind the front axle. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation, or on the front axle; this layout is the most traditional form, remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a great deal of space is packaged in a location passengers and luggage would not use; the main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle. Car handling is not ideal, but predictable. In contrast with the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, the FWD layout eliminates the need for a central tunnel or a higher chassis clearance to accommodate a driveshaft providing power to the rear wheels.
Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the driven wheels, FWD cars are considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, gravel or wet tarmac; when hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout due to the shift of weight to the rear wheels when climbing. The cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the driven wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates less grip is available for cornering, which can result in understeer. High-performance vehicles use the FWD layout because weight is transferred to the rear wheels under acceleration, while unloading the front wheels and reducing their grip putting a cap on the amount of power which could realistically be utilized.
Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but negates the benefit of extra power. This was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29, 1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV, 1949 Saab 92 and the 1959 Mini. In the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, General Motors. Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focused on luxury vehicles, however retained the rear-wheel-drive layout in their smaller cars, though their MINI marque are FWD. There are four different arrangements for this basic layout, depending on the location of the engine, the heaviest component of the drivetrain.
The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, front-wheel-drive layout. The engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the front of the car. With the engine so far back, the weight distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal; the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight distribution issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the car's low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling, remarkable for the era. Renault is the most recent user of this format - having used it on the Renault 4, the first generation Renault 5, but it has since fallen out of favor since it encroaches into the interior space; the 1946 Panhard Dyna X, designed by Jean-Albert Grégoire, had the engine longitudinally in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the engine and the differential at the rear of the assembly.
This arrangement, used by Panhard until 1967 had a weight distribution problem analogous to that of the Cord L29 mentioned above. However, the Panhard's air-cooled flat twin engine was light, mounted low down with a low centre of gravity reducing the effect; the air-cooled flat twin engine of the Citroën 2CV was mounted low, in front of the front wheels, with the transmission behind the axle line and the differential between the two. This became quite popular; this is the standard configuration of Subaru front-wheel-drive vehicles. In 1979, Toyota introduced and launched their first front-wheel-drive car, the Tercel, it had its engine longitudinally mounted, unlike most other front-wheel-drive cars on the market at that time; this arrangement continued on the second-generation Tercel, until 1987, the third generation received a new, transversely mounted engine. Other front-wheel-drive Toyota models, such as Camry, Corolla, had transversely mounted engines from the beginning on; the 1966 Oldsmobile Toronado used a novel arrangement which had the engine and transmission in a'side-by-side' arrangem
Оkа is a city car designed in the Soviet Union in the part of the seventies by AvtoVAZ. It entered production in 1988 powered by a 650 cc SOHC two-cylinder engine. While developed at AutoVAZ by a team led by Yuri Kuteev, no production models were built there. Instead, manufacturing was outsourced to SeAZ factory in ZMA in Naberezhnye Chelny. Massive plans were in place for a new plant in Yelabuga; the car was produced in Azerbaijan by the Gyandzha Auto Plant. The name comes from the Oka River in Russia upon. For a large part of its existence its electric version was the only serially produced electric car in the world; this affordable and simple automobile replaced the air-cooled, rear-engined ZAZ Zaporozhets 966-968 series models as "the people's car". SeAZ factory specialized in building purpose-built vehicles for handicapped drivers and by the 1970s their offering was the S-3D, a spartan, boxy two-seat sedan powered by a motorcycle engine. Despite being noisy and smoky, the S-3D was very popular with mobility-challenged drivers many of whom were World War II veterans and, being such, received their vehicles free of charge.
When engineers in Serpukhov under factory manager Alexander Popov conceived the Oka, they turned to their VAZ colleagues for help. The project was approved in 1983. Prior to the Oka, VAZ designers had been working on a number of microcars, including a similar-looking variant of the VAZ-1101 offered by the designer Yuri Danilov in 1971, but those models did not go into production; the tiny car was to be a replacement for the S-3D, like its predecessor, featured a simple motorcycle engine. Andrei Rozov, one of lead engine designers at VAZ, proposed a new three-cylinder engine, due to time constraints, that engine was not developed, the decision was made to employ a two-cylinder variant of the VAZ-2108 four-cylinder engine by chopping the latter in half, it was 1983, the first Soviet front-wheel drive automobile, the 2108, was ready to hit the market. The Oka became the next "people's car" project, a vehicle that "every factory engineer can afford"; the inspiration for Yuri Vereschagin, the VAZ exterior designer who penned the Oka, came from Japanese kei cars, such as the Daihatsu Cuore, which in turn, along with the similar-looking Fiat Uno and the Fiat Panda, resembled the styling of the iconic French supermini Renault 5.
The Soviet Ministry preferred the Oka over other three-door microcars designed by SeAZ and NAMI, as well as over a different, futuristic variant of the new car proposed by Vereschagin in 1984. Restricted by project specifications, he did his work believing that his creation had little chance of seeing production. In the event, however, he was proven wrong, as the Oka's overall acceptable operating characteristics and low price resulted in some 700,000 examples rolling off the assembly line over a period of nearly two decades. During test drives on roads and in the Caucasus Mountains, the car proved to have good handling and for a vehicle of its size, excellent off-road capabilities. At the 1989 Moscow International Motor Show, VAZ exhibited a battery-electric version known as the VAZ-111E; the car was produced on a special-order basis until 1998. The 120 V worth of batteries were stored in the engine bay, beneath the seats and in the cargo bay, giving the car a range of 100 km. In 2002 the car was awarded zero stars out of a possible four by the Russian ARCAP safety assessment program.
As of 2006, there were four versions of Oka distributed: basic VAZ-11113 Oka made by either ZMA or SeAZ factory, "custom" VAZ-11301 Astro and VAZ-11113-27 Toyma - a light delivery vehicle with a cargo compartment instead of two rear seats. Series production of the Oka ended in Russia in 2008, when SeAZ built the last batch of Oka's with Chinese EURO-2 engines. VAZ-1111 - basic model powered by a 650cc 2-cylinder engine. Produced between 1988-1996. See Rapan. SeAZ-1111-01 - a special version based on VAZ-1111 for disabled people without both legs. Produced in 1996-2007. In 2000, "Auto Exotica 2000" demonstrated a version with 2-door "notchback" sedan with a separate trunk. In 2000, an "Oka Prestige" prototype based on this version was shown with a soft canvas top on the left side of the roof and a swiveling driver's seat. Produced in 2007-2008 at SeAZ.
A bumper is a structure attached to or integrated with the front and rear ends of a motor vehicle, to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs. Stiff metal bumpers appeared on automobiles as early as 1904 that had a ornamental function. Numerous developments, improvements in materials and technologies, as well as greater focus on functionality for protecting vehicle components and improving safety have changed bumpers over the years. Bumpers ideally protect pedestrians from injury. Regulatory measures have been enacted to reduce vehicle repair costs, more impact on pedestrians. Bumpers were at first just rigid metal bars; the first bumper appeared on a vehicle in 1897, it was installed by Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, a Czech carmaker. The construction of these bumpers was not reliable as they featured only a cosmetic function.. Early car owners had the front spring hanger bolt replaced with ones long enough to be able to attach a metal bar. G. D. Fisher patented a bumper bracket to simplify the attachment of the accessory.
The first bumper designed to absorb impacts appeared in 1901. It was made of rubber and Frederick Simms gained patent for this invention in 1905. Bumpers were added by automakers in the mid-1910s, but consisted a strip of steel across the front and back. Treated as an optional accessory, bumpers became more and more common in the 1920s as automobile designers made them more complex and substantial. Over the next decades, chrome plated bumpers became heavy and decorative until the late 1950s when US automakers began establishing new bumper trends and brand specific designs; the 1960s saw the use of lighter chrome plated blade-like bumpers with a painted metal valance filling the space below it. Multi-piece construction became the norm as automakers incorporated grilles and rear exhaust into the bumpers. On the 1968 Pontiac GTO, General Motors incorporated an "Endura" body-colored plastic front bumper designed to absorb low-speed impact without permanent deformation, it was featured in a TV advertisement with John DeLorean hitting the bumper with a sledgehammer and no damage resulted.
Similar elastomeric bumpers were available on the rear of the 1970-71 Plymouth Barracuda. In 1971, Renault introduced a plastic bumper on the Renault 5. Current design practice is for the bumper structure on modern automobiles to consist of a plastic cover over a reinforcement bar made of steel, fiberglass composite, or plastic. Bumpers of most modern automobiles have been made of a combination of polycarbonate and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene called PC/ABS. Bumpers offer protection to other vehicle components by dissipating the kinetic energy generated by an impact; this energy is a function of vehicle velocity squared. The kinetic energy is equal to 1/2 the square of the speed. In formula form: E k = 1 2 m v 2 A bumper that protects vehicle components from damage at 5 miles per hour must be four times stronger than a bumper that protects at 2.5 miles per hour, with the collision energy dissipation concentrated at the extreme front and rear of the vehicle. Small increases in bumper protection can lead to weight loss of fuel efficiency.
Until 1959, such rigidity was seen as beneficial to occupant safety among automotive engineers. Modern theories of vehicle crashworthiness point in the opposite direction, towards vehicles that crumple progressively. A rigid vehicle might have excellent bumper protection for vehicle components, but would offer poor occupant safety. Bumpers are being designed to mitigate injury to pedestrians struck by cars, such as through the use of bumper covers made of flexible materials. Front bumpers have been lowered and made of softer materials, such as foams and crushable plastics, to reduce the severity of impact on legs. For passenger cars, the height and placement of bumpers is specified under both US and EU regulations. Bumpers do not protect against moderate speed collisions, because during emergency braking, suspension changes the pitch of each vehicle, so bumpers can bypass each other when the vehicles collide. Preventing override and underride can be accomplished by tall bumper surfaces. Active suspension is another solution to keeping the vehicle level.
Bumper height from the roadway surface is important in engaging other protective systems. Airbag deployment sensors do not trigger until contact with an obstruction, it is important that front bumpers be the first parts of a vehicle to make contact in the event of a frontal collision, to leave sufficient time to inflate the protective cushions. Energy-absorbing crush zones are ineffective if they are physically bypassed. Underride collisions, in which a smaller vehicle such as a passenger sedan slides under a larger vehicle such as a tractor-trailer result in severe injuries or fatalities; the platform bed of a typical tractor-trailer is at the head height of seated adults in a typical passenger car, can cause severe head trauma in a moderate-speed collision. Around 500 people are killed this way in the United States annually. Following the 1967 death of actress Jayne Mansfield in an auto/truck accident, the US government agency NHTSA recommended requiring a rear underride guard known as a "Man
AvtoVAZ known as VAZ, is a Russian automobile manufacturer. It is best known for its flagship series of Lada vehicles. In the Soviet Union, its products used various names, including Zhiguli and Sputnik which were phased out in the 1990s and replaced by Lada for the Russian market; the company is a subsidiary of the Alliance Rostec Auto company, in which French Groupe Renault holds a controlling 67.61% stake. AvtoVAZ is a consolidated subsidiary of Groupe Renault. AvtoVAZ produces over 400,000 cars a year, under its Lada brand as well as cars of Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance brands Renault and Datsun; the AvtoVAZ factory is the largest car manufacturer in Eastern Europe. The company was established in the late 1960s in cooperation with Fiat, with Viktor Polyakov as director, Vladimir Solovyov as chief designer, intended to produce popular economy cars that would meet the growing demand for personal transport, it was set up as a collaboration between Italy and the Soviet Union and built on the banks of the Volga River in 1966.
A new town, named after the Italian Communist Party leader Palmiro Togliatti, was built around the factory. The cost of the VAZ plant was estimated at $800 million in 1970; the car brand to be produced was envisaged as a "people's car" like the Citroën 2CV or the VW Type 1. Production was intended to be 220,000 cars a year, beginning in 1971; the VAZ trademark, at first, was a silver Volga boat on a red pentagonal background, with "Togliatti" superposed in Cyrillic. Unlike most Soviet enterprises, the company was not vertically integrated, rather depending for components on a variety of suppliers over which it exerted little control; the first VAZ-2101 was produced on 22 April 1970, the 100th anniversary of Lenin's birth. About 22,000 VAZ-2101s were built with capacity at the end of 1973 reaching 660,000 a year. A third production line was added in October 1974; the same year, total VAZ production reached 1.5 million. The VAZ plant was described as'ultra-modern' by the Chicago Tribune in a 1973 article.
Production reached 750,000 cars a year in 1975, making the Tolyatti plant the third most productive in the world. Between 1977 and 1981, AvtoVAZ acquired 30 welding robots from Japanese firms; the original, Fiat-based models included the VAZ-2102 estate. 1972 saw the introduction of a deluxe version of the sedan, VAZ-2103, based on the Fiat 124 Special and featured a new 1.5 L engine and twin headlights. In 1974, the original VAZ-2101 was updated with new engines and interiors, whereas the VAZ-2102 underwent the same improvements in 1976; the body style with two round headlights was manufactured until 1988. The VAZ-2106, introduced in December 1975 as an updated version of the VAZ-2103, was based on the 1972 Fiat 124 Special T, featuring different interiors and new 1.6 L engine. The 2106 was one of the most popular rear-wheel drive AvtoVAZ models in the past. In 1974, VAZ was given permission to begin producing Wankel engines under licence from NSU. Work began in 1976, with a single-rotor Lada appearing in 1978.
After having built a number of prototypes and experimental vehicles, AvtoVAZ designers launched the first car of their own design, the VAZ-2121 Niva, in 1977. This popular and innovative SUV was made with off-road use in mind, featuring a gearbox with a central differential lock lever as well as a low- and high-range selector lever; the VAZ-2105, based on the Fiat 124 mechanicals but modernised and restyled, was introduced in 1979 and marketed outside the Soviet Union under the Riva or Laika trade names, depending on the country. Square headlights and new body panels distinguish this car from the earlier models; the 2105 was third best selling automobile platform after the Volkswagen Beetle and the Ford Model T, one of the longest production run platforms alongside the Volkswagen Beetle, the Hindustan Ambassador and the Volkswagen Type 2. In May 1980, a series of mass strikes at the Togliatti plant involving hundreds of thousands of workers were reported by the western press. In 1982 the VAZ-2107, a deluxe version of the 2105, was introduced.
In 1984, the VAZ-2104 station wagon completed the line-up. Based on the success of the Niva, the design department prepared a new family of front-wheel drive models by 1984, of a domestic design. Production started with the VAZ-2108 Sputnik three-door hatchback, the series was commercially known as Samara, it was the first front-wheel drive serial car built in the Soviet Union after the LuAZ- 969V. The Samara engine was designed and produced in-house, had a new single overhead camshaft design and was driven by a more modern rubber belt; the five-door VAZ-2109 hatchback followed in 1987, the four-door 1.5 L sedan, the VAZ-21099, was introduced in 1990. The same year, the front sides and radiator grille were restyled on the whole Samara range. A white 2108 would become the nine millionth Lada built, on 24 May 1985, with the ten millionth, on 9 October 1986 a 2108; the twelve millionth, a r
The Lada 110 or VAZ-2110 is a compact car built by the Russian automaker AvtoVAZ from 1995 to 2009. It spawned two close derivatives: the Lada 112 hatchback; the prototype of the Lada 110, known as the 300 series, was created in 1987 and optimized for aerodynamics in Zuffenhausen, Germany, in cooperation between AvtoVAZ and Porsche engineers. The first photos of the new compact car were published in the popular monthly magazine Za Rulem in November 1990, the car itself was demonstrated at the AvtoVAZ Tolyatti factory in 1991. Serial production was planned to start in the following year, but an economic crisis stalled the project and the first cars rolled off the assembly line only on June 27, 1995; the Lada 110 featured a 1.6 litre engine producing 90 hp. Production began with 8 valve, subsequently, 16 valve motors. Overall, the car weighed around 1050 kilos, it had electric windows, trip computer, power steering, galvanized body panels. Fuel-injected models were equipped with electronic engine management system.
In early 2006, new taillights and a new dashboard were introduced. The car was successful in the domestic Russian market, it is still popular among taxi drivers in the Southern Federal District for the price-quality ratio. In 2007, the Lada 110, 111 and 112 were restyled and relaunched as the Lada Priora. There were three trim level: Standard and Luxe; the Standard trim level included clock, heated rear windows, electro-door locks, power door locks, power trunk lock, onboard control system, body-color bumpers, seat trims tweed and tapestries, front head restraints. The Normal featured powered windows, exterior mirrors with antidazzle effect, velour seat and door upholstery, rear head restraints. In the Luxe the owner received heated front seats, trip computer, fog lights and heated outside mirrors, velvet upholstery and doors, a trunk spoiler with brake lights, tinted windows; the model has been a favorite target for styling, both artisanal and professional the version with the five-door hatchback body.
Various companies from Tolyatti designed and offered different body kits: APAL company produced components for the Lada BIS 110 and 111, as did Tornado and Grossmeyster. Super-Avto developed a version with a motor of 1.8 liters of its own design and an elongated version of the sedan VAZ-21108 Premier. The Motorica company produced the sporting VAZ-21106 version with a 135 PS Opel engine, altered rear wings, extended wheel arches. Enterprise, together with AvtoVAZ, produced the Consul in 1999-2006, along with the four-wheel drive Tarzan-2 built on the basis of the station wagon Lada 111, with a raised body placed on a separate frame. Since 2007, the 110 has been discontinued by Lada, however Bogdan continued to produce this car as the Bogdan 2110 for the Ukrainian market until 2014. In 2002 the car was awarded zero stars out of a possible four by the Russian ARCAP safety assessment program; the reviewers noted that the injury criteria did not exceed safe values, the car's interior was well thought out in terms of safety, the car's body was rugged, showing better results than those of Nissan Almera, Ford Escort, Mitsubishi Lancer, Hyundai Accent, Suzuki Baleno.
However, the compression of the chest by the seat belt was too high, the reviewers concluded that the car needed airbags and more modern safety belts equipped with pretensioners and tension limiters to keep up with the new safety standards. The Lada 110 was entered in the 2008 World Touring Car Championship season by the Russian Bears Motorsport team, with Viktor Shapovalov and Jaap van Lagen as the drivers. Team LADA Sport commenced the 2009 World Touring Car Championship season with a trio of 110s for Jaap Van Lagen, Kirill Ladygin and Viktor Shapovalov; the team replaced the 110s with the newer Prioras during the course of the season. The Lada 111 or VAZ-2111 is AvtoVAZ's front wheel drive car with a station wagon bodystyle, it was manufactured from 1998 to 2009. The vehicle is still manufactured in Cherkasy by Bogdan, marketed as the "Bogdan 2111", with only minor alterations. In 1998, the Lada 110 received a modification for a station wagon - the Lada 111 - the country's first front-wheel drive car with such a bodystyle.
The rear seat can be folded in a ratio of 2:3, bulky/long loads. The luggage compartment increase from 490 to 1,420 liters. Front-wheel drive and a rear door give it a low loading height. With a 20 kg total increase in weight and a higher center of mass, wagon's ride is smoother than the sedan's but the handling is not as good in turns; the wagon was released with options that differ by engine: basic VAZ-21110 With the "standard", "normal" and "luxury" with a 1.5-liter 8-valve engine, "2111" and "top-end"VAZ-21113 to trim the" norm "and" luxury "with 16-valve engine," 2112 "and front ventilated disc brakes. The "2111" and "2112" were equipped with catalytic converter; the VAZ-21111 had a carburetor engine "2110". All-rounders are completed with the "short" primary pair. Since autumn 2004, these versions been taken over by the 1.6-liter 21112 and 21114. The other innovations are those of the 2110. LADA-21111 (VAZ-
The VAZ-2108, known as the Lada Samara in much of Western Europe, was a series of small family cars produced by Soviet/Russian vehicle manufacturer AvtoVAZ under the Lada brand between 1984 and 2013. The model name Samara was used only for exported models, in the Soviet Union the same model was called Sputnik until 1991, when the sedan version of the Samara entered in production, using the export name, it was the first front-wheel drive serial car built in the Soviet Union after the LuAZ-969V. The Samara had been modified and restyled during the years of production before it was discontinued in December 2013; the Samara was to build on the success of the traditional Fiat 124-based range, by providing a car that combined a robust build and ease of maintenance with a modern style. It was produced in various three and five-door designs with 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5-litre petrol engines. Lada had hoped that the Samara would enable it to compete for sales in the mainstream European car market, it was the second autonomous design from AvtoVAZ, the first Lada car not based on the Fiat-derived mechanicals.
VAZ had made the VAZ-1101, in the early 1970s. The engine from the Fiat 127 was used. Further development of this project led to the 900 cc Ladoga three-door hatchback prototype in 1976; the decision to build the Samara was taken on 16 September 1978, the intention being to build a car with strong potential sales in Western European export markets. Proposals for a distinctive saloon, four-door, both three- and five-door hatchback were considered. During its development, VAZ designers paid careful attention to the contemporary Renault 9, Volkswagen Golf, Ford Escort Mark III, Opel Kadett, Volvo 340, which would be the new VAZ-2108's main competitors. Front suspension was MacPherson struts, rear by torsion bar, it had rack and pinion steering, another Soviet first. On December 31, 1979, the first VAZ-2108 prototype was completed, it resembled the earlier Ladoga, the VAZ-1106 saloon. While named Sputnik at home, it was more known as the "Eight" after the last digit in the model code; the export version was named after a tributary to the Volga.
The first cars left the production line on 18 December 1984. These, the three-door hatchbacks, were powered by a belt-driven SOHC 1,288 cc inline-four, were fitted with a four-speed gearbox; the three-door was joined by a five-door, by models with 1,099 cc or 1,499 cc engines. In 1987, the model range was joined by the 21083, with a 71 hp 1,499 cc engine and five-speed gearbox, the 21081, with a 53 hp 1,099 cc; the 1099 was an export-only variant. Top speeds were 92 mph and 97 mph. VAZ debuted the 2109 five-door hatchback that year available with the 1,099 cc, 1,288 cc, 1,499 cc. In 1989, the 21099 saloon followed, which had a new bonnet, wings, 200 mm -longer rear overhang, as well as an improved dashboard; the 21099's front-end styling was adopted on the 2109 in 1992 and the 2108 in 1994. A number of other minor alterations followed, including fuel-injected engines to meet emissions regulations in export markets. On the earlier Samaras the front clip had been a separate piece. On the sedan version, the fenders go all the way up to the headlights and the lip of the bonnet dips between the headlights and meets the slimmer grille.
Full production of the 21099 began in December 1990, with models 210993, 21099. The saloon, intended as a premium model compared to the hatchback, was given a distinctive branding in some export markets: Diva, Forma. Belgium offered a locally built convertible; the 1.1 and 1.3 were taken out of production, having been withdrawn from export markets. A Wankel engined Samara three-door hatchback, the 2108-91, powered by a two-rotor VAZ-415 was sold in Russia only, only in small numbers. With a five-speed gearbox, it was priced at a staggering 56,000 rubles. Due to severe reliability problems, this remained rare, most bought by police and other agencies to use as a pursuit vehicle, for which its 124 mph top speed was ideal; the subsequent 2109-91 five-door hatchback had gearbox. There were a rear-engined Samara 4x4 rally car known as the NAMI 0290, built for the 1985 Soyuz Rally, it was nicknamed Appelsin, used ZAZ-1102 doors and factory Samara wheels. The 1987 mid-engined Samara-EVA had a turbocharged 16-valve 1,860 cc engine (with ele
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012 holding the position from 2000 until 2008. In between his presidential terms he was the Prime Minister of Russia under his close associate Dmitry Medvedev. Putin was born in Leningrad during the Soviet Union, he studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg, he moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin's administration, rising through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. During his first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%; the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, prudent economic and fiscal policies.
In September 2011, Putin announced. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64% of the vote. Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and the recession ended. Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 presidential vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024. Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index. Experts do not consider Russia to be a democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections and jailing of opponents, curtailed press freedom. Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists, as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated.
Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U. S. presidential election in 2016, an allegation which both Trump and Putin have denied and criticized. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina, his birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s. Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II. Putin's mother was a factory worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. Early in World War II, his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD, he was transferred to the regular army and was wounded in 1942. Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, his maternal uncles disappeared at the war front.
On 1 September 1960, Putin started near his home. He was one of a few in the class of 45 pupils, not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization. At age 12, he began to practice judo, he is a Judo black belt and national master of sports in Sambo. He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema. Putin speaks German fluently. Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University in 1970 and graduated in 1975, his thesis was on "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law". While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and remained a member until December 1991. Putin met Anatoly Sobchak, an assistant professor who taught business law, was co-author of the russian constitution, who would be influential in Putin's career. In 1975, Putin trained at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad. After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate, before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad.
In September 1984, Putin was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute. From 1985 to 1990, he served in East Germany, using a cover identity as a translator. Masha Gessen, a Russian-American who has authored a biography about Putin claims, "Putin and his colleagues were reduced to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB." According to Putin's official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wall that began on 9 November 1989, he burned KGB files to prevent demonstrators from obtaining them. After the collapse of the Communist East German government, Putin returned to Leningrad in early 1990, where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov. There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak, soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad.